mixeil saakaSvili – prezidentobis 2 weli – 24 Tve_

					samecniero Jurnali                      ,,xelisufleba                       da
sazogadoeba
                                    (istoria, Teoria, praqtika)”
Scientific magazine “AUTHORITY AND SOCIETY
                                             (History, Theory, Practice)”
Научный журнал “ВЛАСТЬ И ОБЩЕСТВО
                                         (история, теория, практика)”




                             №5

                           2008
                      saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti
                  humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis ucxouri enebisa
                     da komunikaciis departamentis
                                samecniero Jurnali
            GEORGIAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
            HUMANITARIAN-SOCIAL FACULTY
                   Scientific magazine of Department of Foreign
                        Languages and Communication
                      ГРУЗИНСКИЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
                            УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
                Гуманитарный-cоциальный факультет
              Научный журнал департаметна Иностранных
                        языков и коммуникаций




            ISSN 1512-4029
            xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  2




UDC 378(479.22)(051.2)
 x. 402




   saredaqcio kolegia:
   SoTa doRonaZe
              - mTavari redaqtori
   giorgi baRaTuria
           - mTavari redaqtoris moadgile
   oTar baRaTuria
             - pasuxismgebeli mdivani


   nana avaliani, mitropoliti abraami (garmelia), evgeni
   baraTaSvili, vaxtang guruli, genadi iaSvili, Temur
   Todua, roin metreveli, qeTi qoqraSvili, oTar qoCoraZe,
   rusudan quTaTelaZe, maia CxeiZe



Jurnali xelmZRvanelobs saqarTvelos kanoniT `presisa da masobrivi
 informaciis sxva saSualebebis Sesaxeb~. gamoqveynebuli masalebis
     sizusteze pasuxismgeblia avtori. gamoqveynebuli masalebi
  gamoxatavs mxolod avtorTa pozicias da SesaZloa ar emTxveodes
                       redaqciis Sexedulebebs.


misamarTi:
 saqarTvelo, Tbilisi 0171 kostavas q.77, VI korpusi VIII sarTuli tel.
                              36.45.14
        77 Kostava st., 0160 Tbilisi, Georgia. Tel. [995 32] 36.45.14
                           Mail: DLPA@gtu.ge


                                 garekanis gaformeba: daviT baRaTuria
               xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                        3

                Jurnalis eleqtronuli versia gamoqveynebulia misamarTze:
                      http://www.gtu.ge/katedrebi/kat124/


sarCevi

saerTaSoriso konferencia `saxelmwifo marTvis transformacia samxreT
kavkasiaSi~----------------------------------- 5

giorgi baRaTuria
sofiko cxadaZe
saxelmwifo politikis strategiuli
dagegmva _ bismarki-------------------------------------------------------------- 5

lali gvasalia
mivubrundeT myudro savanes!
Ria werili Cems da sxva studentebs------------------------------- 24

bela goderZiSvili
maia danelia
regionuli politika federalizmis pirobebSi-------------- 35

tariel kikvaZe
Tamar beriZe
optimaluri portfelis formireba
maTematikuri programirebis meTodebis gamoyenebiT------ 44

genadi iaSvili
mcire da saSualo warmoebaTa upiratesobebi
da naklovanebebi, maTi roli qveynis
ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi------------------------------------------------- 51

rusudan TabukaSvili
qalTa enis hipotezis ganviTareba-------------------------------------61

daviT TaqTaqiSvili
mosazrebani msoflmxedvelobriv problemebze ------------ 68

Temur Todua
mariam nacvliSvili
administrireba da menejmenti saxelmwifo marTvis sistemaSi ------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------76
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  4


Temur Todua, ciala gagniZe
politikuri lideris roli saxelmwifo marTvis sistemaSi------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------86


sergo lominaZe
PR-saqmianobis socialur-filosofiuri aspeqtebi-------- 96

maia CxeiZe
logikuri argumentebis konstruirebis problema--------- 106

maia CxeiZe
efeqturi verbaluri komunikaciis problema------------------ 111

studenturi gverdebi
mariam geliaSvili, maia geliaSvili
saqarTveloSi ganaTlebis istoriuli saZirkvlebi------- 115

daCi TaqTaqiSvili
xmamaRali fiqrebi deda-Svilobis fenomenze -----------------127

gvanca gogiSvili
oratoruli xelovnebis saTaveebTan---------------------------------135

mariam lomiZe
saqarTvelos wylis resursebis marTva da dacva-----------146

TinaTin iaSvili, irina iaSvili
ruseTis agresiuli energetikuli politika
mezobeli saxelmwifoebis mimarT ------------------------------------160

Tamar sreseli
sasamarTlo reforma da misi roli -------------------------------179

Teona qaTamaZe
kulturuli memkvidreobis sakiTxi saqarTvelos
(1918-1921) demokratiul respublikaSi -----------------------------187
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 5



       saerTaSoriso konferencia `saxelmwifo marTvis
            transformacia samxreT kavkasiaSi~
   2008 wlis 27-28 marts q. TbilisSi, sastumro `qorTiard mariotSi~
gaimarTa saerTaSoriso konferencia `saxelmwifo marTvis transformacia
samxreT kavkasiaSi~.
   konferencia organizebuli iyo saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso da strategiuli
kvlevis fondis mier instituti - Ria sazogadoebis mxardaWeriT.
   konferenciaSi monawileoba miiRes saqarTvelos, azerbaijanis, somxeTis,
ukrainis, kanadisa da safrangeTis saxelmwifo marTvis organoebis,
akademiuri wreebisa da arasamTavrobo seqtoris warmomadgenlebma.
   konferenciis gaxsnisas sityva warmoTqves:
-            aleqsandre rondelma - saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso da strategiuli
kvlevis fondis prezidentma;
-            kristina vitfutma – saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis vice-
prezidentma, kanadis saerTaSoriso biuris warmomadgenelma;
-            andrian ioneskum – instituti – Ria sazogadoebis direqtorma
(budapeSti);
-            nikolas robiliarma – kanadis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis
ufrosma oficerma.
   ZiriTadi moxseneba ` saxelmwifo marTvis transformacia garda-mavali
periodis konteqstSi~ warmoadgina bob vonvitma – programa sigma-s
xelmZRvanelma (safrangeTi).
   konferenciaze muSaobda oTxi seqcia:
1.          adamianis resursebis menejmenti da saxelmwifo marTvis
reforma;
2.          politikis formireba: paradigmis cvlileba;
3.          ganaTleba saxelmwifo marTvis sferoSi: gamowvevebi da
perspeqtivebi;
4.          skolidan saxelmwifo samsaxuramde.
mosmenili iqna 14 moxseneba, gaimarTa diskusia.
   konferenciaze sityviT gamovida saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis
saxelmwifo marTvis mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli, profesori SoTa
doRonaZe. qvemoT vaqveynebT misi gamosvlis teqsts.

   gasuli saukune ara erTi mniSvnelovani movleniT aRiniSna.
saqarTvelosaTvis me-20 saukune udidesi tkivilisa da amavedros bednierebis
aswleulia. saukunis miwuruls saqarTvelom meored da ukve sabolood
moipova damoukidebloba. warmatebiT dagvirgvinda qarTveli xalxis
mravalsaukunovani brZola Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobisaTvis. daiwyo
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 6

axali era, qveyana pirispir dadga msoflio Tanamegobrobisa da
Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi gamowvevebis winaSe.
    saqarTvelosaTvis, rogorc ganviTarebisa da saxelmwifoebrivi srulyofis
gzaze mdgari qveynisaTvis gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria im problematikis
mecnierulad gaazreba, romelic saxelmwifo marTvis efeqtiani sistemis
SeqmnisaTvisaa saWiro.
    miuxedavad imisa, rom bolo wlebSi samecniero wreebSi, am
mimarTulebiT, garkveuli gamococxleba SeiniSneba, es saqmianoba jer
kidev Sorsaa srulyofisagan. arsebul xarvezs ver avsebs ramdenime wigni da
statia, romelic saxelmwifo marTvis Teorisa Tu praqtikis calkeul aspeqts
exeba. amocana ki friad mniSvnelovania; ver amarTlebs saqarTvelos
sinamdvileze iseTi meTodebisa da saqmianobis formebis kalkireba, romelic
aRwerilia ucxour wyaroebsa da gamokvlevebSi.
   amocana mxolod imaSi ki ar mdgomareobs, rom saxelmwifo samsaxuris
gamarTuli funqcionireba iqnes uzrunvelyofili, iseTi atmosfero unda
Seiqmnas, rom adamianTa azrovnebaSi Camoyalibdes saxelmwifoebri-
obisa da samarTlianobis gancda.
     miuxedavad imisa, rom saxelmwifo marTvis sistemas didi xnis istoria
aqvs, misi ganviTareba da daxvewa mudmivi procesia da igi sazogadoebis
ganviTarebis kvalobaze axali SinaarsiT ivseba. amdenad, aucilebelia
seriozuli da Tanmimdevruli kvleva arsebuli viTarebis analizisa da
momavali perspeqtivis ganWvretis mizniT.
    saqarTvelos administraciuli sistemis formireba dasasrulebelia,
gasamarTia saxelmwifo samsaxuris struqturebi, mosazidi da aRsazrdelia
kvalificiuri kadrebi; dasaxvewia urTierTobebi qveynis sakanonmdeblo, aR-
masrulebel da sasamarTlo xelisuflebaTa Soris; qveyanaSi jer kidev
mZlavrobs administraciul-biurokratiuli sistema, marTvis moZvelebuli
ideologia. bolomde sworad ar aris gaazrebuli xelisuflebis urTierTobebi
samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebTan, romlebic Tavis mxriv srulyofis
procesSia.
    saqarTvelosaTvis praqtikulad deklarirebis donezea marTvis demokratiuli
stili, cota ram Tu aris naTeli da mecnierulad gaazrebuli am mimarTulebiT.
mecnierTa, politologTa da pedagogikis mkvlevarTa naSromebi (romelTa
raodenoba sakmaod mwiria) ver uzrunvelyofen saxelmwifo marTvis
umniSvnelovanesi aspeqtebis kvlevis aucilebel moculobas.
    saxelmwifo marTvis sakiTxTa mecnieruli analizi iseT saxelmwifoSi,
rogoric saqarTveloa umniSvnelovanesi amocanaa da igi pirdapir kavSirSia
qveynis moqalaqeTa keTildReobis zrdasTan, im dakveTis SesrulebasTan,
romelsac isini, rogorc amomrCevlebi akisreben xelisuflebas.
     imisaTvis ki, rom saqarTveloSi damkvidrebul iqnes dasavluri tipis
demokratia da ganviTardes igi im principebis Tanaxmad rac aucilebelia
qveynis evroatlantikur sivrceSi harmoniulad integraciisaTvis umTavresi
saTanadod ganswavluli kadrebis momzadebaa. saxelmwifo marTvis
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 7

specialistTa momzadeba gansakuTrebuli procesia, aq marto safuZvliani
codnis gadacema da aqtualuri Teoriebis Seswavla sakmarisi ar aris. unda
aRizardos yovelmxriv Semkuli pirovneba, romlisaTvisac umTavresi
prioriteti adamiani, misi interesebi da problemebi iqneba, romelic SeZlebs
saqmis iseT organizacias, rac Sedegiani da efeqtis momtani iqneba.
profesionalis problema yvelganaa, magram saxelmwifo marTvaSi es
problema      ormagad     sapasuxismgebloa,    ramdenadac     daSvebulma
Secdomebma SeiZleba didi xnis dagvianebiT iCinos Tavi da, rogorc es
xSirad xdeba gamosworebis Sansi minimaluria.
   es rom esmodaT, gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos
xelmZRvanelobis erT nawils ( batoni z. Jvanias monawileobiT) didi Sroma
dasWirda imisaTvis, rom dawyebuliyo saxelmwifo marTvis specialistTa
momzadeba, rasac pirvel rigSi saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti
gamoexmaura : universitetis bazaze Seiqmna qarTul-amerikuli instituti,
romelic magistrebis momzadebaze iyo orientirebuli. teqnikur universitetSi
ki humanitarul-teqnikur fakultetze 1995 wlidan daiwyo saxelmwifo
marTvis moxeleTa momzadeba. am wamowyebam garkveuli
gamoxmaureba miiRo sxva umaRles skolebSiac.
    2001 wels teqnikur universitetSi `saxelmwifo marTvis moxelis~
specialuri kaTedrac ki gaixsna. gadamuSavda saswavlo gegmebi, daixvewa
programebi da gagrZelda saxelmwifo marTvis specialistTa momzadeba or
doneze : bakalavriatSi da magistraturaSi. aqve daiwyo 2 sxva specialobis -
saxelmwifo politikis bakalavrTa da qalaqis menejeris momzadebac.
aRsaniSnavia, rom `saxelmwifo marTvis moxelis~ kaTedra gamoirCeoda
sanimuSo materialur-teqnikuri baziT, swavlebis axleburi, Tanamedrove
meTodologiiT. kaTedra didi mxardaWeriT sargeblobda saxelmwifo
struqturebis mxridan, araerTi maRali rangis saxelmwifo moRvawe
kiTxulobda CvenTan leqciebs, studentebi saswavlo praqtikas gadiodnen
samTavrobo dawesebulebebSi.
     Sedegi, Sedegi TvalnaTelia, Cveni kursdamTavrebu-lebidan,
gansakuTrebiT magistrebi, mniSvnelovan poziciebze arian saxelmwifo
samsaxurSi da biznesis marTvis sferoSi. aRniSnuli specialobis
kursdamTavrebulTa dasaqmebis maCvenebeli sagrZoblad maRalia sxva
specialobebTan SedarebiT. aseT mokle periodSi SesaZlebeli gaxda
kursdamTavrebulTagan mogvemzadebia 4 axalgazrda leqtori, romlebic
warmatebiT aswavlian momaval moxeleebs.
    unda iTqvas, rom wlebis manZilze aRniSnuli specialobebi,
gansakuTrebiT `saxelmwifo marTvis moxele~ konkurentunarian
specialobad iTvleba, misaReb gamocebze konkursi 1:9-ze Seadgenda.
pirveli erovnuli gamocdebis Catarebisasac didi iyo aRniSnul specialobaze
SemomsvlelTa ricxvi: saxelmwifo marTvis moxelis specialobis
gamocxadebul 40 adgilze Cairicxa 40 abiturienti, romelTagan naxevars
mopovebuli aqvs saxelmwifo dafinanseba, danarCenic maRali qulebis
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                   8

mflobelebi arian. srulad Seivso qalaqis menejeris bakalavriatis pirvel kursze
gamocxadebuli 10 adgilic. samwuxarod, nacvlad imisa, rom SenarCunebuli
yofiliyo es maCveneblebi saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saministrom 2005 wels
bakalavriatis specialobaTa CamonaTvalidan, e.w. klasifikatoridan amoiRo
spesialoba – saxelmwifo marTva da qalaqis menejeri. dRes SemorCa
mxolod meorad specialobad (mainor-ad), sabednierod magistraturaSi es
specialoba SenarCunebulia da msurvelTa did mozRvavebac saxezea. aseve,
mimdinare wels 4 doqtoranti Seudga momzadebas saxelmwifo marTvis
mimrTulebiT.
     vTvliT, rom gamarTlebuli ar aris bakalavriatis specialobaTa
CamonaTvalSi aRniSnuli specialobebis amoReba, bevri mizezis gamo, maT
Soris:
-         axalgazrda saxelmwifos mSeneblobas maRalkvalificiuri kadrebi
esaWiroeba, gansakuTrebiT iseT mimarTulebebSi, rogoricaa saxelmwifo
marTva, saxelmwifo politika, qalaqis menejmenti; isini specialuri
programebiT unda iqnen momzadebuli; usafuZvloa imis mtkiceba, rom
saxelmwifo marTvis moxelisaTvis bakalavris xarisxi sakmarisi ar aris.
ramdenadac saxelmwifo samsaxurSi mxolod didi rangis Tanamdebobebi ar
aris, nebismier Tanamdebobaze ki saWiro codniT aRWurvili specialistia
saWiro. aseTi kontigentis momzadeba bakalavriatSi Tavisuflad aris
SesaZlebeli.
-         didia kadrebis nakleboba regionebSi (aki specialurad am xarvezis
Sesavsebad Seiqmna specialuri skola q. quTaisSi);
-         es specialobebi konkurentunarianni arian saqarTvelos Sromis
bazarze;
-         dawyebulia mecnieruli kvleva, romelSiac aqtiurad arian Cabmulni
studentebi da magistrantebi da es samuSao unda gagrZeldes, miT ufro, rom
kaTedras saqmiani kontaqtebi aqvs damyarebuli msoflios araerTi
universitetis analogiuri specialobebis saswavlo-samecniero rgolebTan.
-          amerikasa da evropaSi, mravali specializebuli saswavlebeli da
saswavlo erTeulia, romlebic warmatebiT amzadebs bakalavrebsa da
magistrebs; swored maT gamocdilebas iyenebda da iyenebs teqnikuri
universiteti.
    mimaCnia, rom saxelmwifo marTvis specialistTa momzadebaSi
gansakuTrebuli iniciativebi da siaxleebis mudmivi Ziebaa saWiro.
interaqtiuli swavlebis meTodikis gamoyeneba ki aucilebeli pirobaa
warmatebisaTvis.
    samwuxarod, bevri siaxle jer kidev ver ikidebs fexs CvenSi. Cveni
kaTedris bazaze ori wlis win daviwyeT saxelmwifo marTvis 6 Tviani
kursebis programa, romelic distanciuri swavlebis meTodiT mimdinareobda.
es meTodi farTod aris gavrcelebuli mTels msoflioSi. saqarTvelos
sinamdvileSi am meTodiT swasvlebam ver gaamarTla, es imdenad
materialur-teqnikuri bazis sisustiTa da dauxvewavi programebis mizeziT ar
            xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              9

iyo gamowveuli, ramdenadac ganaTlebis sistemis mmarTvelTa
uyuradRebobis bralia. dRemde saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba ar cnobs
distanciuri swavlebis meTods da igi mxolod calkeul enTuziastTa
mondomebazea damokidebuli.
   vfiqrob dRevandeli Cveni konferencia, aq warmodgenili prezentaciebi
didad Seuwyobs xels siaxleebis danergvas saxelmwifo marTvis meTodebisa
da formebis swavlebis saqmeSi. Cven bevri axali gavigeT, sxva rakursiT
davinaxeT nacnobi problemebi da gamowvevebi, albaT ar unda
gagviWirdes adeqvaturad vupasuxoT maT. madloba organizatorebs aseTi
sasargeblo diskusiis organizebisaTvis.
   gmadlobT yuradRebisaTvis.

                              Summary

International conference PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
TRANSFORMATION IN THE SOUTH CAUCASUS

   Shota Dogonadze, Full Professor, Head of the Public Administration
programm of Foreign Languages and Communication Department
(Georgian Technical University), presented his brief report on the
international conference in Tbilisi of March 27-28, 2008.

                               Резюме

Международная конференция : Трансформация
государственного управления на Южном Кавказе
   Матерял посвящается Международной конференции : Трансфор-
мация государственного управления на Южном Кавказе, проведенной
27-28 марта в г. Тбилиси. Публикуется выступление на конференции
проф. Шота Догонадзе.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                10



                          giorgi baRaTuria
                            sofiko cxdaZe

    saxelmwifo politikis strategiuli dagegmva _ bismarki




                                `Zlevamosili omic ki _ borotebaa, romelic
                                        xalxTa sibrZniT unda aviciloT~
                                                                bismarki

               Tavisufleba da erTianoba – sasicocxlo garemo
                    saxelmwifosa da eris arsebobisTvis

         politikuri moRvawis saqmianobis srulyofili Sefaseba, rogorc wesi,
mxolod xangrZlivi drois Semdeg xdeba SesaZlebeli. adamianebs uWirT
saTanadod daafason maTi Tanamedrove bumberazi moRvaweni,
gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac politikosis moRvaweoba rTul,
mtkivneul gardaqmnebs iwvevs da Soreul strategiul miznebs ukavSirdeba.
es bunebrivicaa, vinaidan Tanamedroveni ver ixilaven Soreuli Sedegebis
nayofs. arc Tu iSviaTad, STamomavlobac saTanadod ver afasebs aseTi
politikosis moRvaweobis Sedegebs, Tu ki mis politikur moZRvrebas
memkvidreebi daamaxinjeben         da qveynisa da msoflios sazianod
imoqmedeben.
         aseTi bedi ewia oto eduard leopold fon bismark-Sionhauzens
(1815-1898), germanulad - Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-
Schönhausen; germaniis udiades politikur moRvawes, saxelmwifo politikis
strategiuli dagegmvis didostats, qveynis gamaerTianebels, Tanamedrove
germaniis – evropisa da msoflios erT-erTi uZlieresi saxelmwifos
fuZemdebels.
         eWvs ar unda iwvevdes, rom nebismieri qveynis Rirseuli
ganviTarebisa da arsebobisaTvis aucilebelia ori pirobis Sesruleba _ erTia
qveynis politikuri (da, rogorc Sedegi, ekonomikuri) Tavisufleba, meore _
erTiani saxelmwifos arseboba. Tavisufleba da erTianoba warmoadgens im
aucilebel pirobebs, romlebic gansazRvraven qveynisa da xalxis
keTildReobasa da bednierebas. qarTvelma erma es Zalian kargad icis.
         Tavisuflebisa da erTianobis sakiTxi mudam umwvavesi da,
umetesad, gadauWreli problema iyo da aris saqarTveloSi. amdenad, miT
ufro sagulisxmoa im qveynebisa da politikur moRvaweTa magaliTebi,
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 11

romlebmac SeZles samSoblos Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofa da erTianobis
miRweva. rodesac bismarki gamovida politikur asparezze germania, rogorc
erTiani saxelmwifo, ar arsebobda. iyo mxolod samTavroebi, samefoebi,
gaerTianebebi, romlebic gamudmebiT qiSpobdnen erTmaneTSi. politikuri
asparezidan wasvlisas ki man datova uZlieresi erTiani saxelmwifo.
uZlieresi yvela TvalsazrisiT – ekonomikuri, politikuri, samecniero, kulturuli
da a.S. Camoyalibda mZlavri germanuli saxelmwifo, romelsac TiTqmis
veraferi daaklo orma gamanadgurebelma msoflio omma. dRes, erTiani
germania evropisa da msoflios stabilurobisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis
garanti gaxlavT.
         es warmateba ver iqneboda miRweuli daqsaqsuli germaniis
pirobebSi. swored amitom ver gaxda saqarTvelo Zlieri saxelmwifo, Tumca
ki arsebobda saTanado istoriuli SesaZlebloba (`gavmzadebulvarT meore
bizantiad~ _ murman lebaniZe). Sua saukuneebis `oqros xanis~ Semdeg,
XX saukunis dasasrulamde, aRar gvqonia erTiani saxelmwifo (1918-1921
ww. `mcire oqros xana~ saerTo suraTs ar cvlis), arc iseTi politikuri
moRvaweni gvyavdnen, romlebic SeZlebdnen bismarkis msgavsi Sedegebis
miRwevas. Teimuraz II-m mniSvnelovani nabijebi gadadga am
mimarTulebiT, magram, qarTvelTa saTayvano mefem, `patara kaxma~,
sworupovarma mxedarTmTavarma, magram, Cvenda savalalod,
araSorsmWvretelma politikosma, faqtobrivad gaacamtvera didi mamis
danatovari – erTiani qarTl-kaxeTis samefos Semdgomi gaZlierebis nacvlad
man saWiro momentSi aramcTu qveynis gaerTianeba ver moaxerxa,
piriqiT, qarTl-kaxeTis samefoc daSala, xolo qarTlis samefo TiTqmis
mTlianad saufliswulo mamulebad daanawila mravalricxovan batoniSvilTa
Soris. es gaxldaT misi umTavresi Secdoma. swored aseTma politikam
ganapiroba sabediswero marcxi krwanisis omSi da, Semdeg, saqarTvelos
damoukideblobis dakargva TiTqmis 200 wlis ganmavlobaSi. Tumca, aqve
isic unda SevniSnoT, rom swored ruseTis imperiis farglebSi arsebulma
erTianma qarTulma qveyanam (ara saxelmwifom), Tundac guberniebad
dayofilma, da, Semdeg ukve sabWoTa kavSirSi, SeZlo, mieRwia
samecniero, ekonomikuri, kulturuli warmatebebisTvis.
         bismarks ki xSirad swored imaSi adanaSaulebdnen, rom man
Cauyara safuZveli erTian germanul saxelmwifos, rasac marqsisti
istorikosebi da politikosebi germanul imperializmad naTlaven (am dros `ver
amCneven~ rusul, britanul, amerikul, frangul imperiebs). kritikosTa azriT
germanulma reaqciulma da agresiulma Zalebma Seqmnes istoriuli
koncefcia, romlis Tanaxmadac militarizmma da omma gaaZlieres germaniis
erTianoba [1]. amave dros isini, vinc mas imperializmSi adanaSaulebdnen,
arafers amboben sakuTari qveynebis imperialistur zraxvebze. rac Seexeba
msoflio omebs, romlis iniciatorad germanias gvisaxaven, aq did
gaugebrobasTan gvaqvs saqme. msoflio omebis mizezi gaxldaT
imperialisturi        qveynebis,       imdroindeli         zesaxelmwifoebis
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              12

urTierTsawinaaRmdego strategiuli miznebi, rasac aucileblad unda
gamoewvia samxedro dapirispireba, romlis centrSi aRmoCnda germania.
savsebiT samarTlianad SeniSnavs germaneli istorikosi g.onkeni
(H.Oncken. Das alte und das neue Mitteleuropa): `Cveni qveyana evropis
SuagulSia, mouwyobeli da cvalebadi saxmeleTo sazRvrebiT, romliskenac
mimarTulia yvela isari~ [1]. marTlac, imdroindeli germania mtruli
qveynebiT iyo garSemortymuli.
         bismarkTan da erTian germaniasTan dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebiT
xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom germaniis monawileoba msoflio omSi da
misi marcxi swored iman gansazRvra, rom germaniis imdroindelma
liderebma gadauxvies bismarkis doqtrinas, rom ar SeiZleba or frontze omi
da miTumetes ruseTis winaaRmdeg. igi ambobda: `arasodes araferi
dagegmoT ruseTis winaaRmdeg, imitom, rom yovel Tqvens eSmakobaze
igi gipasuxebT gauTvaliswinebeli sisuleliT” [2].
               strategiuli dagegmva saxelmwifo politikaSi

          ram ganapiroba bismarkis warmateba? sxva obieqtur (imdroindeli
istoriul-politikuri viTareba) da subieqtur (bismarkis niWiereba da
patiosneba, qveynis usazRvro erTguleba, imperatoris sruli ndoba) mizezTa
Soris erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesia is garemoeba, rom bismarki gaxldaT
namdvili strategi, saxelmwifo politikis strateguli dagegmvis didostati,
saxelmwifos marTvasa da politikis warmarTvaSi igi praqtikulad iyenebda
im meTodebis erTobliobas, rac SemdgomSi stategiuli dagegmvis
mecnierebad Camoyalibda.
          gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saxelmwifo politikis
warmatebuli warmarTvis safuZvelia strategiuli dagegvis meTodebis
gamoyeneba. bismarkis praqtikuli saqmianobis analiziT SesaZlebelia
mokled CamovayaliboT TeoriaSi kargad cnobili strategiuli dagegmvis
ramdenime ZiriTadi elementi [3], romlebmac ganapirobes bismarkis
warmatebebi.
          strategia unda:
     - Seicavdes naTel miznebs, romelTa miRweva gadamwyvetia
          saqmis saboloo warmatebisaTvis;
     - xels uwyobdes iniciativas;
     - axdendes mTavari Zalisxmevis koncentrirebas saWiro dros da
          saWiro adgilas;
     - iTvaliswinebdes moqmedebis iseT moqnilobas, raTa resursebis
          minimaluri odenobiT SesaZlebeli iyos maqsimaluri Sedegebis
          miRweva;
     - anxorcielebdes koordinirebuli moqmedebas;
     - varaudobdes moqmedebaTa gasageb ganrigs;
     - uzrunvelyofdes garantirebul resursebs.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               13

         am CamonaTvlis Tundac zedapiruli gaanalizebiT da bismarkis
politikasTan SedarebiT naTeli xdeba, Tu ratom moaxerxa bismarkma
dasaxuli miznebis miRweva.
                   bismarkis politikuri moRvaweoba

        germaniis imperiis pirveli raixskancleri oto fon bismarki
warmoSobiT pomeraneli iunkeri [4] gaxldaT. igi daibada 1815 w. 1 aprils
SionhauzenSi (branderburgis provincia, dRes saqsonia-anhaltis miwa),
mciremiwian aznaurTa ojaxSi.




          17 wlis bismarki Cairicxa gotingenis universitetSi, sadac
samarTals swavlobda. studentobis periodSi bismarkma CxubisTavobiT
gamoirCeoda, xSirad monawileobda duelebSi da erTxel daiWra kidec. 1835
w. bismarkma daicva disertacia filosofiasa da politikur ekonomiaSi, mas
diplomatoba surda, magram prusiis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma axalgazrda
bismarki, rogorc cnobili duelianti uariT gaistumra, Tan urCia _ `gijobs
imuSavo germaniaSi raime administraciul Tanamdebobaze da ara evropuli
diplomatiis sferoSi~. bismarkmac daiwyo muSaoba jer berlinis municipalur
sasamarTloSi, Semdeg _ axenSi. 1838 wlidan bismarki samxedro
samsaxurSia _ Sevida egeris gvardiul polkSi, magram usaxsrobisa da dedis
sikvdilis gamo 1839 w. man datova samsaxuri, dabrunda pomeraniaSi da
memamulis saqmianobas mihyo xeli. mamulis marTvaSi bismarkma
saukeTeso Tvisebebi gamoavlina da mezobelTa pativiscemac daimsaxura,
amave dros agrZelebda ganaTlebis miRebas. igi kiTxulobda hegelis, kantis,
spinozas, d.Strausis da foierbaxis naSromebs, imogzaura inglissa da
safrangeTSi da mogvianebiT pietistebs [5] SeuerTda.
    politikur asparezze bismarki 1847 w. gamovida, roca prusiis landtagis
deputati gaxda da ukidures memarjvene frTas miemxro. fridrix vilhelm IV-
m SeniSna bismarki da CainiSna: `reaqcioneri, gamoviyenoT mogvianebiT”
[6]. 1848 w. evropuli revoluciebis welia _ safrangeTi, avstria, italia
revoluciis alSi gaexva. revolucia daiwyo prusiaSic patriot liberalTa
TaosnobiT. revoluciis mTavari miznebi iyo germaniis gaerTianeba da
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 14

konstituciis SemoReba. mefe fridrix vilhelm IV daTanxmda am
moTxovnebs, ramac bismarkis imedgacrueba gamoiwvia. Tumca Semdeg,
konservator politikosTa daxmarebiT, romelTa Soris bismarkic imyofeboda,
mefem Sewyvita parlamentis sxdoma da berlinSi jari Seiyvana. amis
Semdeg mefem gamoaqveyna konstitucia, romelic absoluturi monarqiisa da
orpalatiani parlamentis principebs Seicavda.
          bismarki, rogorc      ultra monarqisti, ibrZoda revoluciisa da
germaniis ,,qvemodan” (revoluciebis gziT) gaerTianebis winaaRmdeg.
prusia maSin gadaurCa revolucias da revoluciiT gamowveul borotebas. rac
Seexeba germaniis gaerTianebas, es mogvianebiT moxda, oRond ara
revoluciuri gziT, aramed `sisxliTa da maxviliT” – daniis omis (1864 w.),
avstria-prusiis (1866 w.) da safrangeT-prusiis (1870-71 ww.) sisxlismRvreli
omebis Sedegad Camoyalibda germaniis imperia. amrigad es omebi
aucilebeli gaxldaT germaniis gaerTianebis gzaze, magram `vai im
saxelmwifo moRvawes, romelic ar izrunebs ipovos omis iseTi safuZveli,
romelic omis Semdegac SeinarCunebs Tavis mniSvnelobas~ (bismarki).
garda amisa, aucileblad unda SevniSnoT, rom bismarki germanel
samTavroebs ki ar ebrZoda, aramed, SeiZleba iTqvas, _ dampyroblebs,
germanuli miwebis mimtaceblebs – danias, safrangeTs, avstria-ungreTs.
         1851 wels maisSi mefem bismarki prusiis warmomadgenlad
daniSna mainis frankfurtSi. iq bismarki praqtikulad maleve mixvda, rom
mTeli prusia ver iqneboda germaniis konfederaciaSi da, Sesabamisad,
avstriasTan keTilganwyobaSi. amitom gardauvali iyo omi avstriasTan,
riTac SesaZlebeli xdeboda germaniis gaerTianeba. imis Semdeg, rac
bismarkma Seiswavla diplomatiis xelovneba da saxelmwifoTa Soris
urTierTobebi, misi Sexedulobebi ufro da ufro Sordeboda mefis
Sexedulebebs. Tavis mxriv mefec TandaTan kargavda ndobas bismarkis
mimarT. 1859 wels mefis Zmam, SemdgomSi (1861 w.-dan) prusiis
mefem da germaniis imperatorma vilhelm I-ma, im droisaTvis regentma,
bismarki elCad gaagzavna sank-peterburgSi. iq bismarki dauaxlovda
ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrs – Tavad a.m.gorCakovs. gorCakovTan
erTad bismarki iwyebs brZolas jer avstriisa da, Semdeg, safrangeTis
diplomatiur izolaciaSi mosaqcevad.
         1862 w. bismarki gaigzavna elCad safrangeTSi napoleon III
samefo karze. male igi ukan gamoixmo vilhelm I-ma da imave wlis
seqtemberSi gaxda prusiis ministr-prezidenti da sagareo saqmeTa ministri.
maSinve mkafiod gamoikveTa bismarkis mTavari mizani _ germaniis
gaerTianeba prusiis egidiT.
         bismarkma seriozuli reformebis gatareba daiwyo, ugulebelyo
landtagis sabiujeto uflebebi, gaatara samxedro reforma, ramac ganamtkica
germanul saxelmwifoebs Soris prusiis samxedro upiratesoba, da daiwyo
gamalebuli momzadeba germaniis kavSiridan avstriis gansadevnad.
bismarki daufaravad acxadebda, rom germaniis gaerTianeba SesaZlebelia
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 15

mxolod ,,sisxliTa da maxviliT”, rac bismarkis kritikis mTavari safuZveli
gaxda, TiTqos im periodSi SesaZlebeli yofiliyos gaerTianebis sxvagvari
gza. ubralod, bismarki arasdros mimarTavda yalb diplomatiur reveransebs.
        omi daniasTan. bismarkis pirvelive nabijebi metad efeqtiani
aRmoCnda. 1863 w.-s, rodesac poloneTis sakiTxis gamo ruseTs TiTqmis
mTeli evropa daupirispirda (maT Soris bismarkis mcdelobiTac), ruseTis
umTavresi mokavSire prusia aRmoCnda [7], ramac prusiisTvis
mniSvnelovani Sedegi iqonia. 1863 w.-s Slezvig-holStainisaTvis
diplomatiur brZolaSi prusiam ruseTisagan Caurevlobis garantia miiRo.
saWiro iyo sxva didi saxelmwifoebis mxardaWera an neitraliteti. bismarkma
zustad Seafasa arsebuli viTareba _ safrangeTs meqsikis problemebi hqonda
mosagvarebeli da daniis gamo prusias ar daupirispirdeboda, avstria
holStainiT daainteresa da mokavSired gaixada daniasTan mosalodnel omSi
(1863 w. miwuruls Soris daido avstria-prusiis saidumlo SeTanxmeba).
rCeboda inglisi, magram Seqmnil viTarebaSi inglismac Caurevloba
amjobina [8]. ramdenime saomari Setakebis Semdeg 1864 w. 12 maiss daido
sazavo xelSekruleba, romliTac daniam daTmo Slezvigi, holStaini da
lauenburgis sahercogo. winaswari morigebis Tanaxmad, prusiam miiRo
Slezvigi, avstriam ki _ holStaini [9]. amiT dasrulda germaniis gaerTianebis
pirveli etapi.
        omi avstriasTan. germaniis gaerTianebis mTavari dabrkoleba axla
avstria gaxldaT. amitom ukve avstriis winaaRmdeg iyo saWiro omis
mzadeba. ruseTis neitraliteti kvlav garantirebuli iyo [10], inglisi isev
Caurevlobis (`brwyincvale izolaciis~) politikas amjobinebda (evropaSi
inglisis aqtiuri Carevis dro jer ar damdgariyo da amas bismarki kargad
grZnobda). erTaderT angariSgasawev Zalad safrangeTi rCeboda. bismarki
Tvlida, rom piradi kontaqtebi bevrad ufro met Sedegebs moitans
diplomatiaSi, vidre notebis gacvla da amitom 1865 w. piradad Sexvda
safrangeTis imperators napoleon III-s. neitralitetis sanacvlod bismarkma
napoleon III-s pirdapir SesTavaza luqsemburgi. napoleon III-s belgiac surda,
igi Tvlida, rom omi avstriasa da prusias Soris gaWianurdeboda da sasurvel
teritoriebs uomrad miiRebda. bismarkma es varaudic gaTvala,
warmatebisTvis aucilebeli iyo avstriasTan omis swrafad mogeba, amisaTvis
ki axali mokavSireebis Zebna gaxda saWiro. mravali sirTulis miuxedavad
bismarkma moaxerxa sardiniis samefos (piemonti) mimxroba veneciis
sanacvlod. amrigad avstrias 2 frontze mouwevda brZola. 1866 w. 16 ivniss
daiwyo omi avstriis winaaRmdeg, romelic Zalian male, 3 ivliss dasrulda
prusiis gamarjvebiT. SeiZleboda venaSi Sesvlac, magram bismarkma ar
Seuracxyo avstrielTa Tavmoyvareoba da prusielTa jari venaSi ar Seiyvana,
miTumetes, rom ukve avstriasTan axal kavSirze fiqrobda amjerad
safrangeTis winaaRmdeg. 26 ivlisis zavis pirobebiT avstria gamovida
germanuli kavSiridan, daTmo holStaini da venecia da daTanxmda axali
CrdiloeT-germanuli kavSiris Seqmnas prusiis hegemonobiT.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                16

       omi safrangeTTan. dadga safrangeTTan omis dro, saamisod metad
xelsayreli saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba iyo. inglissa da ruseTs xels aZlevda
safrangeTis dasusteba prusielTa xeliT. garda amisa ruseTis imperatori
aleqsandre II bismarks avstria-ungreTis neitralizebas Sepirda omis muqariT.
1870 w. ruseTma neitraliteti gamoacxada da sxvebsac mouwoda ar
Careuliyvnen saomar moqmedebebSi. evropuli saxelmwifoebis Caurevloba
miRweul iqna magram omis dasawyebad, im dros, saWiro iyo agreTve
saTanado sababic.
       omis sababi espaneTis taxtis garSemo atexili ambebi gaxda.
napoleonma Tavisi warmomadgeneli benedeti gaagzavna emsSi, sadac
prusiis mefe vilhelm I mkurnalobda. napoleoni iTxovda germanel princs
leopold fon hohencolerns moexsna Tavis kandidatura, rasac vilhelm I
daTanxmda, radganac mas safrangeTTan omi ar surda. vilhelmis Tanxmoba
napoleonma prusiis sisusted aRiqva da kidev ufro kategoriuli moTxovniT
mimarTa vilhelm I-s _ aekrZala leopoldisaTvis espaneTis taxtis dakaveba,
Tu es winadadeba xelaxla iqneboda wamoyenebuli. miuxedavad
gaRizianebisa vilhelma ganucxada benedetis, rom axals verafers etyoda da
molaparakebebi am sakiTxze berlinSi gagrZeldeboda. am saubris Sesaxeb
depeSiT Seatyobines bismarks. es iyo cnobili `emsis depeSa~, bismaris
gegmebi iSleboda, amitom man depeSa odnav saxecvlili gamoaqveyna
`emskis~ cnobarSi. Seiqmna STabeWdileba, TiTqos vilhelmma benedeti
gaagdo. aman sasurveli Sedegi gamoiRo. napoleonma 1870 wlis 19 ivliss
omi gamoucxada prusias. es omi ki, diplomatiur doneze bismarks, jer kidev
omis dawyebamde hqonda mogebuli. man gamoaqveyna napoleon III-is adre
gamogzavnili werili, romliTac is belgias iTxovda. es iyo safrangeTis
diplomatiis sruli marcxi, safrangeTi agresorad gamoCnda. diplomatiuri
manevrirebiT bismarkma SeZlo safrangeTis imperiis izolireba saerTaSoriso
asparezze da amitom safrangeTma mxardaWerac veravisgan miiRo.
         safrangeT-prusiis omi sakmaod xanmokle gamodga. moigeries ra
frangebis pirveli Setevebi, agvistoSi prusielebi safrangeTis teritoriaze
SeiWrnen da seqtembris dasawyisSi sedanTan sastikad daamarcxes
frangebi. parizi alyaSemortymuli aRmoCnda.
       1871 w. 28 ianvars xeli moewera winaswar SeTanxmebas, 26
Tebervals daido SeTanxmebebi versalSi, xolo yovelive dasrulda frankfurtis
zaviT (1871 w. 10 maisi). zavis Tanaxmad, safrangeTi axladSeqmnil
germaniis imperias uTmobda elzassa da loTaringias da pirobas iRebda, rom
gadaixdida 5 miliard frank kontribucias. sanacvlod, bismarkma mxari
dauWira safrangeTis axal mTavrobas parizis komunis CaxSobis dros.
       bismarkis mTavari mizani aRsrulda. 1871 w. 18 ianvars, versalSi
gamocxadda germaniis imperiis Seqmna. amiT bismarkma               daasrula
germaniis gaerTianeba.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 17




              oto fon bismarkis pirmSo: garTianebuli germania

        imperiis kancleri. 1871 wels versalSi imperatorma vilhelm I-ma
bismarki daniSna germaniis imperiis kanclerad [12].
        germaniis imperias ,,rkinis kancleri” faqtobrivad SeuzRudavad
marTavda TiTqmis 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi (1871-90 ww.) raixskanclerobis
pirvel periodSi igi eyrdnoboda erovnul liberalur partias. bismarkma gaatara
reformebi germaniis samarTalSi, marTvasa da safinanso sistemebSi.
reformebma kaTolikur eklesiis dapirispireba gamoiwvia, ZiriTadi mizezi am
konfliqtisa iyo protestanti prusielebis undobloba germaneli kaTolikebis
mimarT. brZolam kaTolikuri eklesiis winaaRmdeg ,,kulturkampfis”
saxelwodeba miiRo.
          mkveTrad reaqciuli iyo bismarkis politika germaniis proletariatisa
da socialistebis winaaRmdeg. specialuri kanonis meSveobiT is cdilobda
maTi mzardi gavlenis Sesustebas. gansakuTrebiT ewinaaRmdegeboda im
droSi populistur kanonebs, romlebic mimarTuli iyo muSaTa da mSromelTa
pirobebis gaumjobesebisaken. samagierod Tavadve zrunavda mSromelebze
_     SemoiRo      dazRvevis     sistema   avadmyofebisTvis      (1883w.),
daSavebulTaTvis (1884w.) pensionerebsTvis (1889w.).
  sagareo politikaSi bismarkis umTavresi mizani iyo frankfurtis zaviT
(1871w.) mopovebuli mSvidobis SenarCuneba. safrTxis Tavidan
asacileblad germaniis imperiisTvis saWiro iyo safrangeTis diplomatiuri
izolireba. am mizans emsaxureboda 1873 w. 23 oqtombers gaformebuli
ruseT-avstria-germaniis SeTanxmeba (`sami imperatoris kavSiri~).
amieridan arc avstria-ungreTi da arc ruseTi safrangeTis mokavSired ar
moiazreboda [10].       inglisi kvlav Caurevlobis politikas atarebda da
safrangeTis mokavSireoba ar ainteresebda, italias safrangeTisadmi
teritorialuri da koloniuri pretenziebi hqonda. amdenad, safrangeTi didi
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 18

xniT gamoiTiSa aqtiuri evropuli politikidan manam, sanam bismarki iyo
xelisuflebis saTaveSi. amave dros bismarki cdilobda gaerTulebina ruseTis
mdgomareoba axlo aRmosavleTSi, balkaneTze misTvis avstria-ungreTi
daepirispirebina, xolo xmelTaSua zRvis auzSi – inglisi, raTa maTi
winaaRmdegobebi germaniis imperiis sasargeblod gamoeyenebina. 1879 w.
bismarkma xeli moawera samxedro SeTanxmebas avstria-ungreTTan,
romelic italiis SeerTebis Semdeg samTa kavSirad gardaiqmna (1882 w).
          inglisTan megobruli damokidebulebis gamo 1884 wlamde
bismarki kolonialuri       politikiT ar iyo dainteresebuli. garda amisa,
kolonialuri kursi, bismarkis TvalsazrisiT, gamoiwvevda germaniis kapitalis
gadinebasa da xarjebis gazrdas. mainc, bismarkis dros germaniam
kolonialur imperiad gadaqceva daiwyo,           miuxedavad   imisa,    rom
bismarkis pirveli eqspansiuri gegmebi yvela partiisa (kaTolikebis,
socialistebis, iunkerebis) da xelisuflebis Zlier winaaRmdegobas iwvevda.
        1881 w. iwureboda germania-ruseT-avstria-ungreTis SeTanxmebis
vada. SeTanxmebis gagrZeleba ver moxerxda ruseTis uaris gamo, radganac
avstria-ungreTi antirusuli politikas eweoda balkaneTSi. maSin bismarkma
ormxrivi kavSiris idea wamoayena. daido SeTanxmeba, romelsac
SemdgomSi `gadazRvevis SeTanxmeba~ ewoda. bismarkma scada, Tavi
daezRvia ruseT-safrangeTis daaxloebisagan da or frontze SesaZlo omisagan.
mxareebma valdebuleba aiRes, rom daicavdnen neitralitets romelime
maTganis mesame did saxelmwifosTan omis SemTxvevaSi, magram aqve
miTiTebuli iyo gamonaklisebi: garda germaniis Tavdasxmisa safrangeTze
da ruseTisa _ avstria-ungreTze. bismarkma xelSekrulebiT cno ruseTis
interesebi balkaneTis naxevarkunZulze, bosforisa da dardanelis sruteebTan
dakavSirebiT, Tumca SesTavaza ruseTs, rom `ormagi fskeris~ qveS
SeenaxaT es dokumenti (e.w. `ormagfskeriani xelSekruleba~). garda amisa,
imave wels man inglisTan, italiasa da avstria-ungreTTan erTad xeli
moawera dokuments, romelic sruliad sapirispiros qadagebda da romliTac
aRniSnuli saxelmwifoebi valdebulebas iRebdnen win aRdgomodnen ruseTis
mxridan balkaneTsa da Sav zRvaze status-qvos darRvevis mcdelobebs.
          germaniis imperiis gaZlierebiT SeSfoTebulma ruseTma 80-iani
wlebis dasasrulidan daiwyo safrangeTTan daaxloeba, rac 1893 wels, ruseT-
safrangeTs Soris samxedro kavSiris dadebiT damTavrda, magram maSin
germaniis politikis warmmarTvelni sul sxva pirebi iyvnen. germanuli
politika TandaTan Sordeboda bismarkis kurss.

                           bismarkis epoqis dasasruli

       gadazRvevis xelSekruleba ukanaskneli didi dokumenti aRmoCnda
bismarkis diplomatiur karieraSi. 1888 wlidan, rodesac jer kaizeri vilhelm I
gardaicvala, xolo Semdeg axali imperatori fridrix III (imefa mxolod
naxevari weli), misi poziciebi mkveTrad Seirya _ taxtze avida vilhelm II,
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                19

romelic, marTalia, did pativs scemda bismarks, magram SiSobda, rom
udidesi avtoritetis mqone `rkinis kanclerTan~ mas meorexarisxovani rolis
Sesruleba mouwevda, rac autaneli iyo pativmoyvare kaizerisTvis [13].
         1890 wlis martSi. ,,rkinis kancleri” gadadga. misi epoqa
damTavrda, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas jer kidev didi politikuri gavlena
qonda. bismarkma miiRo lauenburgis hercogis tituli da mieniWa kavaleriis
general-polkovnikis wodeba. 1891 wels bismarki arCeuli iqna reixstagSi
hanoveridan, magram mas Tavisi adgili ar daukavebia da ori wlis Semdeg
saerTod uari ganacxada xelmeored arCevisaTvis wamoeyenebina Tavisi
kandidatura. 1895 wels mTeli germania zeimobda `rkinis kancleris” 80
wlisTavs. bismarki gardaicvala 1898 wlis 30 ivliss, 83 wlisa.




                                daskvna

         msoflios politikur istoriaSi bismarkis cxovreba da moRvaweoba
faqtobrivad aris strategiuli dagegmvis meTodologiis saxelmwifo politikaSi,
gansakuTrebiT diplomatiaSi gamoyenebis erT-erTi saukeTeso praqtikuli
magaliTi. xolo misi literaturuli memkvidreoba _ ,,fiqrebi da mogonebebi”
(Gedanken und Erinnerungen) da 47 tomiani naSromi `evropis
kabinetebis didi politika~ (Die grosse Politik der europaischen
Kabinette) _ diplomatiuri xelovnebisa da saxelmwifo politikis strategiuli
dagegmvis qrestomaTias warmoadgens.
         vilhelm I-is xelSewyobiT bismarkma Seqmna uZlieresi germanuli
saxelmwifo, romelSic Camoyalibda germaneli eris erTianobis saocari
suliskveTeba, imdenad sicocxlisunariani, rom dRes, gulamoWrili (prusiis
gareSe) germaniac ki msoflios erT-erTi wamyvani saxelmwifoa [14].
         samwuxarod, bismarkis memkvidreobis, misi politikuri doqtrinis
damaxinjebuli interpretaciac gaxda XX saukunis tragediaTa erT-erTi (ara
erTaderTi) mizezi [15].
            xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               20

gamoyenebuli literatura da komentarebi:

   1.  А.C. Ерусалимский. Внешняя политика и дирломатаия
       германского империализма в консе XIX века. 1948 г. Москва;
   2. Ерусалимckий А.С. – Бисмарк: Диломатия и милитаризм,
       Москва 1968.
   3. g.baRaTuria – strategiuli dagegmva meTodologiuri safuZvlebi.
       Tbilisi 2007.
   4. iunkeri _ prusiaSi: msxvili miwaTmflobeli, aznauri, memamule.
   5. pietizmi _ erT-erTi mimdinareobaa luTenarul eklesiaSi,
       warmoiSva me-17 saukuneSi.
   6. Германская история - новое и новейшее время. т. 1-2 Москва
       1970.
   7. aRsaniSnavia, rom bismarkma ruseTs adrec mniSvnelovani
       mxardaWera gauwia. yirimis omis dros igi seriozulad
       SeewinaaRmdega avstriis mcdelobas Caetarebina germanuli
       jarebis mobilizacia ruseTTan saomrad. sazogadod, evropel
       politikosTa Soris bismarki gamoirCeoda ruseTisadmi loialuri
       damokidebulebiT, rasac mas xSirad sayvedurobdnen. am
       `braldebas~ `rkinis kancleri~ ase pasuxobda: `germaniaSi mxolod
       me vambob «ничего!», ruseTSi ki _ mTeli xalxi~.
   8. Slezvig-holStainis sakiTxi Zlier CaxlarTuli iyo. 1852 w.-s daniis
       uflebebi Slezvig-holStainze yvela didma saxelmwifom (maT Soris,
       prusiamac) aRiara. magram, rodesac daniis mefe fridrix VII-is
       sikvdilis Semdeg, avstria-prusiis koaliciam ultimatumi wauyena
       danias, inglisi aRar Caeria am konfliqtSi, Tumca swored inglisis
       mxardaWeriT daimedebulma qristian IX-m gamosca axali
       konstitucia, romliTac is Slezvigs sabolood uerTebda danias.
       swored es aqti gaxda daniisTvis ultimatumis gamocxadebis sababi.
       inglisis premier-ministrma lordma palmerstonma ki mxolod i-
       xumra: `cota xnis win evropaSi sul sami kaci iyo, vinc erkveoda
       Slezvig-holStainis sakiTxSi _ princi alberti (dedofal viqtorias
       meuRle), erTi moxuci danieli da me. magram dedofali
       samwuxarod axlaxan daqvrivda, danieli sagiJeTSi moxvda, me ki
       sul damaviwyda, Tu raSi mdgomareobs iq saqme~.
   9. sagulisxmoa, rom avstrias holStainTan misasvleli ar hqondaT da
       am provinciis sxva teritoriaze gadacvla moindomes, magram
       amaod. lauenburgis sahercogo ki prusiam avstriisagan mainc iyida,
       Tumca is avstrias sulac ar ekuTvnoda. sabolood faqtobrivad mTeli
       Slezvig-holStaini prusiis SemadgenlobaSi aRmoCnda.
   10. prusiis mier poloneTis sakiTxSi ruseTis mxardaWerisa da avstriis
       mier yirimis omSi ruseTTan dapirispirebis gamo. ruseTSi didxans
       ar daviwyebiaT avstrielTa veragoba, rac daadastura kidec avstriis
          xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                21

      sagareo saqmeTa ministrma          meternixma: `Cven msoflios
      gavaocebT Cveni umadurobiT~
11.   sami imperatoris kavSiri Cafiqrebuli iyo, rogorc saRvTo kavSiris
      politikis gamgrZelebeli. magram am kavSiridan araferi gamovida.
      praqtikulad am kavSirs arcerT sakiTxze ar gautarebia erTiani
      politika.
12.   leninic ki aRniSnavda, rom Ggermaniis erovnul saxelmwifod
      gaerTianeba istoriulad progresuli movlena iyo _ `raki gaerTianeba
      ver moxerxda revoluciurad, igi ganxorcielda kontrrevoluciurad,
      iunkrulad; bismarkma Taviseburad, iunkrulad, gaakeTa progresuli
      saqme~.
13.   vilhelm II-s gandidebis mania hqonda. mis TanamedroveTa
      xumrobis Tanaxmad, kaizers imdenad uyvarda yuradRebis centrSi
      yofna, rom surda `yovel naTlobaze naTlia yofiliyo, yovel qorwilSi
      _ nefe, yovel dakrZalvaze _ micvalebuli~.
14.   bismarkis mier Camoyalibebuli mravalmxrivi germanuli
      vaJkacobis suliskveTeba zusti mimarTulebiT ganaviTares XX
      saukunis germanuli saswaulis avtorebma konrad adenauerma da
      ludvig erhardma (ix. l.erhardis `keTildReoba yvelasTvis~),
      romlebmac, germanul magaliTze, ukve meore msoflio omis
      Semdeg TvalnaTliv gvaCvenes Tu ras warmoadgens pirovnebis
      roli istoriaSi.
15.   Tanamedrove msoflios kataklizmebis erT-erTi gamoZaxilia isic,
      rom germaniis gulis _ prusiis nawili dRes sxva saxelmwifoTa
      (poloneTisa da ruseTis) sakuTrebaa. samwuxaro analogia gaxlavT
      kosovosa da tao-klarjeTis istoria (Tumca ki gansxvavebuli
      mizezebiT warmoqmnili).
16.   А.C. Ерусалимский. Внешняя политика и дирломатаия
      германского империализма в консе XIX века. 1948 г. Москва;
17.   Ерусалимckий А.С. – Бисмарк: Диломатия и милитаризм,
      Москва 1968.
18.   g.baRaTuria – strategiuli dagegmva meTodologiuri safuZvlebi.
      Tbilisi 2007.
19.   iunkeri _ prusiaSi: msxvili miwaTmflobeli, aznauri, memamule.
20.   pietizmi _ erT-erTi mimdinareobaa luTenarul eklesiaSi,
      warmoiSva me-17 saukuneSi.
21.    Германская история - новое и новейшее время. т. 1-2 Москва
      1970.
22.   aRsaniSnavia, rom bismarkma ruseTs adrec mniSvnelovani
      mxardaWera gauwia. yirimis omis dros igi seriozulad
      SeewinaaRmdega avstriis mcdelobas Caetarebina germanuli
      jarebis mobilizacia ruseTTan saomrad. sazogadod, evropel
      politikosTa Soris bismarki gamoirCeoda ruseTisadmi loialuri
          xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                22

      damokidebulebiT, rasac mas xSirad sayvedurobdnen. am
      `braldebas~ `rkinis kancleri~ ase pasuxobda: `germaniaSi mxolod
      me vambob «ничего!», ruseTSi ki _ mTeli xalxi~.
23.   Slezvig-holStainis sakiTxi Zlier CaxlarTuli iyo. 1852 w.-s daniis
      uflebebi Slezvig-holStainze yvela didma saxelmwifom (maT Soris,
      prusiamac) aRiara. magram, rodesac daniis mefe fridrix VII-is
      sikvdilis Semdeg, avstria-prusiis koaliciam ultimatumi wauyena
      danias, inglisi aRar Caeria am konfliqtSi, Tumca swored inglisis
      mxardaWeriT daimedebulma qristian IX-m gamosca axali
      konstitucia, romliTac is Slezvigs sabolood uerTebda danias.
      swored es aqti gaxda daniisTvis ultimatumis gamocxadebis sababi.
      inglisis premier-ministrma lordma palmerstonma ki mxolod i-
      xumra: `cota xnis win evropaSi sul sami kaci iyo, vinc erkveoda
      Slezvig-holStainis sakiTxSi _ princi alberti (dedofal viqtorias
      meuRle), erTi moxuci danieli da me. magram dedofali
      samwuxarod axlaxan daqvrivda, danieli sagiJeTSi moxvda, me ki
      sul damaviwyda, Tu raSi mdgomareobs iq saqme~.
24.   sagulisxmoa, rom avstrias holStainTan misasvleli ar hqondaT da
      am provinciis sxva teritoriaze gadacvla moindomes, magram
      amaod. lauenburgis sahercogo ki prusiam avstriisagan mainc iyida,
      Tumca is avstrias sulac ar ekuTvnoda. sabolood faqtobrivad mTeli
      Slezvig-holStaini prusiis SemadgenlobaSi aRmoCnda.
25.   prusiis mier poloneTis sakiTxSi ruseTis mxardaWerisa da avstriis
      mier yirimis omSi ruseTTan dapirispirebis gamo. ruseTSi didxans
      ar daviwyebiaT avstrielTa veragoba, rac daadastura kidec avstriis
      sagareo saqmeTa ministrma          meternixma: `Cven msoflios
      gavaocebT Cveni umadurobiT~
26.   sami imperatoris kavSiri Cafiqrebuli iyo, rogorc saRvTo kavSiris
      politikis gamgrZelebeli. magram am kavSiridan araferi gamovida.
      praqtikulad am kavSirs arcerT sakiTxze ar gautarebia erTiani
      politika.
27.   leninic ki aRniSnavda, rom Ggermaniis erovnul saxelmwifod
      gaerTianeba istoriulad progresuli movlena iyo _ `raki gaerTianeba
      ver moxerxda revoluciurad, igi ganxorcielda kontrrevoluciurad,
      iunkrulad; bismarkma Taviseburad, iunkrulad, gaakeTa progresuli
      saqme~.
28.   vilhelm II-s gandidebis mania hqonda. mis TanamedroveTa
      xumrobis Tanaxmad, kaizers imdenad uyvarda yuradRebis centrSi
      yofna, rom surda `yovel naTlobaze naTlia yofiliyo, yovel qorwilSi
      _ nefe, yovel dakrZalvaze _ micvalebuli~.
29.   bismarkis     mier    Camoyalibebuli      germanuli    vaJkacobis
      suliskveTeba zusti mimarTulebiT ganaviTares XX saukunis
      germanuli saswaulis avtorebma konrad adenauerma da ludvig
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  23

        erhardma (ix. l.erhardis `keTildReoba yvelasTvis~), romlebmac,
        germanul magaliTze, bismarkTan erTad, TvalnaTliv gvaCvenes
        Tu ras warmoadgens pirovnebis roli istoriaSi.
    30. Tanamedrove msoflios kataklizmebis erT-erTi gamoZaxilia isic,
        rom germaniis gulis _ prusiis nawili dRes sxva saxelmwifos
        sakuTrebaa. samwuxaro analogia gaxlavT, kosovosa da tao-
        klarjeTis istoria (Tumca ki           gansxvavebuli mizezebiT
        warmoqmnili).

                                Summary
Giorgi Bagaturia
Sofiko Cxadadze
Strategic planning of state policy – Bismarck

The article considers the state action of a great German statesman Otto Von
Bismarck in respect of methodology of strategic planning.              It is
demonstrated that in the state management and policy direction and in
diplomacy particularly, Otto Bismarck in fact used the unity of methods
forming the science of strategic planning in the future.
A unified German state was formed on the basis of the strategic plan of
Bismarck. Despite the catastrophes in the country, the state is still one of
strongest countries in the world.

                                    РЕЗЮМЕ

Георгий Багатуриа
Софико Цхададзе
Стратегическое    планирование           государственной        политики:
Бисмарк

Рассмотрена государственная деятельность великого германского
государственного деятеля Отто фон Бисмарка с точки зрения
методологии стратегического планирования. Показано, что Бисмарк в
управлении государством и ведении политики , особенно в
дипломатии, практически использовал совокупность тех методов,
которые в дальнейшем сформировались в науку стратегического
планирования.
По стратегическому плану Бисмарка         сформировалось единое
германское государство, которое, несмотря на перенесенные
катастрофы, вновь является одной из сильнейших и задающих тон в
мировой политике страной .
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               24



                             lali gvasalia

                   mivubrundeT myudro savanes!
                  Ria werili Cems da sxva studentebs




       yovelgvari komunikaciebi adamianebs Soris misalmebiTa da ur-
TierTgacnobiT iwyeba.
       RmerTi gfaravdeT! am sityvebiT minda, Cemo Zvirfasebo, mogesal-
moT! me deda var da swavlis gzas Semdgari nebismieri mozardi CemTvis
Zvirfasia.
       Cemi studentebi (yofilnic da amJamindelnic), vfiqrob, kargad mic-
noben. xolo maTTvis, vinc ar micnobs, minda vTqva, rom ilia
WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis erT-erT profesors _ lali gvasalias
dRes, ratomRac, am formiT mounda TqvenTan gasaubreba. Tu ratom, amas
Ria werilis Tvalis midevnebiT SeityobT!..
       `komunikaciebiT~ daviwye saubari. me da Tqven erTmaneTTan
angariSvaldebulebiTi damokidebuleba gvakavSirebs. Zalian mSralad JRers,
xom asea? magram, madloba RmerTs, umetes SemTxvevaSi `angariSvalde-
buleba~, anu movaleobis moxda, megobrobaSi gadazrdila; ufro metic,
studentebTan Cemi muSaobis 30-ze meti wlis manZilze, bevri maTgani
Cemi kolega gaxda, rac mokrZalebuli siamayis uflebas maZlevs.
       TavidaTavi da safuZveli angariSvaldebulebiT damokidebulebaTa sa-
surveli SedegiT dasrulebisa (me Tqveni `damoZRvra~ mavalia filosofiasa,
esTetikasa da kulturologiaSi, xolo Tqven _ sauniversiteto codnis SeZena),
gaxlavT keTilganwyoba orive mxridan. keTilganwyobis safuZveli ki _
siyvarulia.
       giyvardeT, upirvelesad, sakuTari Tavi!
       anu, adamiani Tavmoyvare unda iyos (oRond ara pativmoyvare,
ampartavani da kadnieri!), Tavmoyvareobis safuZveli Rirsebis grZnobaa,
rac Rirseul adamians uTuod unda gaaCndes. visac sakuTari Tavi ar uyvars
(cxadia, ara `narcisulad~), igi Tvistoms ver Seiyvarebs (mters, mi-
Tumetes!).
       giyvardeT Tvistomi da mteric! _
       Tu saTnoni da RvTismoSiSni xarT; xolo Tu ara, maSin siyvarulis
RmerTs ver SeiyvarebT!
       giyvardeT Tqveni RmerTi! (samsaxovani erTi arseba _ mama
RmerTi, Ze RmerTi da suli wminda!).
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 25

       vinc uRmerToa, is ar aris Tavisufali. Tavisuflebis madliT RmerTma
Segvmosa Tavisi kreaciuli unariT Seqmnili moazrovne da Semoqmedi
arsebani _ adamianebi. adamiani RmerTma Seqmna Tavisi saxisa da xatis
msgavsad.
       Tu adamiani Tavisufali ar aris, maSin is monaa, an sxva adamianis,
an sakuTari eWvebis, an paTologiuri midrekilebebisa da akviatebis (nar-
komanoba, loToba...). vinc monaa, mas eSinia sxva adamianis, rac dauS-
vebelia, adamians adamianisa ar unda eSinodes, aramed unda eSinodes
mxolod RmerTis.
       iyaviT RvTismoSiSni!
       xedavT, Cemo kargebo, Cven msjelobis logikam anTropocentrul
samyaros, anu kulturas migvaaxlova! kulturis safuZveli da kriteriumi _
Tavisuflebaa.
       fizikuri Tavisufleba SeiZleba wagarTvas romeliRac maiZulebelma
Zalam (bunebisa iqneba es, Tu socialuri, magaliTad, patimari Sepyrobilia
da igi ar SeiZleba fizikur Tavisuflebas flobdes), magram sulisa da
azrovnebis Tavisuflebas veravin xelyofs TqvenSi. yvelaze adamianuri
samyaros, anu anTropocentruli samyaros Semoqmedi RmerTi ar aris,
aramed RmerTis mier Tavisufal arsebad Seqmnili adamiani, romelic an
kulturis Semoqmedia, an kulturis msaWiroebeli.
       magram kultura raRa aris?! kultura arc RmerTs sWirdeba (RmerTi
yovelgvar kulturaze zeaRmatebuli absolutia!) da arc cxovels (romelic
yovelgvar adamianze ukeTaa adaptirebuli bunebasTan); mxolod adamians
esaWiroeba raRac koreqtivis Setana RvTis mier misTvis winaswar
gamzadebul grZnobad-aRqmad samyaroSi, anu bunebaSi.
       Tu cxovels, frinvelsa da mwers savsebiT `akmayofilebs~ mza-
mzareuli buneba, adamiani, raxan moazrovnea, Tavisufalia da Semoqmedia,
pretenziulicaa, _ igi ver gamoikvebeba ZirxvenebiT, fesvebiT, panta
msxliTa da maJalo vaSliT, verc monadirebuli cxovelis Termulad
gadaumuSavebel xorcs SeRmurZlavs, aramed man Tavis Tavze unda
moisadagos bunebis sagnebi, unda moaxerxos maTi kultivireba, anu
gadamuSaveba (etimologiurad, swored amas niSnavs termini `kultura~) bu-
nebisagan morTmeulisa. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, is bunebas ar qmnis,
man unda Seqmnas kultura, rac mis sicocxles adamianuri cxovrebis
simaRleze aiyvans. bunebis gamoyeneba adamians mxolod misi kulturul
sferod transformaciis gziT SeuZlia. hegelis, _ germanuli klasikuri filosofiis
udidesi warmomadgenlis termins Tu moviSveliebT, kultura adamianis
mTeli cxovrebis garegadamwvdomi movlenaa. kultura is fenomenia, rasac
Rirebuleba gaaCnia, anu rac funqciobs da mniSvnelobs CvenTvis. kulturis
sferoSi Rirebulebas kanonis Zala aqvs. modiT, kidev sxvagvarad vTqvaT,
kulturaSi moqmedi Rirebulebani kulturis saganTa momwesrigebeli Zalebia.
       ai, kidev erTi axali termini _ `wesrigi~, romlis gareSec kultura ar
arsebobs; ufro metic, kulturis umoklesi, lakonuri definicia, anu
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                     26

gansazRvreba am terminiT gamoixateba. modiT SevTanxmdeT, rom
kultura es aris adamianis sulSi da mis gareT adaminisve mier damyarebuli
wesrigi, magram Cven jer kidev bevri ram gvaqvs gasarkvevi da
dasazustebeli.
       yvelafers am Ria werilSi xom ver davatevT, magram gamosavali ar-
sebobs. werils rom sarekomendacio literaturis nusxas davurTav, modiT, im
saxelmZRvaneloebidan, Tu samecniero wignebidan Tqven TviTon
moaxerxeT TqvenTvis saintereso kiTxvebze pasuxebis miReba.
       Cven ki daviwyoT imiT, rom kulturis Semoqmedma, anu adamianma
`me~-dan mxolod `me~-s gareT cqeriT ki ara, aramed `me~-dan `me~-Si
CaRrmavebiT, jer TviTon unda Seiqmnas sakuTari Tavi kulturis subieqtad;
sxva sityvebiT, _ upirveles yovlisa, sakuTar sulSi unda daamyaros wesrigi.
kultura wesrigia, magram ara stiqiuri (bunebas rom axasiaTebs), aramed
humanizebuli wesrigi, anu adamianuri Rirebulebebis normebiT damyarebuli
wesrigi.
       kultura adamianis enaa, xolo am enis universaluri forma simboloa
(mxatvrul literaturaSi _ sityva, ferweraSi _ ferebi, musikaSi _ sanoto
sistemis meSveobiT ganxorcielebuli bgerebi.). adamiani, romelic cxovrobs
mTlian samyaroSi, mas sWirdeba dialogi yvelaferTan. dialogis forma ki _
kulturaa.
       kultura yvelaferia, rac adamianis SemoqmedebiTi SromiTaa Seqmni-
li, magram kultura, pirvel rigSi, mainc adamianis wignierebasTan, wignis
`kultTan~ asocirdeba, TumcaRa es realuri kulturis ara erTaderTi, aramed
mxolod erT-erTi sferoa.
       da ai, Cemo kargebo da gonierebo! dRes swored esaa aqtualuri da
mwvave problema. xom ar dakarga adamianma sakuTari Tavi?!
       politikuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da, rac mTavaria, sulieri
kataklizmebis Semdeg xom ar Seaqcia zurgi adamianma im myudro, mxo-
lod misTvis arsebul sulis navsayudels, rasac wignis samyaro hqvia, sadac
adamiani Tavisi Tavis ufalia da sadac yvelaze sasurveli dialogi xorcieldeba
masa da Semoqmeds Soris.
       gagimeorebT, rom kultura dialogisa da komunikabelurobis huma-
nizebuli formaa. magram me aq maxsendeba osvald Spengleris `evropis
mzis Casveneba~, sadac igi erTmaneTs upirispirebs kulturasa da civi-
lizacias: kulturis etapi es aris sulis sicocxlis, misi ganxorcielebis etapi.
civilizaciis etapi sulis SesaZleblobaTa gamofitvisa da bolos, misi sikvdilis
etapia; kultura sulis batonobaa, civilizacia _ inteleqtisa. kultura patriotizmia,
civilizacia ki patriotizmis adgilze abatonebs anonimur kosmopolitizms.
kultura SemoqmedebiTobas niSnavs, civilizaciis niSani imperializmia.
civilizaciis pirobebSi, Spengleris varaudiT, xelovneba da filosofia amowu-
rulia. kulturis mTavari niSania sulieri simdidre; civilizaciisa _ materialuri
simdidre.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               27

       civilizaciis safexuri, es aris mzis Casvenebis safexuri, _ askvnis
Spengleri.
       mocemuli TvalsazrisiT, kultura yovelTvis win uswrebs civilizacias,
xolo imas, razec Spengleri miuTiTebs, unda ewodos ara civilizaciis
kulturisadmi gaswreba, aramed kulturis calmxrivi ganviTareba. mTliani
kultura misi sxvadasxva konkretuli saxeebis harmoniuli mTlianobaa,
magram dasavleTis kulturaSi moxda ise, rom teqnikam da teqnologiebma,
rogorc materialuri kulturis saxeobebma, sagrZnoblad gauswres sulieri
kulturis (gansakuTrebiT zneobis) dones. esaa kulturis calmxrivi
ganviTareba, rac Spengleris, da sxvaTaSoris, Cvens kanonier SeSfoTebasac
iwvevs.
       kompiuteruli sistemebis gamoyeneba, rac dRes haeriviT esaWiroeba
adamianis cxovrebis ritmsa da komforts, nebismieri informaciis moWar-
bebuli raodenoba, rac ase iolad xelmisawvdomia internetSi CarTvisas, _
Cveni Rrma codnis, (rac wignis saSualebiT SeiZleboda srulyofilad
migveRo), surogats, mis mxolod zedapirul nawils xom ar gvTavazobs?
zedmetad xom ar gvanebivrebs yvelafris iolad, tvinis garjis gareSe
mopoveba da amdenad, adamianuri gancdebis,zneobis, sikeTisa            da
humanurobis adgils civi, ulmobeli goneba xom ar ikavebs?
       zemoTac aRvniSne, wignTan dabruneba problemaa _ meTqi. am
problemis simwvave gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobia CvenTvis, profesor-
maswavlebelTaTvis, visac axalgazrdebTan gvixdeba urTierToba, romelTa
didi nawili swored rom arakomunikabeluri, gulgrili, indiferentuli,
grZnobebmoblagvebuli da TviTkmayofilia. aranairi survili ara aqvs
pirovnulobis, adamianad Sedgomis, TviTdamkvidrebis. urCevnia iyos fleg-
maturi da rac yvelaze SemaSfoTebelia, araTu azrovneba, fiqric ki ezareba
da, aqedan gamomdinare, ezareba SeewinaaRmdegos cxovrebis im wess,
rac ucxouri manqanebiT jiriTSi, amazrzen Souebs, farTebsa da
`tusovkebze~ daswrebasa da uazro garTobebSi gamoixateba da... iflangeba
axalgazrdobis wlebi!.. rogorc didi filosofosi, batoni merab mamardaSvili
brZanebda, drois struqtura iseTia, rom yvelaferi awmyoSia, ai, axlaa
mocemuli, axla xdeba... es struqtura Seicavs Suqs, romelic Sinagani
imanenturi Suqia xorcieli gancdisa. es Suqi, es pirveli momenti mxolod
wamieradaa mocemuli. misi CemSi Tandaswreba wamia, rac niSnavs
mxolod erT rames: Cven am Tandaswrebas mTlianad koncentrirebulni unda
davxvdeT... yuradRebiT iyaviT, momenti ar gauSvaT imitom, rom igi ar
gagrZeldeba, igi mxolod erTi wamia. Tqven SegiZliaT gaafarTooT es
wami, oRond ara fizikur drosa da sivrceSi, aramed raRac Sinagan sivrcesa
da droSi... ai, raRac momeCvena, raRacam gaibrwyina, STagoneba
mewvia, magram dRes ar mcalia, xval yvelafers gavigeb! verafersac ver
gaigeb da mTeli arsi da yofiereba samudamod araraobaSi ikargeba imitom,
rom sruli koncentraciiT ar daxvdi imas, rac akakunebda arsebobis karze.
mas kari daketili daxvda da veRar Semovida Cems arsebobaSi, ufro sworad,
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  28

me ver Semoviyvane. adamianis Zalisxmevis mTavari niSani, _ arsebobaSi
raRacis Seyvanis kari, anu gzaa. Tu ar aris es Zalisxmeva, TavisTavad
araferi iarsebebs... araferi sruldeba xdomilebaSi Cveni Zalisxmevis
CaurTvelad.
       ver gavuZeli cdunebas, Cemo kargebo, rom es Zalian vrceli
amonaridi baton merab mamardaSvilis naazrevidan TiTqmis mTlianad ar
momewodebina TqvenTvis. es xom Wkuis saswavlebelia, Tu amis gagebis
Tavi aqvs adresats!
       me Zalian mtkiva is, rom zneoba dRiTidRe deficituri xdeba zemoT-
xsenebuli gulgrili axalgazrdebisTvis, ufro ki is mtkiva, rom es maT araviTar
diskomforts ar uqmniT!
       madli ufals, gvyavs maTgan sruliad gansxvavebuli axalgazrdebic,
ukve mkafiod gamokveTili pirovnebebi rom arian, magram vai, rom jer-
jerobiT umciresoba!
       Cveni TaobisaTvis yvelaze myudro da sasurveli garemo, wignis
samyaro iyo, sadac unikaluri gamocemebisaTvis SegveZlo saTuTad Seg-
vevlo xeli da drois SegrZnebis dakargviT gagvemarTa dialogi sasurvel
avtorTan, radgan Semoqmedi kavSirs amyarebs ara marto Tanamed-
roveobasTan, aramed warsulisa da momavlis TaobebTanac. xolo roca
adamians surs komunikacia-dialogi sakuTar TavTan, RmerTTan an
Semoqmed-TvistomTan, amisaTvis yvelaze kargi garemo-wignebis myudro
savanea.
       mivubrundeT RmerTs, sakuTar Tavs da yvelafris sawyiss, pir-
velwyaros _ wigns!

      ar genatrebaT rusTaveli?

      `va, sofelo, raSigan xar, ras gvabruneb, ra zne gWirsa!
      yovli Seni mondobili niadagmca Cemebr tirsa!
      sad waiyvan sadaursa, sad aRufxvri sadiT Zirsa?!
      magra RmerTi ar gaswiravs kacsa Sengan ganawirsa~.

      ar genatrebaT baraTaSvili?

      `cisa fers, lurjsa fers,
      pirvelad qmnilsa fers
      da ar amqveyniers,
      siyrmiTgan vetrfodi!...~

      ar genatrebaT vaJa-fSavela?

      `ram Semqmna adamianad?
      ratom ar moved wvimada,
       xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                29

rom vyofiliyav mudama
RrubelT gulmkerdis mZivada~...

ar genatrebaT galaktioni?

`ahyve vardisfer safexurebs da ahyve ise,
rom Sens win sxivze landad idges yrma dionise;
grZnobde, rom isev ukvdavia Tqveni msgavseba:
erTnair sulSi erTnairi mzis moTavseba~...


ar genatrebaT ticiani?

`me ar vwer leqsebs... leqsi TviTon mwers,
Cemi sicocxle am leqss Tan axlavs,
leqss me vuwodeb movardnil mewyers,
rom gagitans da cocxlad dagmarxavs~...

ar genatrebaT lado asaTiani?

`hei, Tqven, aragvelebo,
gaumaZRarno omiTa,
Tqvens saflavebTan mosvla da
muxlis modreka mominda!~...

ar genatrebaT gogla leoniZe?

`modi CemTan, vidre mexi
dagkravs, agabolebs,
tyavdamskdaro, naoxaro,
martoxeo ole!~

ar genatrebaT irakli abaSiZe?

`rogorc daTbeba, rogorc daTbeba
da mze Catkbeba Semkul daisSi
unda aRsruldes, rac menatreba, _
unda gavfrinde Cem quTaisSi~...

ar genatrebaT ana kalandaZe?

`Tqvi, arjakelo, xviara,
qsanze vin Camoiara?
            xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                          30

     ra vi, Rrublebze vfiqrobdi
     da ara gamigia-ra!
     mec sxvaTaSoris vikiTxe,
     salaparakod ki ara~!..




     ar genatrebaT aleqsandr bloki?

     Сумерки, сумерки вешние,
     Хладные волны у ног,
     В сердце надежды нездешние,
     Волны бегут на песок.
     Отзвуки, песня далѐкая,
     Но различить не могу.
     Плачет душа одинокая
     Там, на другом берегу.

     ar genatrebaT sergei esenini?

     «Край любимый! Сердцу снятся
     Скирды солнца в водах лонных,
     Я хотел бы затеряться
     В зеленях твоих стозвонных.
     По меже, на перемѐтке
     Резеда и риза кашки,
     И вызванивают в чѐтки
     Ивы, кроткие монашки!..»

     ar genatrebaT hainrix haine?

     «Die Rose, die Lilie, die Taube, die Sonne,
      Die liebt ich einst alle in Liebeswonne.
     Ich lieb sie nicht mehr, ich liebe alleine
     Die Kleine, die Feine, die Reine, die Eine;
     Sie selber, aller Liebe Bronne,
     Ist Rose und Lilie und Taube und Sonne”.

     hoda, Tu genatrebaT, mivubrundeT myudro savanes! geniosTa mier
mopovebuli axal-axali samyaroebi Tqvenad gaixadeT!
     SeqmeniT sakuTari Tavi!!!
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 31

gamoyenebuli literatura:
                       1. a. ZamaSvili, l. gvasalia, v. Wiaureli,
                kulturologia, teqnikuri universiteti, Tbilisi, 1999.
          2. Культурология. Курс лекций. Под редакцией
                Радугина А.А. Изд. «Центр», М.: 1997.
          3. Культурология. История мировой культуры –
                «Юнити», М. : 2001.
          4. m. mamardaSvili, saubrebi filosofiaze, gamomc.
                `mecniereba~, Tbilisi, 1992.
          5. z. kakabaZe, adamiani rogorc filosofiuri problema,
                gamomc. `mecniereba~, Tb. 1987
          6. g. lebaniZe, siRrmeTa dialogi da `tragikuli triada~,
                gamomc. `ena da kultura~, Tb. 2006
          7. Sedevrebi, 1. gamomcemlobebi `saqarTvelo~, `Cangi~,
                Tb. 1994
          8. Чавчавадзе Н.З. Культура и ценности. Тбилиси,
                «Мецниереба», 1984.
          9. Шпенглер О. Закат Европы. Очерки морфологии
                мировой культуры. В 2-х тт. Т.1. М.: 1993.
          10. Фромм Э. Бегство от свободы. – М.: 1995.
          11. Есенин С. Собрание сочинений. В 5-ти тт. Т.1 М.:
                1994.
          12. Heinrich Heine. Das Glück uf Erden. - Moskau.
                «Progress», 1980.


                                 Summary
Lali Gvasalia
Return to heaven

       The article is designed for students, the youth in general. The main
concept discussed in it is the phenomenon of freedom, which represents the
basis and essential criterion of culture.
       The article discusses the anthropocentral world/ universe, culture and
its values, the dialogue of a human with the universe and the form of that
dialogue.
       The author doubts the fact that Internet can replace the book and
believes that the young generation should return to `heaven~ or the world of
the book.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              32


                                   Резюме

Лали Гвасалиа
Вернѐмся к тихой обители!

      Статья написана в форме обращения к студентам и к молодѐжи в
целом.
      Здесь, в первую очередь, разъясняется феномен свободы, как
основы и критерия культуры; затем речь идѐт об антропоцентрическом
мире – о культуре и ценностях, о диалоге человека с миром и о форме
этого диалога, т.е. о культуре.
      Для автора замена сегодня «книжного мира» интернетом
является проблемой, и автор считает необходым сохранить этот мир.




                         bela goderZiSvili
                           maia danelia
               regionuli politika federalizmis pirobebSi




          Tanamedrove pirobebi gvkarnaxobs saxelmwifoebrivi da regionuli
politikis principebis organul mTlianobaSi ganxilvis aucileblobas.
saxelmwifoebrivi da regionuli regulirebis RonisZiebebis erTmaneTTan
Sexameba-SeTavseba miCneuli unda iqnes qveynis saxelmwifoebrivi
mowyobis federaciuli tipis modelad, romelic moaxdens qveynis teritoriuli
da erovnuli sawyisebis integrirebas.
        saxelmwifoebrivi da regionuli problemebis gadawyvetis erT-erTi
ZiriTadi mizezi swored am problemaTa gadawyvetisadmi saxelmwifos
kompleqsuri, sistemuri midgomis uqonlobaa. aucilebelia mkafiod
gamoikveTos da ganisazRvros saxelmwifos politika (da ara marto
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 33

koncefcia), misi regionul politikasTan dakavSirebiT. swored aRniSnulis
safuZvelze unda moxdes saxelmwifos prioritetebisa da interesebis
dazusteba TiToeuli regionis mixedviT (im subieqtebis CaTvliT, romlebic
problemurni arian regionuli konfliqtebis TvalsazrisiT).
         Tanamedrove regionuli sakiTxebis realizaciisadmi saxelmwifos
midgomebSi saxezea seriozuli xarvezebi da uyuradRebobebi, romlebic
gansakuTrebiT ikveTeba normatiul-samarTlebrivi aqtebis arasrulyofilebaSi
da zogjer qveynis konstituciisadmi da mTlianad saqarTvelos
kanonmdeblobasTan SeuxameblobaSi, xelisuflebis, rogorc centraluri, ise
adgilobrivi organoebisa da marTvis struqturebis mier miRebuli kanonebisa
da samarTlebrivi aqtebis darRvevaSi; teritoriis statusis calmxrivad Secvlis
ganxorcielebaSi (afxazeTi, samaCablo); bolo wlebis erovnebaTSorisi
konfliqtebis calkeul gamovlenaSi.
         udavod, qveynis faderaciuli mowyobisaTvis gasaTvaliswinebelia
ruseTis axali federaluri mowyobis sawyisi etapis ganviTarebis sakmaod
saSiSi movlenebis warmoSobis praqtika. marTlac, federalizms emuqreba
ara mxolod separatistuli tendenciebi (centris uflebamosilebaTa aucilebel
minimalurze ufro dabali donis pirobebSi), aramed agreTve unitaruli
tendenciebic (centris gansakuTrebuli uflebamosileba).
         erovnuli problemebisadmi yuradRebis gamaxvileba, rogorc
SeiaraRebul konfliktebTan dakavSirebuli regionuli regulirebis meTodebis
Sedegi, rogorc amas zogierTi qveynis gamocdileba gviCvenebs (magaliTad,
ruseTisa da CeCneTis mimarT), yovelTvis ar iZleva Sesabamis sasurvel
dadebiT Sedegs mTlianad qveynis masStabiT. ufro metic, Seqmnili
situaciebi zogjer axali ZaliT avlenen rogorc mimdinare, aseve strategiuli
problemebis gadawyvetis aratradiciuli gzebis Ziebis mZafri moTxovnisa da
saWiroebis aucileblobas; saxelmwifoebrivi da regionuli politikis iseTi
konkretuli RonisZiebebis SemuSavebis aucileblobas, romlebic xels
Seuwyoben ara mxolod mdgomareobisa da situaciis operatiul
normalizacias, aramed saxelmwifoebrivi mSeneblobis procesis aqtivizaciasa
da urTierTobebis optimizacias.
         iseT mravaleTnikur qveyanaSi, rogoric saqarTveloa, federaciuli da
erovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis ganviTarebis normalizacia – erovnuli
usafrTxoebis       uzrunvelyofis      umniSvnelovanesi       Semadgenelia.
saxelmwifoebrivi da regionuli politikis udidesi kapitaltevadoba
gvkarnaxobs moqnil, wanaswar dagegmil da gaazrebul midgomaTa
aucileblobas da ara regionuli da erovnebaTSoris uTanxmoebebis Sedegebze
“faqtobriv” reagirebas.
         yvela donis politikur, sazogadoebriv da saxelmwifo moxeleebs ar
ZaluZT srulad SeigrZnon da gaiTvaliswinon, rom am sakiTxebis
gadawyvetisaTvis aucilebelia politikuri da sazogadoebrivi konsensusi, rom,
rogorc saxelmwifoebriv, aseve regionul politikas ar SeuZlia darCes
spekulaciisa da partiaTaSoris brZolis sagnad. saWiroa urTierTpativiscema
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  34

da xelisuflebis yvela donis uflebaTa aRiareba, urTierTbraldebebidan
konstruqciul dialogze gadasvla.
          qveynis saxelmwifoebrivi da teritoriuli mTlianobis dacva-
SenarCuneba da ganmtkiceba gulisxmobs - ekonomikaSi federaciul
urTierTobaTa        agebis     konstituciuri   principebis     Tanmimdevrul
ganxorcielebas,      saxelisuflebo-aRmasrulebeli     vertikalis     erTianobis
ganmtkicebas, xelisuflebis yvela donis pasuxismgeblobis amaRlebas,
maTdami mikuTvnebuli saSemsruleblo funqciebis realizaciisaTvis.
          amasTan, ekonomikuri federalizmis agebis procesSi, maT Soris
biujetTaSorisi urTierTobebis mowesrigebis msvlelobisas, arcTu mcire
winaaRmdegobebi warmoCindeba. regionebi, maT Soris centraluri biujetis
donorebi, araerTxel gamoTqvamen xelisuflebis mimarT SeniSvnebsa da
ukmayofilebas miRebuli sabiujeto gadawyvetilebaTa arasakmarisad
SeTanxmebulobisa da realobis Taobaze, regionebis uflebebis
ugulvebelyofasa da Selaxvaze, maTi biujetebis Semosavlebis
mniSvnelovani nawilis Tanxebis calmxrivi wesiT amoRebaze.
          sabiujeto federalizmis arsebuli modelis erT-erTi mTavari uaryofiTi
mxarea sabiujeto sistemis mkveTri (mwvave) vertikaluri daubalansebloba,
rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom faqtiurad Camoyalibebuli xarjebi ar
Seesabamebian maTi centraluri (federaciuli) uzrunvelyofis monacemebs.
          sabiujeto sistemis centralur doneze xarjviTi datvirTvis zrda iwvevs
am sistemis rgolebs Soris saxsrebis gadanawilebis saWiroebas, avlens
Semxvedri finansuri nakadebis Seqmnasa da teritoriuli biujetebis xelovnur
dotaciurobas, finansuri mxardaWeris mimRebi regionebis ricxovnobis
zrdas. amasTan dakavSirebiT laparakia ara marto aucilebel SeTanxmeaTa
miRwevaze centrsa da regionebs Soris (qveynis kanonmdeblobis
Sesabamisad), aramed TviT midgomis Secvlazec: axali mastimulirebeli
biujetTaSorisi politikis formirebaze, romelic perspeqtiulia, rogorc donori
teritoriebisaTvis, aseve regioneb-recipientebisaTvisac.
          centrsa da regions Soris uflebamosilebaTa gamijvnis
dauregulirebloba negatiurad aisaxeba agreTve bunebaTsargeblobis
efeqturobazec. qveynis ekonomikis masStabiT Semosavlebis mobilizaciisa
da     meurneobriobis      efeqtianobis     amaRlebisaTvis      gansakuTrebul
mniSvnelobas iZens bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebisagan miRebuli
saxsrebis gonivruli koncentracia.
          Cven gTavazobT saxelmwifoebrivi da regionuli politikis
warmatebiT ganxorcielebis mTavar mimarTulebad da RonisZiebad
miCneul iqnes:
              1) kompleqsuri,        sistemuri    midgomis       SemuSaveba,
                   dabalansebuli saxelmwifoebrivi da regionuli politikis
                   ganxorcieleba, romelic pasuxobs qveynis subieqtebisa da
                   maTi mosaxleobis, rogorc taqtikur, aseve strategiul
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  35

                 interesebs, maT Soris mTlianad saqarTvelos geopolitikur
                 interesebsac;
            2) sazogadoebaSi erovnebaTSorisi SuRlis ardaSveba, rac
                 axalgazrda,     qarTuli     demokratiisaTvis      iqneboda
                 arasasurveli da seriozuli ukandaxevis momaswavebeli,
                 saWiroa Tavidan aviciloT qveynis mosaxleobis mtruli
                 ganwyoba im regionebis mimarT, romlebic CarTuli arian
                 erovnebaTaSoris da regionul konfliqtebSi. aRmasrulebeli
                 da sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis yvela Zalisxmeva centrSi
                 da adgilze erTiani ZaliT unda iqnes mimarTuli
                 sazogadoebaSi msgavsi movlenebis Tavidan asacileblad
                 da ardasaSvebad. usafrTxoebis aucilebeli operatiuli
                 RonisZiebebis miRebasTan erTad unda miRweul iqnes
                 erovnul safuZvelze calkeuli isteriebis gamoricxva da
                 ardaSveba;
            3) erovnebaTSorisi da regionuli konfliqtebis Tavidan acileba
                 anu maTi Zaladobrivi formis konstituciuri molaparakebiT
                 transformacia; saxelmwifos doneze aseTi konfliqtebis
                 Tavidan asacileblad da winaswar ganWvretis mizniT
                 RonisZiebaTa sistemis SemuSaveba da ganxorcieleba,
                 romelic aseve uzrunvelyofs aRniSnul konfliqtebTan
                 dakavSirebuli kriminaluri da teritoriuli gamovlinebis,
                 masobrivi uwesrigobis Tavidan acilebas; xelisuflebis
                 umaRlesi eSelonebis mier qveynis subieqtebis
                 xelmZRvanelebTan da qalaqis merebTan erToblivad
                 antiteroristuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba, romlebic
                 aucilebliv unda moicavdnen rogorc centris kompetenciaSi
                 Semaval zomebs (maT Soris Zalovani aqciebis CaTvliT),
                 aseve xelisuflebis teritoriuli organoebis Zalisxmevas
                 (maT Soris profilaktikuri xasiaTisac);
            4) saxelmwifoTaSorisi         TanamSromlobis         aqtivizacia
                 ekonomikur da kulturul urTierTqmedebebSi, sagare
                 safrTxisa da muqaris Tavidan acilebis saqmeSi,
                 teririzmTan brZolaSi;
            5) dainteresebuli sazogadoebrivi organizaciebis farTod
                 CarTva erovnebaTSorisi da regionuli konfliqtebis
                 daregulirebis saqmianobaSi; gansakuTrebiT maTi
                 urTierTobis gasaaqtiureblad, problemuri regionebis
                 mosazRvre xalxebTan maTi konfliqtSi arCarTvis mizniT
                 da garantiebis misaRebad arakanonier SeiaraRebuli
                 formirebebis dafinansebaSi neitralitetisaTvis da sxva.
       zemoT miTiTebul amocanaTa gadawyvetis mizniT Cven viZleviT
Semdegi saxis rekomendaciebs:
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 36

         1)     arsebiTad    gafarTovdes    ekonomikuri     meqanizmebis
gamoyeneba, rameTu, maT SeuZliaT bunebrivi gziT gaaZlieron rogorc
saxelmwifoSi centridanuli tendenciebi, aseve ekonomikuri da politikuri
sivrcis erTianoba (erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi da erovnul-teritoriuli
erTeulebis specifikis miuxedavad).
         amasTan dakavSirebiT aucilebelia, upirveles yovlisa gaZlierdes da
daCqardes aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis centraluri (federaluri) organoebis
mier subieqtebis aRmasrulebeli organoebisaTvis operatiul-aRmasrulebeli
xasiaTis sakiTxebis erToblivad warmarTvisa da gadacemis procesi;
erTdroulad, kanonmdebrivad unda iqnes mibmuli maTze finansuri wyaroebi
da ganisazRvros subieqtebis pasuxismgebloba maTze gadacemuli
uflebamosilebis efeqtianad gamoyenebaze.
         federaciuli    respublikis    ekonomikis   formirebis     erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani berketi unda gaxdes sabiujeto federalizmi. saWiroa ufro
gaaqtiurdes centrsa da federaciis subieqtebs Soris dialogi da
TanamSromloba sabiujeto procesis farglebSi; ar unda iqnes daSvebuli iseTi
calmxrivi gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic ewinaaRmdegebian federalizmis
sakanonmdeblo normebsa da principebs; miRebuli iqnes zomebi
biujetTaSoriso mastimulirebeli politikis formirebisaTvis. biujetTaSorisi
urTierTobebis sakiTxebi unda wydebodes saqarTvelos mTavrobis doneze
da ara calkeuli saministroebis doneze.
         ufro arsebiTad da unarianad unda iqnes gamoyenebuli teritoriebis
ganviTarebis kompleqsuri programebi, romlebic SemuSavebuli da
realizebuli iqnebian centrisa da regionebis erToblivi ZalisxmeviT. aseve
gamoyenebul unda iqnes centraluri miznobrivi programebis ganxorcielebis
praqtika. es ukanasknelni unda iqnen mimarTulni sxvadasxva dargebsa da
warmoebebSi, socialur sferoSi konkretuli Sedegebis misaRwevad.
         saxelmwifos roli unda vlindebodes ara imdenad regionebis pirdapir
investirebaSi, ramdenadac regionuli politikis saxsrebiTa da meTodebiT
sasurveli klimatis SeqmnaSi, kerZo, arasabiujeto da sxva investorebis
mozidvis mizniT.
         bunebaTsargeblobis        praqtika   unda     moyvanil       iqnes
SesabamisobaSi, misi subieqtebis mier erToblivad, konstituciuri principebis
gamoyenebisaTvis; am principis safuZvelze Semdgom unda iqnes
reformirebuli bunebaTsargeblobaSi pasuxismgebeli saxelmwifo struqturebi,
maTi optimizaciis misaRwevad. ramdenadac bunebrivi resursebi
warmoadgens yvela subieqtisa da mosaxleobis kuTvnilebas, maTi
gamoyenebisaTvis gadaxdili Tanxebis nawili unda gaxdes regionebis
finansuri mxardaWeris centraluri fondis formirebis wyaro; amisaTvis
saWiroa Sesustdes centraluri gadasaxadebis fiskaluri xasiaTi, xolo
gaZlierdes im gadasaxadebis mimarT, romlebic gadaixdeba bunebrivi
resursebiT sargeblobisaTvis.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                37

         mniSvnelovania agreTve Tanamedrove migraciuli politikis
safuZvlebis SemuSaveba, romelic gaiTvaliswinebs devnilTa da iZulebiT
gadaadgilebul pirTa mzard nakads konfliqtebis zonidan.
         saTanado adgili unda daeTmos qveynis regionebis socialur-
ekonomikuri mdgomareobis dagegmvasa da prognozirebas. aSkaraa, rom
am mizniT aucilebelia regionebSi mowesrigdes monitoringis problemac, rac
saSualebas Seqmnis vimsjeloT ekonomikuri, socialuri, erovnuli da
fsiqologiuri situaciebis Sesaxeb. prevenciul RonisZiebaTa sistema
saSualebas mogvcems SevamciroT konfliqtebis SemTxvevebi da
uTanxmoebani, romlebic operatiul reagirebas saWiroeben.
         problemuri teritoriebisaTvis ekonomikuri daxmarebis gawevis
fuZemdeblur principad miCneul unda iqnes mocemuli konkretuli teritoriis
sabazro perspeqtivis prognozi, misi adgili da roli qveynis Sromis
danawilebaSi.
         ekonomikuri monitoringisa da regionebis perspeqtivis gansazRvris
monacemebze        dayrdnobiT unda formirebul iqnes maTSi sabazro
ekonomikis instituciuri safuZveli, xeli unda Seewyos sameurneo subieqtebis
ekonomikuri aqtiurobis amaRlebas, maT Soris unda yovelmxriv waxalisdes
mcire da saSualo biznesi. mcire da saSualo warmoebis xvedriTi wilis zrda
pozitiurad moqmedebs mTlianad socialur-ekonomikur situaciaze, afarToebs
dasaqmebis areals, amaRlebs saqmian aqtiurobas, zrdis teritoriebis
Semosavlebs da asustebs socialur daZabulobas.
         2) srulvyoT kanonmdebloba regionul, erovnul da mTliand qveynis
federaciulad mowyobis sakiTxebSi. AdauSvebelia federaciis zevidan
gadakeTeba, amasTan amis ar daSveba unda garantirebul iqnes
kanonmdeblobiT.
         xelisuflebis yvela Stos aucilebelia hqondes myari sakanonmdeblo
safuZveli nebismieri regionuli da erovnuli konfliqtebis gadasawyvetad.
gauTvaliswinebel regionul da erovnul situaciebze reagirebis sakanonmdeblo
principebi Seamsubuqeben saxelmwifo doneze gadawyvetilebebis miRebis
process, gaxdis maT naklebad sadaos da ufro legitimurs, agreTve ufro
metad adekvaturs, maT Soris reagirebis droebiTi parametrebis mixedviTac.
         swored sakanonmdeblo zomebiT aris SesaZlebeli dasaSveb
farglebSi iqnes SenarCunebuli gardauvali regionuli asimetria.
         pirvel rigis RonisZiebebis saxiT aucilebelia SemuSavebul da
miRebul iqnes kanonebi saxelmwifoebrivi da regionuli politikis Sesaxeb da
maTi finansuri bazis Taobaze, centraluri kanonmdeblobis safuZvlebi
qveynisa da subieqtebis erToblivad marTvis (warmarTvis) Taobaze.
         3) ganxilul iqnes mcirericxovani mkvidri mosaxleobis regionuli
problemebis gadawyvetaSi ufro farTod CarTvis SesaZleblobis sakiTxi;
Catarebul iqnes im arsebuli saxelmwifo institutebis revizia, romlebic
CarTulni arian saxelmwifoebrivi da regionuli sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                    38

gamoyenebuli literatura:

    1.   “ruseTis ekonomikuri Jurnali@” #9,10, 1999 (rusul enaze)
    2.   “msoflio ekonomika da saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi” Jurnali #3
         2001 (rusul enaze)
    3.   ev. baraTaSvili, j.zarandia. saqarTvelos regionuli politika. Tbilisi,
         2007




                               Summary
Bela Goderzdishvili
Maia Danelia
Regional Policy in the Context of Federalism

We shouid focus on the main directions and orientation in order to pursue a
successful, consistent regional policy:

    1.   Working out an integrated, systematic approach, a well-balanced
         state and regional policy.
    2.   Avoid any national conflicts.
    3.   Prevent regional conflicts i.e. their regulation by means of talks
         within the constitutional framework.
    4.   Establishing active international cooperation in the field of
         economy and culture , avoiding external risks and dangers, fighting
         against terrorism.
    5.   Involving non-government organizations in order to regulate
         different national and regional conflicts.




                          Резюме
Бэла Годердзишвили
Майя Данелия
Региональная политика в условиях федерализма

       Для        успешного       проведения основных           приоритетов
региональной     политики в       условиях федерализма          рекомендуем
следующее:
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  39

        выработку    комплексного     подхода,    сбалансированной
национальной и региональной политики, отвечающей как тактическим
интересам субъектов страны и ее народностей, так и стратегическим, в
том числе геополитическим, интересам Грузии в целом;
        обеспечение    широкого      привлечения      общественных
организаций, проявляющих заинтересованность в урегулировании
межнациональных и региональных конфликтов в развивающихся вне
территории проблемных регионах по вовлечению их в
просветительскую работу, гарантиям их неучаствия в финансировании
незаконных вооруженных формирований и террористических актах и
т.п.




                              tariel kikvaZe
                              Tamar beriZe
                    optimaluri portfelis formireba
          maTematikuri programirebis meTodebis gamoyenebiT




         investiciebis marTvis procesSi SeiZleba gamovyoT Semdegi
ZiriTadi etapebi: sainvesticio miznebis formulireba, sainvesticio politikisa
da saportfelo strategiis SemuSaveba dasaxuli miznebis misaRwevad,
portfelSi Semavali aqtivebis SerCeva, investiciebis efeqturobis gazomva da
Sefaseba, raSic umniSvnelovaness rols TamaSobs optimaluri portfelis
Teoria.
         investori erTdroulad eswrafvis erTmaneTTan winaaRmdegobaSi
myofi ori miznis miRwevas: mosalodneli Semosavlis maqsimizacias da
ganusazRvrelobis, e. i. riskis minimizacias. investiciebis risksa da
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  40

mosalodnel ukugebas Soris optimaluri Tanafardobis gamosaTvlelad
portfelis formalur modelebSi gamoiyeneba albaTobaTa ganawileba.
          portfelis TeoriaSi investoris prioritetebi riskis sidideebsa da
mosalodnel ukugebebs Soris garkveul TanafardobebTan mimarTebaSi
aisaxeba sargeblianobis funqciis saSualebiT.
          portfelis mosalodneli ukugeba SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnas urisko
aqtivis ukugebis, sabazro portfelis mosalodneli ukugebisa da aqtivisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli sistematuri riskis wrfivi kombinaciis saxiT, rac kapitaluri
aqtivis faswarmoqmnis modelis CarCoebSi saSualebas iZleva optimaluri
portfelis SesarCevad gamoyenebuli iqnes wrfivi programirebis meTodi.
          riskiani aqtivebis mniSvnelovan maxasiaTeblebs warmoadgens e.
w. `alfa~ da `beta~ koeficientebi. sxvaobas aqtivis faqtiur (mosalodnel) da
Teoriul (modeliT gansazRvrul) ukugebebs Soris am aqtivis `alfas~
uwideben.
          Tu romelime i-uri aqtivisaTvis j > 0, es niSnavs, rom mas bazari
saTanadod ar `afasebs~ (e. i. iyideba ufro iafad, vidre igi amas
`imsaxurebs~), xolo roca j < 0 – piriqiT..
          finansuri analizis erT-erTi praqtikuli rekomendacia imaSi
mdgom,areobs, rom portfelSi, pirvel yovlisa, CarTuli unda iyos dadebiTi
`alfas~ mqone aqtivebi.
          `beta~ () koeficienti warmoadgens aqtivis sistematuri riskis
zomas da axasiaTebs aqtivis riskianobis kavSirs bazris riskTan. formaluri
TvalsazrisiT igi gviCvenebs aqtivis zRvrul wvlils sabazro portfelis riskSi.
Tu romelime j-uri aqtivisaTvis j > 0, es niSnavs, rom am aqtivis ukugeba
iryeva taqtSi bazris ukugebasTan, xolo roca j < 0 – aRniSnuli ukugebebi
sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT iryevian. magaliTad, Tu `beta~ dadebitia da
erTze naklebia, bazris riskianobis , vTqvaT 7%-iT awevis SemTxvevaSi am
aqtivis riskianobac aiwevs, mxolod 7%-ze naklebiT. faqtiurad, SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom `beta~ Seesabameba imas, rac maTematikur statistikaSi
regresiis koeficientad iwodeba: damoukidebeli cvladis rolSi gamodis
sabazro ukugeba, xolo damokidebulis – riskiani aqtivis ukugeba.
          Tu aqtivebis kombinirebas portfelSi vaxdenT, maTi ukugebebi
wrfivi formiT jamdeba. aseve, portfelis sistematuri riskic, romelic misi
`beta~-Ti izomeba, SeiZleba warmovadginoT saSualo Sewonili saxiT. am
dros woniTi koeficientebis rolSi, gvevlineba riskian aqtivTa xvedriTi wilebi
portfelSi.
           mosalodneli      ukugebebisa     da    `betebis~    kombinaciebi
wonasworobaSi myofi aqtivebisaTvis aisaxeba e. w. `bazris wrfis~
saSualebiT, romelsac Semdegi gantoleba Seesabameba:
               xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                          41

                   E (rj )  ru   j ( E (rp )  ru )                     (1)

        vTqvaT, ori a da b riskiani aqtivis kombinireba gvinda portfelSi,
Sesabamisad, xa da xb (xa +xb =1) proporciebiT. maTi mosalodneli
ukugebebi avRniSnoT E(ra) da E(rb), xolo `beta~ koeficientebi - a da b,
maSin portfelis mosalodneli ukugeba iqneba

                                                    Xa E (ra) +Xb E (rb)
                                         (2)
         (1)-is Tanaxmad
                               E (ra )  ru   a ( E (rp )  ru )

                    da       E (rb )  ru  b ( E (rp )  ru )

       ase, rom portfelis mosalodneli ukugeba Semdegnairad SeiZleba
warmovadginoT:


  xa  ru   a ( E (rp )  ru )   xb  ru   b ( E ( rp )  ru )  
                                                                  
                                                                                 (3)
  ru   xa  a  xb  b  ( E ( rp )  r )  ru   ( E ( rp )  ru ),


         sadac
                                                        xa  a  xb  b
                                         (4)

         rogorc vxedavT, Tu gvinda portfelis ukugebis maqsimizacia im
pirobiT, rom misi `beta~ maqsimaluri done ar aRematebodes winaswar
dasaxelebul mniSvnelobas, optimaluri portfelis formirebis amocana
SeiZleva daviyvanoT wrfivi programirebis amocanaze, romlis amoxsnis
Semdeg miviRebT portfelSi riskian aqtivTa xvedriTi wilebis optimalur
kombinacias.
         saerTod, aqtivTa mosalodneli ukugebebi da `betebi~
damokidebulia bazarze, magram portfelis ukugebisa da `betas~
mniSvnelobebze gavlenis moxdena SeuZlia portfelis menejers portfelSi
aqtivTa xvedriTi wilebis kombinirebis gziT.
         optimaluri portfelis formirebis amocana SeiZleba daviyvanoT
kvadratuli programirebis amocanazec. am dros miznis funqcias
warmoadgens portfelis dispersia, romelsac aqvs kvadratuli forma portfelSi
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                                     42

aqtivTa xvedriTi wilebis mimarT, xolo SezRudvebis rolSi gamodis
investoris mier moTxovnili portfelis ukugebis misaRebi minimaluri done da
minimaluri da maqsimaluri mniSvnelobebi aqtivTa xvedriTi wilebisaTvis.
          X1, X2,…., Xn –iT avRniSnoT portfelSi aqtivTa xvedriTi wilebi, i -
iTa da ij – iT portfelSi aqtivTa xvedriTi wilebi, aqtivTa saSualokvadratul
gadaxrebsa da aqtivTa wyvilebis kovariaciebs, maSin minimaluri riskis
portfelis formirebis amocanas eqneba Semdegi saxe:

                                                n                    n    n
                              min Z   xi2 i2                        x x  i   j   ij
                                               i 1              i 1    i 1
                                         (5)

                               n
         pirobebiT:           x
                              i 1
                                     i   1
(5.1)


                                                       n

                                                      x E
                                                      i 1
                                                             i   i    Emin,
(5.2)


                                               x1  0, x2  0,......xn  0
(5.3)

(5.2)-Si EEi aRniSnavs aqtivTa mosalodnel ukugebebs, xolo Emin - portfelis
ukugebis minimalur misaReb dones.
         miznis (5) funqcia SeiZleba matriculi formiTac Caiweros:

                                                           Z  X X T ,
                                         (6)


          sadac        X  ( X 1 X 2 ..... X n ) - matrica striqonia,
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 43

                     12  12  1n        
                                          
                    12  2  2 n
                             2

                                          - kovariaciis matrica,
                    .     .    .          
                                          
                    n1  n 2  n         
                                    2
                                          

                            X1 
                           X 
   xolo               XT   2       - matrica svetia.
                            ... 
                            
                           Xn 

          amgvarad, optimaluri portfelis formirebis amocana SeiZleba
dayvanil iqnes wrfivi an kvadratuli programirebis amocanebze.
          saerTod, unda aRiniSnos, rom ar arsebobs sainvesticio portfelis
SerCevis `erTaderTi marTebuli~ strategia, romelic misaRebi iqneboda
yvela investorisaTvis.
          portfelis SerCevisas Zalze mniSvnelovania drois periodi.
ganasxvaveben drois sam periods – dagegmvis, gadawyvetilebaTa
gadaxedvisa da sabirJo vaWrobis periodebs.
          portfelis SemadgenlobasTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebis
miRebisas investorma mosalodneli ukugebis gazrdas SeiZleba miaRwios
mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi daTanxmdeba riskis ufro maRal xarisxs.
          zogjer SesaZlebelia investirebis riskis xarisxis Semcireba, ise rom
mosalodneli ukugeba ar Semcirdes ufro efeqturi diversifikaciis gziT, rac
mniSvnelovanwilad damokidebulia korelaciebze portfelis Semadgenel
aqtivebs Soris.
          praqtikaSi aqtivTa umravlesoba erTmaneTTan dadebiTad
korelirebuli arian, radgan maTze erTidaigive ekonomikuri faqtorebi
moqmedeben.
          amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom riskis Semcirebis SesaZlebloba
diversifikaciis gziT mosalodneli ukugebis Semcirebis gareSe SezRudulia.
          adgili aqvs e. w. `drois efeqts~ diversifikaciis dros. kerZod, rac
ufro xangrZlivia aqtivis flobis periodi, miT ufro naklebia misi ukugebis
standartuli gadaxra da albaToba imisa, rom mosalodneli ukugeba urisko
aqtivis ukugebaze naklebi aRmoCndeba.



gamoyenebuli literatura:
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  44


    1.   r. variani. mikroekonomika. Tanamedrove midgoma. wigni 1.
         Tbilisi “diogene”, 1998.
    2.   Абчук В. А. Теория риска.-Л: Судостроение, 1983
    3.   Касимов Ю. Ф Основы теории оптимального портфеля
         ценных бумаг.-М, 1988
    4.   Markowitz H. M. Portfolio selection. Efficient divercification of
         investments. – Oxford, N. Y. : Blackwell, 1991




                                  Summary
Tariel Kikvadze
Tamar Bridze
The methods of selecting the optimal portfolio

         The anticipated return on the investment portfolio (ROI) represents
the return on secure assets, the return on the market portfolio and
systematic risks with a linear combination, being one of the markeres of
assets. We can use the method of linear programming in order to select the
optimal portfolio.
         The article deals with the main points of investment management,
minimizing the possible risks without reducing the anticipated return.
         The article touches upon the case of portfolio optimization
bringing it to square programming, when portfolio dispersion performs the
function of the criterion.




                                Резюме

Тариел Киквадзе
Тамар Беридзе
Формирование оптимального портфеля при помощи методов
математического программирования

       Ожидаемая отдача инвестиционного портфеля представляет
собой отдачу безрисковых активов, ожидаемую отдачу рыночного
портфеля и характерную для актива линейную комбинацию
            xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             45

систематичных рисков, что дает возможность применения метода
линейного программирования для выбора оптимального портфеля.
       В статье рассмотрены основные этапы процесса управления
инвестициями, возможности снижения риска инвестирования таким
образом, чтобы не была снижена ожидаемая отдача.
       Также рассмотрен случай доведения портфеля до задачи
оптимизации квадратного программирования, когда в роли целевой
функции выступает дисперсия портфеля.




                           Ggenadi iaSvili
            mcire da saSualo warmoebaTa upiratesobebi da
                            naklovanebebi,
             maTi roli qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi.




      90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi saqarTveloSi mimdinare politikurma
procesebma, saqarTveloSi, afxazeTisa da samaCablos dakargvis garda,
ekonomikis ngreva, TiTqmis yvela didi sawarmos daxurva gamoiwvia.
mxolod bolo wlebSi, saqarTveloSi ucxouri investiciebis daxmarebiT
amuSavda ramodenime didi warmoeba da Seiqmna mravali mcire
sawarmoo. unda aRiniSnos, rom qveynis ekonomikisTvis mcire da saSualo
warmoebebis mniSvneloba damokidebulia maT unarze efeqturad Seasrulos
Tavisi roli. ekonomikuri strategia, romelic mowodebulia mxari dauWiros
am warmoebebs, mimarTulia faqtorebze, romlebic stimulirebas ukeTebs an
aferxebs maT zrdas. kompaniebis strategia, romelic mimarTulia mcire da
saSualo warmoebebis zrdisken dafuZnebuli unda iyos teqnologiur an
                xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 46

   komerciul inovaciebze, an fokusirebul (niSur) strategiaze, romelsac
   safuZvlad udevs produqtis diferenciacia an momsaxurebaTa erToblioba.(1)
           SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ZiriTadad mcire da saSualo warmoebebi
   asrulebs ekonomikis mTavari sayrdenisa da misi xerxemlis rols. isini xSirad
   arian inovaciurni da stimulirebas ukeTeben strategiuli menejmentis
   gamoyenebas.
           mocemuli statiis mizania a) mcire da saSualo warmoebaTa terminis
   gansazRvra. b) mcire warmoebaTa upiratesobebis da naklovanebebis
   Cveneba d) mcire warmoebaTa momavalze msjeloba da maTze strategiis
   gamoyenebis aucilebloba.
        mcire     da    saSualo    warmoebebis     cnebis   gansazRvrisaTvis
   gamoviyenebT Teoriul safuZvlebs da praqtikul magaliTebs. gamovikvlevT
   mcire warmoebaTa naklovanebebs da upiratesobebs. gamovikvlevT maT
   mniSvnelobas      qveynis     ekonomikis     mniSvnelobebisaTvis.     mcire
   warmoebaTa momavals da aucileblobas mcire da saSualo warmoebaTa
   menejerebma iazrovnon strategiulad.
        mcire da saSualo warmoebebis identifikaciisaTvis, gamoiyeneba rigi
   kriteriumebi, rogoricaa: damatebiTi Rirebuleba, aqtivebis Rirebuleba,
   yoveldRiur gayidvaTa moculoba, personalis raodenoba. ukanaskneli ori
   kriteriumi ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba mcire da saSualo warmoebebis
   gamosayofad warmoebebis zogadi masidan. mcire an saSualo warmoeba _
   esaa firma, romelsac ukavia bazris mxolod mcire nawili da imarTeba
   piradad mflobelis an Tanamflobelis mier da ara detalurad damuSavebuli
   menejmentis sistemiT. am gziT, igi arasakmarisadaa didi, raTa
   xelmisawvdomi iyos kapitalis bazarze, sakuTari aqciebis emisiisTvis da
   maTi bazarze ganTavsebaze.
        msxvili kompaniis filiali ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos mcire firmad, Tundac
   igi iyos patara da SedarebiT damoukidebeli, miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis
   TvalsazrisiT.
        xarisxobrivi parametrebis mixedviT mcire da saSualo warmoebebs
   aqvT Semdegi sami maxasiaTebeli:
        1)      damoukidebeli xelmZRvaneloba, rodesac menejerebi xSirad
                kompaniis mflobelebi arian.
        2)      kompaniis kapitali uzrunvelyofilia erTi piris mier an
                gansazRvrul pirTa jgufiT _ kompaniis mflobelebiT.
        3)      moqmedebis sfero ZiriTadad_geografiuli SezRudulia, firmis
                mflobelni da mosamsaxureebi cxovroben erT mxareSi, Tumca
                gasaRebis bazari araa aucilebeli moTavsebuli iyos zustad igive
                adgilas.
       dReisaTvis mcire firmebis erTiani gansazRvra ar arsebobs, rac pirvel
rigSi ganpirobebulia biznesis farTo mravalferovnebiT. mcire firma _ es
damoukidebeli warmoebaa, marTuli mflobeliT an piriT, romelsac nawilobriv
ekuTvnis firma da romelsac ekuTvnis bazris mcire wili. firmis zoma
                xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                47

ganpirobebulia ekonomikis im seqtoriT, romelSic moqmedebs. magaliTad,
mocemuli zomis firma SeiZleba CaiTvalos mcired, moculobiTi bazris
seqtorSi, romelSic moqmedebs mravali konkurenti kompania da msxvil
firmad sxva seqtorSi, Tu mocemul seqtorSi moqmedebs kompaniebis
SezRuduli ricxvi.
          zogierTi avtoris gansazRvris mixedviT, firma SeiZleba CaiTvalos
        mcired Tu:
             Tu igi flobs konkurentuli bazris SedarebiT mcire wils.
             mas ar aqvs SesaZlebloba imoqmedos bazris fasebze an Tu es
                 arakomerciuli organizaciaa, ar SeuZlia Tavis sferoSi Tundac
                 mciredi mniSvnelovani zemoqmedebis moxdena.
             misi xelmZRvaneloba uSualod moqmedebs gadawyvetilebis
                 miRebis yvela aspeqtSi. komerciul organizaciebSi _
                 kompaniis xelmZRvanelebi rogorc wesi maTi mflobelebi an
                 Tanamflobelebia.
             firma damoukidebelia, misi xelmZRvanelebi _ mflobelebi
                 srulad akontroleben bizness an organizaciis qmedebas, Tumca
                 maTi moqmedebis Tavisufleba SeiZleba iyos SezRuduli
                 valdebulebebiT, damfuZneblebis winaSe an safinanso
                 institutebis winaSe.
        ekonomikis zogierT seqtorSi, mizanSewonilia kompaniis sidide
   ganisazRvros personalis raodenobiT, maSin rodesac sxva seqtorSi ukeTesia
   es gansazRvruli iqnes wliuri brunviT.
        rogorc wesi statistikuri aRricxvisaTvis gamoiyeneba Semdegi
   maCveneblebi (2):
             mikrofirma _ personalis raodenoba 0-9 adamiani.
             mcire firma ~--------------------~ 0-49 adamiani (Seicavs
                 mikrofirmebs).
             saSualo firma ~------------------~ 50-249 adamiani.
             msxvili firma ~-------------------~ 250 adamiani da meti.

     2001 wlis evrokomisiis dokumentis mixedviT, mcire da saSualo
  warmoebebis erTiani gansazRvra mocemulia cxrilSi, rekomendaciis saxiT,
  romelsac ara aqvs iZulebiTi maxasiaTeblebi qveyana monawileebisaTvis.


  kriteriumebi              mikro                  mcire       saSualo
  muSakTa          maqs.    9                      49          249
  raodenoba
  maqsimaluri      wliuri   umniSvnelo             7-milioni   40     milioni
  brunva                                           evro        evro
  balansis maqs. jami       ~-------------------   5-milioni   27     milioni
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 48

                       -~                     evro            evro
damoukidebloba         ~-------------------   kapitalis an xmis uflebis
                       -~                     araumetes    25%     aqciebis
                                              ekuTvnis erT an ramodenime
                                              kompanias, romlebic ar aris
                                              mcire da saSualo warmoebebi

wyaro evrokomisia 2001 w.

  es dokumenti, saSualebas iZleva Tu es sasurvelia gamoviyenoT ufro
dabali donis maxasiaTeblebis mniSvnelobebi, romlebic gansazRvraven
mcire da saSualo warmoebebis statuss. magaliTad, inglisisaTvis zogierT
avtors Semoaqvs Semdegi maxasiaTeblebi (3) am warmoebebisaTvis.
     warmoebaSi momuSaveTa raodenoba ara umetes 250 kacisa.
     yovelwliuri brunva ara umetes 50 milioni funtisa.
     Tavis        gadawyvetilebebSi      kompaniis       xelmZRvaneloba
         damoukidebeli da Tavisufalia garedan.
    ganvixiloT mcire da didi warmoebebis rogorc dadebiTi, aseve
    uaryofiTi mxareebi. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, TiTqmis mTel msoflioSi
    mcire da saSualo warmoebebi ZiriTad rols TamaSobs xalxis samuSao
    adgiliT dasaqmebaSi, inovaciur wamowyebebSi, konkurenciis
    uzrunvelyofaSi da ekonomikuri simdidris SeqmnaSi. mizezebi rac
    izidavs xalxs mcire biznesSi da misi upiratesoba, mcire da saSualo
    warmoebaTa mflobelebisaTvis Semdegia:
          izidavs rTul, dinamiur da sarisko situaciebSi.
          moaqvs fsiqologiuri komforti.
          saSualebas gvaZlevs iyo Seni sakuTrebis xelmZRvaneli.
          iZleva samuSao adgilis usafrTxoebis garantias.
          zrdis ojaxis wevrebis dasaqmebis SesaZleblobas.
          zrdis finansur mogebas (sargebels).
    mcire biznesSi misvlis upiratesoba _ esaa TviT gamowveva, romelic
mosdevs axali saqmis dawyebas. amitom mcire biznesisaTvis ufro aqtiuri
kandidatebia xalxi, romlebic dainteresebuli arian saintereso da rTuli
samuSaoTi da ar eSiniaT sirTuleebis. gamokvlevebma gviCvenes, rom
mcire warmoebis yvelaze warmatebul xelmZRvanelebs siamovnebT imis
SegrZneba, rom warmatebis da wagebis Sansi erTnairia. saqmis
warmatebisaTvis maT SeuZliaT daeyrdnon unars da kompetenturobas. isini
grZnoben, rom saboloo Sedegi bevradaa ganpirobebuli maTi piradi codniT,
gamocdilebiT, niWiT, unariT gamoiyenon bazris SesaZleblobebi.
rasakvirvelia iyo xelmZRvaneli da damoukideblad marTo biznesi, erTis
mxriv moralur kmayofilebas ganiWebs da amasTan SegiZlia imuSao
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                49

ramdeni xanic ginda, ise rom ar geSinodes sapensio asakis, Tumca meores
mxriv didi pasuxismgeblobacaa.
     biznesis zrdasTan erTad izrdeba samuSao adgilebis ricxvic, rac
saSualebas aZlevs xelmZRvanels daasaqmos Tavisi ojaxis wevrebi. Tumca
mcire warmoebis mTavari upiratesoba _ misi mflobelis finansuri
SesaZleblobebis gafarToebaa. mcire warmoebis damfuZneblebma
gamoimuSaves gacilebiT didi Tanxa, sakuTari biznesidan vidre maSin,
rodesac isini daqiravebulni iyvnen da sxvisi xelmZRvanelobis qveS
muSaobdnen. mcire warmoebebis damfuZneblebis win ixsneba mravali
SesaZlebloba warmatebis miRwevisTvis da finansuri mogebis
miRwevisTvis.
    mcire biznesis mravali upiratesobis miuxedavad, mas aqvs aseve mravali
susti mxareebi, romlebsac miekuTvneba gayidvebis moculobebis cvlileba,
konkurencia, xelmZRvanelis movaleobebis sferos mudmivi gafarToeba,
SesaZlebeli       finansuri     danakargebi,     TanamSromlebs       Soris
urTierTdamokidebulebis daregulirebis aucilebloba, moqmedi debulebebis
kanonmdeblobebis SezRudva da reglamentireba, aseve Cavardnis _ marcxis
riski. biznesi ejaxeba gayidvebis moculobaTa cvlilebebis problemas, rac
uaryofiTad moqmedebs fuladi saxsrebis moZraobis balansze. gayidvebis
moculobis cvlileba damokidebulia sezonze _ xandaxan es moculoba
maRalia, sxva dros igi mkveTrad ecema. warmoebis xelmZRvanelebma
aucilebelia daabalanson fuladi saxsrebis brunva (Semosavali da gasavali)
raTa uzrunvelyon sakmarisi finansebi biznesis yoveldRiuri saWiroebisTvis.
mcire warmoebebis ZiriTad nakls miekuTvneba momxmareblis
faseulobebis da momxmarebelTa molodinis cvlilebaze swrafi reagirebis
SeuZlebloba. magaliTad, xSir SemTxvevebSi mcire warmoebebs ar
SeuZliaT swrafi adaptireba, sabazro pirobebisa da teqnologiebis sferos
cvlilebebze. mcire biznesi dakavSirebulia konkurenciis mudmiv riskTan.
     mravali mizezebiT am ricxvs miekuTvneba kapitalis struqturis nakli,
marketinguli arxebis sisuste, bazris dabali wili da sxva. mcire da saSualo
warmoebebSi ejaxebian ufro mkacr konkurencias, vidre msxvili koncernebi.
magaliTad, teqnologiebis sferos swrafi cvlileba, SeiZleba aRmoCndes
mniSvnelovani dartyma mcire warmoebisTvis. mcire biznesis sxva nakli
mdgomareobs imaSi, rom am warmoebaTa xelmZRvanelma Tavis Tavze
unda aiRos Tavis biznesze sruli pasuxismgebloba. is unda iyos Zalian
motivirebuli, raTa aiRos Tavis Tavze sruli pasuxismgebloba, man unda
SeZlos aiTvisos biznesis mraval sferoSi marTvis Cvevebi. magaliTad
marketingSi, finansur da operatiul marTvaSi, adamianuri resursebis
marTvaSi da a.S.
     uunarobas ganaviTaros TavisSi mTeli speqtri marTvis unar-Cvevebis
da kompetenciebis, aucileblad mivyevarT biznesis CavardnasTan. mcire
biznesi ufro mgrZnobiarea finansuri danakargebis problemisadmi, vidre
msxvili korporaciebi. mcire da saSualo warmoebas strategiuli
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 50

gadawyvetilebis dros daSvebuli Secdoma SeiZleba Zalian Zvirad daujdes.
orientacia ara im bazarze, produqtSi Cadebuli saxsrebi, romelic imyofeba
Tavisi sicocxlisunarianobis ukanasknel stadiaze, SeiZleba migviyvanos
uzarmazar finansur danakargebTan. sxva ZiriTadi nakli mcire biznesis _
isaa, rom igi xdeba debulebebisa da kanonebis didi simravlis qveS.
magaliTad, sanam daiwyebs mcire an saSualo firmis mepatrone raime saxis
mewarmeobas maT unda miiRon licenzia (nebarTva). mcire Cavardnis
SemTxvevaSic ki firma awydeba did finansur problemebs, radganac
saxsrebis ZiriTadi nawili Cadebulia biznesSi. mTlianobaSi, Tu biznesmeni,
firmis mepatrone azrovnebs strategiulad da mas biznes-gegmis Sedgenisas
SeuZlia gaiTvaliswinos Tavisi biznesis susti da Zlieri mxareebi, aseve gare
sferos negatiuri momentebi da SesaZleblobani, SesaZlebelia dasaxelebuli
naklis minimizacia da misi gadaqceva axal SesaZleblobebad.
     daskvnis saxiT warmovadginoT mcire biznesis naklovanebebi.
     1) gayidvebis moculobis cvlilebebi.
     2) konkurencia.
     3) pasuxismgeblobebis da movaleobebis sul ufro zrdadi tvirTi.
     4) finansuri danakargebis riski.
     5) momsaxureTa Soris urTierTdamokidebulebebi.
     6) regulirebuli da reglamentirebuli kanonebi da debulebebi.
     7) Cavardnis riski.
  magaliTis saxiT Tu aviRebT did britaneTSi mcire da saSualo warmoebis
rols (3), SegviZlia aRvniSnoT, rom didi britaneTis ekonomikaSi mcire
biznesi TamaSobs ZiriTad rols. (dasaqmebulia 12 milionze meti adamiani,
rac Seadgens damatebiTi samuSao adgilebis 85% da samuSao adgilebis
50%). aseT firmebze dReisaTvis modis axali teqnologiuri inovaciebis
Seqmnisa da danergvis didi nawili. amitom mcire da saSualo warmoebebis
ricxvis zrdasTan erTad informaciul teqnologiebSi da sxva komerciul
moTxovnad sferoebSi, msxvil tradiciul kompaniebs Soris izrdeba tendencia
gadasces autsorsingSi inovaciebi da progresiuli teqnologiebi mcire
bizness. amitom dReisaTvis inglisSi Seqmnilia biznes-kavSirebis
nacionaluri qseli.
 mcire biznesis Semxvedr problemebs miekuTvneba: arasakmao investireba
da fulis moZraobis problemebi, ganuxorcielebeli imedi miaRwion gayidvis
dagegmil moculobas. amas SeiZleba daematos susti dagegmva da biznesis
marTvis arasakmarisi gamocdileba. amaSi igulisxmeba.
     1) dokumentebisa da aRricxvis warmarTvis araadekvaturi sistema.
     2) moRvaweobis ganviTareba resursebis realuri moculobis
         gaTaliswinebis gareSe.
     3) klientebze informaciis nakleboba.
     4) bazris diversificirebis cdis Cagdeba.
     5) marketinguli gamokvlevebis uqonloba an arasakmarisad
         gamokvleva.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  51

     6) problemebi kanonmdeblobasTan.
     7) erTpirovnuli marTva.
     8) marTvis teqnikis sakiTxebSi arasakmarisad kompetenturoba.
     9) ojaxuri principi
     10) xelmZRvaneloba dauswreblad.
     mTlianobaSi, firmis kraxis yvelaze gavrcelebuli mizezi TviTon
xelmZRvanelebSia (menejerebi). maT ubralod ar ician rogor awarmoon
biznesi. sxva sityvebiT, maT ara aqvT biznesis ganviTarebis xangrZlivi
gegma, da maT ar SeuZliaT iazrovnon strategiuli kategoriebiT.
Sesabamisad strategiuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas uSveben did
Secdomebs, im dros rodesac firmis nebismier gamocdil xelmZRvanels
SeuZlia swrafad dainaxos, Seafasos da gadaWras problema. aRiniSneba,
rom firmis xelmZRvanelis balansirebuli marTvis unar-Cvevebis uqonloba
aseve mcire biznesis Cavardnis safuZveli xdeba. ufro mniSvnelovani
problemaa, rodesac xelmZRvanels ara aqvs sakmarisi praqtikuli
gamocdileba biznesis iseT ZiriTad sferoebSi rogoricaa marketingi,
finansebi, operatiuli marTva, warmoebis marTva.
     amrigad, nebismieri firmis warmatebis ZiriTadi faqtorebia _
xelmZRvanelis kompetenturoba da misi piradi Tvisebebi.




gamoyenebuli literatura:

    1). genadi iaSvili, Tanamedrove strategiuli menejeri da misi roli
    warmoebaSi. samecniero Jurnali xelisufleba da sazogadoeba. 2007
    w. # 4
    2). Berry, M. Strategic planning in small higt-tech companies, Long
    Range Planning, 1998,          31 (3),
    3) . Ф. Аналоуи, А . Карами - Стратегический Менеджмент,
    Москвa. 2005


                                Summary

Genadi Iashvili
Strengths and Weaknesses of Small and Medium Enterprises.
Their role in the country’s economical development

The purpose of a given article is to define the term of small and medium
enterprises. The following issues are discussed: strengths and weaknesses of
medium size enterprises; importance of using strategy for the future of
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 52

small businesses; the role of small and medium enterprises in country’s
economical development.



                                 Резюме

Геннадий Яшвили
Преимущества и недостатки малых и средних предприятий.
Их роль в экономическом развитии страны.

        В представленной статье определены понятия малых и
средних предприятий. Показаны преимущества и недостатки малых
предприятий, а также необходимость применения в них
стратегического менеджмента. Выделена роль малых и средних
предприятий в экономическом развитии страны.




                      Russudan Tabukaschwili

                Entwicklung der Hypothesen zur Frauensprache




    Es     wurden     in   der    Linguistik,  nachdem     das     Thema
„Geschlechterspezifisches Sprachverhalten“ die Aufmerksamkeit an sich
gelenkt hat, verschiedene Hypothesen zur Frauensprache herauskristalisiert.
    Während Frauensprache einerseits als eine Abweichung von der Norm
und andererseits als eine Idealsprache bezeichnet wurde, entstand in der
Diskussion eine weitere Position, die sich als diplomatischer Mittelweg
präsentierte: „Frauen sprechen anders, aber gleich so gut“. Also, die
Vertreterinnen dieser Meinung nehmen an, dass Frauen und Männer zwar
ein ungleiches, aber dabei gleichwertiges Sprachverhalten haben. Dabei
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                53

betonen sie die Unterschiede so stark, dass Verständigungsprobleme
unvermeidbar scheinen.
    Die bekannteste Vertreterin dieser Richtung ist die amerikanische
Sprachwissenschaftlerin Deborah Tannen1. Im oben genannten Ansatz
werden die Gespräche zwischen Frauen und Männer, wie Gespräche
zwischen Menschen betrachtet, die unterschiedliche Dialekte reden, oder
verschiedenen Kulturen angehören. Die geschlechtstypischen Varietäten
werden deshalb auch, in Analogie zu Dialekt oder Soziolekt, mit dem
Begriff Genderlekt bezeichnet.

    Detizithypothese
    Der Gedanke, daß es eine spezifisch weibliche Sprache geben könne,
geht nicht auf die Frauenbewegung zurück, sondern wurde nur von ihr
aufgegriffen. Seine Ursprünge liegen in den Reiseberichten aus den letzten
Jahrhunderten und in der anthropologisch-ethnologischen Forschung.
    Zwei Vertreter der älteren Beschreibung von „Frauensprache'' waren
Mauthner und Jespersen. Während Mauthner sich mit dem
Gesprächsverhalten von Frauen auseinandersetzt (1921) 2, beschäftigte sich
Jespersen mit Wortschatz und Syntax (1925)3. Mauthner sieht die
Unterschiede im Sprechen zwischen Mann und Frau in sozialen Belangen
wie Bildung und Stand begründet. Für ihn sind Frauen nicht in der Lage
Männersprache zu erlernen. Jespersen geht in seinen Hypothesen davon aus,
daß Frauen z.B. unvollständige Sätze bilden, da sie auch ihre Gedanken
unvollständig ausführen. Männer sprechen häufiger in einem Satzgefüge
von Haupt- und Nebensatz (Unterordnung), Frauen jedoch in Satz
verbindungen (Beiordnung/Nebenordnung von Sätzen).Weiterhin stellt der
dänische Linguist Otto Jespersen fest, dass Frauen redegewandter als
Männer sind, weil ihr Wortschatz geringer ist.
    Sowohl Mauther als auch Jespersen gehen davon aus, daß
Frauensprache keine eigenständige Sprache ist, sondern eine minderwertige
Abwandlung der Männersprache.
    Damit sind beide eindeutige Vertreter der Defizithypothese.

    Differenzhypothese
„Keiner versteht den anderen ganz, weil keiner bei demselben Wort genau
                         das selbe denkt wie der andere. " (J.W. Goethe)

     Die Differenzhypothese geht von der Andersartigkeit der weiblichen
Sprache aus, ohne dieses „anders sein" negativ zu bewerten. Außerdem wird
festgestellt, daß die Frauensprache angemessen sei und als Variante der
Männersprache nicht weiterentwickelt werden muß. Frauen sollten im
Gegensatz dazu ihre eigene Sprache entwickeln. Es wird strikt abgelehnt
einen Vorteil darin zu sehen Männersprache zu imitieren. Als Ursache der
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  54

verschiedenen Sprachen wird der kulturelle Unterschied zwischen der
Männerwelt und der Frauenwelt gesehen.
     Als Beispiel für einen differenztheoretischen Ansatz ist Claudia
Schmidts Vorgehen zu nennen. Sie sieht das Geschlecht als entscheidenden
Faktor für die Unterschiedlichkeit im Sprechen von Frauen und Männern
an. Sie setzt hypothetisch voraus, dass es typisch „weibliches“ und typisch
„männliches“ Sprachverhalten gibt und untersucht aufgrund ihrer
Annahme Gesprächsabläufe4.
     Die Differenz zwischen den Geschlechtem wird als kultuidle
Erscheinung beschrieben, die bereits von Mädchen und Jungen in jungem
Alter in gleichgeschlechtlichen Paargruppen erlernt wird. Auch die
Wissenscha frier, wie z. B.: Maltz und Borker, sehen die Ursache dafür,
dass Frauen und Männer unterschiedliche „Sprachen" sprechen darin, dass
Kinder und Jugendliche Freundschaften innerhalb des eigenen Geschlechts
bevorzugen5.
     Dabei sind Jungengruppen hierarchisch strukturiert und von
Konkurrenz geprägt, Mädchen dagegen spielen in kleinen Gruppen oder zu
zweit. Sie streben nach Bindungen und Beliebtheit. Diese unterschiedlichen
Strukturen bringen unterschiedliche Kommunikationsstile hervor. Tannen
behauptet, bei den Mädchen sei das vorrangige Muster Bindung und
Intimität, während es in der Welt der Jungen um Status und Machtausübung
gehe. So bildet sich im ersten Fall die Beziehungs- und im zweiten Fall die
Berichtssprache, oder anders ausgedrückt privates versus öffentliches
Sprechen heraus.
     Maitz und Borker, Vertreter der Differenzhypothese, behaupten
folgendes: Während Frauen z. B.: mit Minimalreaktionen signalisieren „Ich
höre dir zu“, bedeuten die Minimalreaktionen im männlichen Genderlekt
„Ich stimme dir zu“. Das macht einsichtig, warum Frauen und Männer
Minimalreaktionen unterschiedlich häufig verwenden und unterschiedlich
auf sie reagieren.
     Auch Tannen illustrert Kommunikationsprobleme zwischen Frau und
Mann mit vielerlei Fallbeispielen, die nicht selten konstruiert wirken. Hier
als Beispiel aus der deutschen Ausgabe von „You just do not understand"
ihre Beschreibung der missglückten Interaktion eines Ehepaars während
einer Autofahrt:
     „Die Frau hatte gefragt: „Würdest du gern irgendwo anhalten, um was
zu trinken?“ Ihr Mann hatte - wahrheitsgemäß- mit „Nein" geantwortet und
nicht angehalten. Frustriert mußte er später feststellen, dass seine Frau
verärgert war, weil sie gern irgendwo Rast gemacht hätte. Er fragte sich:
„Warum hat sie mir nicht einfach gesagt, was sie wollte? Wamm spielt sie
solche Spielchen mit mir?“ nich einfach gesagt, was sie wollte? Warum
spielt sie solche Spielchen mit mir?“6.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  55

     Nach Tannen lässt das indirekte Kommunikationsverhalten der Frau
ihren Mann in dem Glauben, dass sie tatsächlich nur seinen Wunsch erfragt.
Nach weiblichen Maßstäben jedoch handelt es sich hier um eine indirekte
Form gekleidet und deshalb missverständlich, so der Autor“.
     Auf die Spitze getrieben findet sich der Ansatz der Differenzhypothese
bei dem Autor John Gray (1992). Seine Bücher verkünden als zentrale
Botschaft: „Frauen und Männer sind so unterschiedlich wie Wesen von
verschiedenen Planeten, nähmlich: Männer sind vom Mars; Frauen sind
vom Venus. Dass diese unterschiedliche Wesen unterschiedliche Sprachen
sprechen, überrascht kaum. Im Grunde brauchten Frauen und Männer für
ihre Gespräche Übersetzungshilfen.“7.
     Die Kritiker dagegen weisen darauf hin, dass Frauen und Männer,
Mädchen und Jungen sich in ständigem kommunikativem Austausch
miteinander befinden und daher zumindest passive Kennmisse des jeweils
anderen Stils besitzen. Auch gibt es keine sprachlichen Elemente, die
ausschließlich einem Geschlecht eigen sind. Der Vergleich mit
unterschiedlichen Dialekten und Kulturen sei daher überzogen.
     Problematisch an diesen differenztheoretischen Zugängen ist die
implizite Festschreibung stereotyper Rollenzuschreibung von Frauen und
Männern. Diese Art der Forschung bestätigt im Vorhinein existierende
Vorstellung über das, was angeblich „weiblich" oder „männlich" ist. Die
Untersuchungen dienen demnach lediglich zur Reproduktion der
vorhandenen, konstruierten Geschlchterstereotype. Aus Diesem Grund ist
der Differenzansatz sehr umstritten.


     Code-switching-Hypothese
     In deutlicher Abgrenzung zu der Position von Tannen, zu der
„mterkultiireHen Kommunikation" zwischen Frauen und Männer hat sich in
den letzten Jahren ein weiterer theoretischer Ansatz etabliert, der unter dem
Stichwort Code - switsching - Hypothese bekannt ist.
     Hier wird weder von einem Mangel noch von der einfachen
Andersartigkeit der weiblichen Sprechweise ausgegangen. Diese Hypothese
behauptet, daß Frauen je nach Situation von einer in die andere Sprache
wechseln, nach dem Motto: Die Situation bestimmt die Kommunikation.
Das heißt von der Frauensprache in die Männersprache oder umgekehrt,
immer entsprechend den sozialen Erwartungen, die an ihr Sprachverhalten
gestellt werden. Die beiden Sprachen werden völlig wertungsfrei beurteilt.
Frauensprache wird nur dann negativ bewertet,             wenn      sie nicht
situationsangemessen verwendet wurde.


    Zwischen Realität und Klischees
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  56

     So sehr sich die bisher dargestellten Theorieansätze auch voneinander
unterscheiden, allen gemeinsam ist die Annahme, dass geschlechtstypische
Sprachunterschiede bestehen und eine wichtige Rolle spielen. In der
linguistischen Geschlechterforschung gibt es daneben jedoch seit Anfang
der 1990er- Jahre eine andere Sichtweise, die diese Grundannahme
bezweifelt. Hier wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob das Sprachverhalten von
Frauen und Männern wirklich so unterschiedlich ist und ob solche
Unterschiede von entscheidender Bedeutung sind. Im deutschen
Sprachraum ist es vor allem Karsta Frank, die diese Frage im Jahre 1992
formuliert.
     Nach Frank8 sind die Kategorien "weiblich" und "männlich" zu grob,
um das Sprachverhalten von Individuen zu erklären. Eine Person ist ja nicht
nur Frau oder Mann, sondern kommt aus einer bestimmten Schicht, hat
einen bestimmten Bildungsstand, einen Beruf und verkehrt in einem
bestimmten Milieu.
     Ich stimme auch mit Frank zusammen, denn meines Erachtens ist es z.
B.; unrealistisch anzunehmen, dass eine Geschäftsfrau, die sich in
vielfältigen beruflichen Kontexten bewegt, das gleiche Sprachverhalten an
den Tag legt, wie eine Landwirtin. Nichts gegen Landwirten, hier ist es
nicht gemeint, dass sie ein schlechteres Sprachverhalten haben, als die
Geschäftsfrauen, sondern einfach - ein anderes - weil sie sich in einer
anderen Umgebung aufhalten. Man kann nicht sagen, dass das
Sprachverhalten von beiden Frauen gleich sind, nur weil sie beide Frauen
sind. Eine Frau und ein Mann mit ähnlichen sozialen Merkmalen können
sich sprachlich näher stehen als diese zwei Frauen.
     Darüber hinaus variieren Personen ihr Sprachverhalten, je nachdem,
mit wem und in welcher Situation sie sprechen. Auch ein Mann wird z. B.:
mit seinem kleinen Kind beziehungsorientiert und fürsorglich sprechen und
nicht denselben Stil verwenden, wie in einer geschäftlichen Verhandlung.
     Noch wichtiger als diese Einwände ist jedoch folgender Gesichtspunkt,
den Frank hervorhebt: Nach Geschlechtsunterschieden in der Sprache wird
vor allem deshalb gefragt, weil erwartet wird, dass sich Frauen und Männer
in praktisch allem, was sie sind und tun, unterscheiden. Diese Erwartung
gründet sich auf Geschlechtsstereotype und Klischees, also auf die
allgemeinen Annahmen über die Unterschiede von Frauen und Männern.
     Im weiblichen Stereotyp spielen soziale und expressive Aspekte eine
zentrale Rolle, denn Frauen gelten als Beziehungs- und gefühlsorientiert. Im
männlichen Stereotyp ist dagegen der instrumentalle Aspekt zentral, da
Männer als ziel- und sachorientiert gesehen werden.
     Diese Stereotypen prägen die Erwartungen, wie sich Frauen und
Männer sprachlich verhalten sollen. Auch die ersten Hypothesen der
linguistischen Geschlechterforschung lassen den Einfluß erkennen: Bei
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 57

Frauen wird ein indirekter und beziehungsorientierter Stil vermutet, bei
Männern dagegen ein sach- und durchsetzungsbezogener.
     Frank argumentiert jedoch , dass derartige Unterschiede im
Wesentlichen im Auge der Betrachtenden entstehen, weil diese vor allem
das wahrnehmen, was ihren Vorannahmen entspricht. Der viel zitierte
„weibliche“ oder männliche Stil könnte demnach eine Art der optischen
Täuschung sein und nicht unbedingt eine Tatsache. Der Autor weist noch
darauf hin, dass die Untersuchungsergebnisse zum Sprachverhalten von
Frauen und Männern noch nicht eindeutig genug sind. So beruhen die
betreffenden Studien häufig auf geringeren Datenmengen, die in besonderen
Gesprächssituationen wie z. B.: Femsehtalkshows oder Experimenten
erhoben wurden. Darüber hinaus ist die Annahme, dass Frauen und Männer
im Gespräch Stereotyp wahrgenommen werden, noch nicht hinreichend
durch empirische Untersuchungen überprüft worden.
     Antony Mulac und sein Forschungsteam stellen in mehreren Studien
fest, dass Versuchspersonen identische sprachliche Äußerungen
unterschiedlich beurteilen, wenn sie einmal einer Frau und ein andermal
einem Mann zugeschrieben werden9. Nach den Erkenntnissen von Mulac
gibt es zwar neben diesen Wahrnehmungseffekten auch Unterschiede
zwischen weiblichen und männlichen Sprachprodukten (im Gebrauch von
Füllwörtern, elliptischen Sätzen und Nebensätzen). Diese sind jedoch sehr
gering und Versuchspersonen können daran nicht erkennen, ob eine
Äußerung von einer Frau oder einem Mann stammt. Mulac vermutet daher,
dass die Beurteilung von Sprechern und Sprecherinnen in Alltagssituation
aus einer Kombination realer Unterschiede und stereotyper
Wahrnehmungen resultiert.
     Der oben dargestellte Ansichtspunkt bildet auch die These meiner
Arbeit. Darauf werde ich noch später eingehen. An dieser Stelle aber sollen
erst die Unterschiede dargestellt werden, die so wie viele
Sprachwissenshaftler behaupten, zwischen „Frauen-“ und „Männersprache“
existieren.



Literaturverzeichnis:

    1.      Tannen     Deborah,    Andere     Worte     andere    welfen.
            Kommuinikation zwischen Frauen und Männern. Frankfurt /
            Main / New York 1997 (Originaltitel: Gender and Discourse.
            New York).
    2.      Mauthner Fritz. Beiträge zu einer Kritik der Sprache. Band I
            (Zur Sprache und zur Psychologie), 3. Auflage, Stattgart und
            Berlin, 1921.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                58

    3.     Jespersen Otto. Die Sprache. Ihre Natur, Entuicklunge und
           Entstehung. heidelberg, 1925.
    4.     Schmidt Claudia, Typische weblich – Typisch männlich.
           Geschlechtotypisches         Kommunikationsverhalten         in
           studentishen Kleingruppen. Tübingen, 1988.
    5.     Maltz Daniel N. /Borker Ruth A. Missverständnisse Zwischen
           Mannern und Frauen – kulturell betrachtet. Y. Geinther
           /Kotthoff, 1991.
    6.     Tannen Deborah, Das hab ich nicht gesast / Kommunikations
           probleme im Alltag. Hamburg, 1992.
    7.     Kothoff Helga, Kommunikatire stile, Asymmetrie und „doing
           gender“. Fallstudien zur Inszenierung von Expert(inn) entern in
           Gesprächen Feminikoche studien, 1993.
    8.     Frank Kaste, Sprachgewalt Die sprachliche Reproduktion der
           Geschlechterhïe, Elemente einer feminischischen Linguistik im
           Kontext sozialuissenschaftlicher Frauenforshung. Tübingen,
           1992.
    9.     In Poste Gertrude Weibliches Sprachen Feminishishe Enfkürfe
           Sprache Geschlecht wien, 1991.




                                  Symmary

Rusudan Tabukashviki
The female language hypothesis.

This article deals with the problem of gender specificity of language and
hypothesis of development of female language. This language is considered
to be some kind of abnormity. The article deals with the following
problems: difference between female and male languages, differentiation
between gender, culture, intellectual communication - cliche of female
language.


                                  Резюме


Русудан Табукашвили
            xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                            59

Развивтие гипотез женского языка

    В статье рассмотрены языковые действия гендерной специфики
языка, также представлено несколько гипотез развития женской речи.
Эта речь рассмотрена как отклонение от нормы, различия в речи
между женским и мужским языками, вариант мужского языка,
дифференциация      между      гендерами,    явление     культуры,
интеркультурная коммуникация как клише женского языка.




                       daviT TaqTaqiSvili
            mosazrebani msoflmxedvelobriv problemebze




        msoflmxedveloba adamianTa cxovrebis ganmsazRvrelia. is aZlevs
adamians arsebobis RirebulebiT orientacias. msoflmxedveloba aris
adamianTa TviTcnobierebis, TviTrefleqsirebis forma. amis meSveobiT
gansazRvravs adamiani Tavis cxovrebis sazriss. msoflmxedveloba
yalibdeba cnebebisa da kategoriebis meSveobiT da agebulia logikurad
awyobili sistemis saxiT. is mecnierulad, Teoriulad argumentirebuli da
dasabuTebuli unda iyos. sxva SemTxvevebSi Cveni msoflmxedveloba
emyareba aRqmebsa da warmodgenebs, Cvens gamocdilebebsa da
emociebs. pirvel SemTxvevaSi msoflmxedveloba Teoriulia, mecnieruli,
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 60

filosofiuric, Tumca msoflmxedveloba yovelTvis ar aris filosofia. meore
SemTxvevaSi msoflmxedveloba vlindeba miTologiaSi, religiasa da
xelovnebaSi.
          adamiani      Tavisi     Sinagani     moTxovnilebiT      ayalibebs
msoflmxedvelobas. igi moqmedebs wminda Tavisuflebis principiT.
Tavisufleba aris adamianis nebis damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba. igi aris
nebelobiTi qceva, romelsac adamiani axorcielebs sakuTari surviliT, roca
mas swored is surs, rasac akeTebs. Tumca Tavisi moqmedebis dros, mas
unda gaaCndes pasuxismgebloba. pasuxismgeblobas ki, Tavis mxriv,
gaaCnia mxareebi – es aris politikuri, iuridiuli da zneobrivi. erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani mxare ki swored zneobriobaa. yovel normalur adamians
unda gaaCndes zneobrivi pasuxismgebloba. yoveli adamiani individs
warmoadgens da maTi zneobrivi normebic, Sesabamisad pasuxismgeblobac
gansxvavebulia. zogi Tavisuflebas fatalizmiT xsnis. fatalizmi laTinuri
sityvidan momdinareobs da qarTulad bedisweras niSnavs. amis mixedviT,
arsebobs faruli zneobrivi Zala, romelic mkacri aucileblobiT gansazRvravs
samyaroSi arsebul movlenebs da gansazRvravs momavalsac. stoicizmma
filosofiur doneze aiyvana bedisweris problema – samyaroSi arsebobs
mkacri wesrigi da yvelaferi gardauvali da aucilebelia, SemTxveviT araferi
xdeba. am SemTxvevaSi filosofiaze laparaki zedmetia. fatalizmi
gamoricxavs SemTxveviTobas, SesaZleblobas da aqedan gamomdinare,
Tavisuflebasac. Tavisuflebis problemis ganxilvisas yuradReba unda
gavamaxviloT voluntarizmzec. es terminic laTinuria da nebas niSnavs. mis
mixedviT, samyaroSi SemTxveviTobaTa qaosia da araviTari
kanonzomiereba ar moqmedebs. yvelaferi SemTxveviTobas miewereba da
araviTari RvTiuri da arc bunebrivi Zala arsebobs. yvelaferi SeiZleba
moxdes SemTxveviTobiT da SesaZleblobebiT. mokled, yvelaferi
SemTxveviTia da e.i. SesaZlebelic. adamiani cxovrobs SesaZleblobaTa
samyaroSi da mas aqvs Tavisufali neba, romliTac Rebulobs
gadawyvetilebebs, axorcielebs survilebsa da miznebs. am SemTxvevaSi
unda gaimarjvos im adamianma, visac Zlieri da mtkice neba aRmoaCndeba.
am nebam unda gansazRvros sazogadoebis ganviTareba da yvelaferi
ganpirobebulia ara obieqturi aucileblobiT, aramed adamianis nebiT,
simtkiciTa da siZlieriT. e.i. aq yvelaferi SemTxveviTobazea damyarebuli.
amrigad, adamianma unda ganaxorcielos is, rac mas nebavs. f.nicSes aqvs
wamoyenebuli zekacis idea, romelic ganasaxierebs momavlis adamians. igi
sikeTisa da borotebis miRmaa da sazogadoebaSi dadgenil kanonebsa da
normebs ar eqvemdebareba. aq adamiani moqmedebs Tavisi nebiT da ar
emorCileba araviTar akrZalvebsa da normebs. fridrix nicSe adolf hitleris
sayvareli filosofosia. hitleri zekacSi Tavis Tavs xedavs. mokled, fatalizmSi
adamiani gardauvalobis monaa – mosaxdeni mainc unda moxdes;
voluntarizmSi ki yovelgvari gardauvaloba uaryofilia, radgan aq yvelaferi
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               61

SemTxveviTia da adamiani Tavisi Tavisufali nebiT gansazRvravs
yvelafers.
         rogori unda iyos Tavisufleba, - es SeiZleba Semdegi momentebiT
gavacnobieroT. adamiani Tavisi Sexedulebebis SesrulebisaTvis da
gadawyvetilebebis misaRebad akeTebs arCevans. zogjer cxovelebic
akeTeben arCevans, magram es maTTan instinqtebis damsaxurebaa da
cnobierebasTan araviTari kavSiri ar aqvs. adamiani ki acnobierebs
mosalodnel Sedegs da Semdeg miiRebs gadawyvetilebas. igi gaakeTebs
Sesabamis arCevans. Tumca ase gacnobierebuli da Segnebuli arCevani ar
aris TavisuflebisaTvis sakmarisi piroba. aq unda moixsnas iZuleba: imis
codna, rom zogierTi movlena gardauvalia – adamians Tavisufals ver gaxdis.
amitomac adamianma aucilebelia irwmunos, rom is survils emTxveva. amis
safuZveli ki rwmenaa. swored rwmena aZlevs adamians saSualebas
imoqmedos sakuTari moTxovnilebis, Sinagani aucileblobis safuZvelze.
TavisuflebisaTvis arsebobs kidev erTi momenti – moqmedeba, romelic
iZulebisgan damoukidebelia da sruldeba nebayoflobiT. rogoria saerTod
rwmena? igi gancdaa, romlis intensivobis xarisxi ganisazRvreba adamianTa
subieqturi da individualuri TaviseburebebiT. rwmenis mizania adamianis
darwmunebulobis gancdis gamoxatva. rwmenis SemTxvevaSi adamianma
unda irwmunos rogorc realoba, – WeSmaritic da mcdaric, keTilic da
borotic, mSvenieric da maxinjic. adamianma unda irwmunos yvelaferi, rac
mis interesSi Sedis. es rwmena savsebiT gulwrfelia. rwmena
damoukidebelia codnisgan da piriqiT, codnaa damokidebuli rwmenaze.
pavle mociquli gvaswavlis – `rom gavigoT, unda viwamoT. rwmena
damokidebulia codnaze. imisaTvis, rom viwamo, unda gavigo~. `rwmena
codnis funqciaa~ - gveubneba pier abeliari. `rwmena da codna
erTmaneTisgan damoukidebelia. rwmena ar aris damokidebuli codnaze da
arc codnaa damokidebuli rwmenaze. codna Teoriuli gonebis, xolo rwmena
praqtikuli gonebis saqmea~ (i. kanti). rwmena mravalgvaria. Cven ki
religiuri rwmena gvainteresebs. is RvTaebrivi Zalis arsebobazea
damyarebuli. misi wvdoma CvenTvis miuRwevelia. igi dafarulia da
miRmuria – igi saidumloa, mistikuri. Cven SegviZlia misi ara codna,
aramed rwmena. religiuri rwmena ar SeiZleba iyos codnis Sedegi. religiuri
rwmenis obieqtia RvTaebrivi Zala. es aris RmerTi, romelic adamianTa
gonebisaTvis dafarulia da saidumloa. sxvaTaSoris, religiur rwmenasTan
erTad mecnieruli rwmenac arsebobs, romelic damyarebulia albaTobis
Teoriaze. is iseTi codnis funqciaa, romlis Sedegebis empiruli Semowmeba
momavalSia SesaZlebeli. religiuri rwmena ki adamians eZleva ara
Semecnebis, aramed gamocxadebis saSualebiT. gamocxadeba aris
adamianis mier RmerTisa da misi saswaulmoqmedebis uSualo xilva da
gancda, romlis Sedegadac adamiani eziareba RvTaebriv sibrZnes da igi
uSualod ganicdis mis WeSmaritebas. aq gamoricxulia yovelgvari eWvi.
gamocxadebis naTeli magaliTia sinas mTaze moses mier mosmenili aTi
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 62

mcneba, romelic man moismina RmerTisgan. gamocxadeba aris erTaderTi
saSualeba, romlis meSveobiTac adamians SeuZlia eziaros RmerTs, misgan
miiRos RvTaebrivi sibrZne. adamianis goneba uZluria azrovnebis
saSualebiT Seimecnos absoluturi WeSmariteba. mxolod gamocxadeba
akavSirebs adamians RmerTTan. aris Tu ara religia msoflmxedveloba? igi
scems pasuxs yvela msoflmxedvelobriv kiTxvas, iZleva samyaros suraTs,
ris safuZvelzec adamiani arkvevs Tavis adgilsa da daniSnulebas am
samyaroSi. ver vityviT, rom religia Teoriuli sistemaa, radganac igi
emyareba adamianis warmodgenebsa da emociebs, ltolvebs. religiaze
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom is msoflSegrZnebaa. religiiT unda gaigos adamianma
ukidegano samyaros Seqmna, sicocxlis warmoSoba, ra aris pirveli sawyisi,
pirveli mamoZravebeli. amas cdilobs filosofiac. Tumca religia filosofia ar
aris. isini sulieri kulturis ori, arsebiTad gansxvavebuli formebia. Tumca
arsebobs religiuri filosofia. am filosofiis ZiriTadi mizania religiuri
dogmebisa da ZiriTadi debulebebis interpretacia, rwmenisa da codnis
mimarTeba, RmerTis arsebobis dasabuTeba, samyaro rogorc RmerTis
Semoqmedeba, nebis Tavisuflebis problema, adamianis daniSnuleba
samyaroSi da sxva. religiasTan mimarTebaSi Camoyalibda ramdenime
filosofiuri mimdinareoba, es aris Teizmi – romelic aRiarebs RmerTis
arsebobas. aq RmerTi gansazRvravs yvelafers – movlenaTa cvalebadobas
da adamianTa modgmas. meore religiur-filosofiuri mimarTulebaa deizmi,
romlis mixedviTac samyaros Semqmneli aris RmerTi. samyaro ki Seqmna,
magram Semdeg igi mis marTvaSi aRar ereva da amitomac aris am
samyaroSi amdeni ukuRmarToba. Semdegi Teoriaa panTeizmi. aq RmerTi
da buneba gaigivebulia erTmaneTTan. RmerTi arsebobs, magram ara
bunebis miRma, aramed masSia realizebuli. aq araviTari kreacionizmi, anu
Semoqmedeba ar aris. panTeistebTan RvTaebrivoba aris sinamdvilis yvela
sagansa da movlenaSi. yvela am Teorias ewinaaRmdegeba erTi
mimdinareoba – aTeizmi, romlis mixedviTac araviTari religiuri rwmena ar
arsebobs da bunebrivia, ar arsebobs uzenaesi, RvTiuri Zala – RmerTic.
          mravali mecnieri da filosofosi religias, iseve rogorc filosofias,
xelovnebas, mecnierebas, teqnikas kulturis sferoSi aqcevs. religia aris
kultura. kulturis gansazRvreba ki aseTia – kultura aris adamianis mier
Seqmnili samyaro, romelic mxolod masTan mimarTebaSi arsebobs.
adamianis gareSe kultura azrs kargavs. TviTon adamiani kulturul-
sazogadoebrivi arsebaa. kulturas qmnis adamiani. sazogadoebasac adamiani
qmnis, sazogadoebac kulturis erT-erTi formaa. amitomac kultura ufro
farToa, vidre sazogadoeba. bunebas kulturasTan ara aqvs saqme, magram
bunebis is movlenebi, romlebSic adamiani urevia, romlebic gardaqmnilia
adamianis mier, ukve kulturis nawilia. kulturas miznobrivi funqciuri
arseboba aqvs da masSi realizebulia adamianuri mizani. bunebis SeqmnaSi
ki adamians wvlili ar miuZRvis. buneba RmerTma Seuqmna adamians
realuria da arsebobs drosa da sivrceSi. kulturac, romelic adamianis
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  63

Seqmnilia, arsebobs drosa da sivrceSi. masSi adamianis azri da mizania
ganxorcielebuli. rac adamians ar Seuqmnia – mTeli samyaro, mze,
varskvalavebi, galaqtika, TviT dro da sivrce aracnobiers miekuTvneba. e.i.
masSi adamianis azri da mizani ar aris Cadebuli. ufro sworad mas ver
vwvdebiT da is RmerTis sferoa. Cven ki gvinda rom CavwvdeT, magram
ver vaxerxebT, radgan vindomebT, rom CavwvdeT – es ukve kulturaa. ase
rom, religia SeiZleba vaRiaroT kulturis formad. kulturas sami sfero aqvs:
materialuri, socialuri da sulieri. religia sulieri kulturis sferoSia. sulieri
kultura ki adamianTa gonebis Semoqmedebaa da amrigad moicavs azriseul
momentebs. saerTod ki, kultura, materialuri iqneba is Tu sulieri – ori mxaris
nivTierisa da azriseulis erTianobaa. mokled ki kultura aris ganviTarebuli
azri, TviTon adamiani ki kulturul-sazogadoebrivi arsebaa.
          aris Tu ara religia ideologia? jer gavigoT ideologiis gansazRvreba
– is aris ideebis, Sexedulebebis, Rirebulebebisa da idealebis Teoriuli
sistema, romelic gamoxatavs da icavs ama Tu im klasis an socialuri jgufis
interesebs da miznad isaxavs sazogadoebrivi wyobilebis Secvlas an
SenarCunebas.
          ideebisa da Sexedulebebis, Rirebulebebisa da idealebis Teoriulad
dasabuTebuli sistema moicavs gansxvavebuli ideebis mTel speqtrs:
religiurs, filosofiurs, politikurs, ekonomikurs, esTetikurs, zneobrivs da a.S.
radgan ideologia Teoriuli sistemaa – igi aerTianebs am ideebs da afuZnebs
erTi amosavali principis mixedviT. ideologia arsebul sazogadoebriv wyobas
icavs, an akritikebs da amis gamoc asxvaveben ideologiis or saxes – erTi,
romelic icavs arsebul mdgomareobas da meore – romelic cdilobs daangrios
arsebuli da aagos axali. mokled, ideologiam unda daicvas romeliRac mxaris
an socialuri jgufis, an Tundac mTeli saxelmwifos interesi. da radganac
ideologia garkveuli mxaris interesebs icavs, is apologetikaa (dacva).
ideologia ideologiad iqceva maSin, roca mas aRiareben samoqmedo
programad. Tanac gaaCnia vin aRiarebs, romeli sazogadoeba, Tu jgufi
Tavis programad. am dros garkveuli sazogadoeba, Tu jgufi mimarTavs
religiasac. magaliTad, rogor gadaiqca qristianoba ideologiad? maSin, roca
qristianoba fexs idgamda, igi aravisTvis warmoadgenda ideologias. qristes
ideebs maSin iziarebda da aRiarebda mis mimdevarTa mokrZalebuli
raodenoba. Semdeg am sarwmunoebam gavrceleba hpova monaTa da
CagrulTa farTo masebSi da SeiZleba iTqvas, gaxda maTi ideologia. maSin
mas ar hqonda saxelmwifo ideologiis statusi. es imitom, rom am religias jer
kidev arc erTi saxelmwifo ar aRiarebda da ar scnobda. piriqiT, qristianebs
maSin yvela sdevnida da sikvdiliTac ki sjidnen qristes mimdevrebs.
mogvianebiT bizantiam da misma imperatorma konstantinem pirvelma
aRiara qristianoba oficialur sarwmunoebad da is iqca saxelmwifo
ideologiad. Sua saukuneebSi qristianobam moicva TiTqmis mTeli samyaro.
mTelirigi qveyanebi icavdnen qristianul ideologias da sastikad
aviwroebdnen mis mowinaaRmdegeebs. dRes qristianobas aRar aqvs
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  64

saxelmwifo ideologiis statusi, Tumca mravali qveynis konstituciiT mas didi
privilegia aqvs miniWebuli. (sul sxvagvarad aris saqme islamur samyaroSi.
islamuri samyaro iTxovs musulmanTa gaerTianebas da brZolas danarCen
sarwmunoebaTa winaaRmdeg. maTi ideologia fanatizmamdea ayvanili!).
          saerTod, ideologias pirovnebebi qmnian, niWieri da moazrovne
adamianebi. radgan ideologia Teoriuli sistemaa – igi swored aseTma
adamianebma unda Camoayalibon. Semdeg ki, am ideologiis
gamavrceleblebi da matareblebi arian is pirovnebebi, romlebic mas
aRiareben da ara isini, vinc es ideologia Seqmnes. mokled, Teorias qmnis
pirovneba. es Teoria gadaiqceva ideologiad, ra Tqma unda, Tu romelime
socialur jgufs an saxelmwifos daainteresebs da gaixdis Tavis samoqmedo
programad. droTa viTarebaSi ki SeiZleba es ideologia Seicvalos.
TavisTavad Teoria ideologia ar aris. igi am funqcias iZens, an kargavs.
saerTod, sulieri kulturis nebismieri forma ideologiur datvirTvas iRebs -
religia, filosofia, xelovneba, mecniereba da politika ideologiis samsaxurSi
eqceva. maTi valia arsebuli ideologiis dacva da gamrTleba. TavisTavad es
faqti zogjer zRudavs da aferxebs kulturis ganviTarebas da mas calmxrivad
erTferovnuls xdis. ideologiis Sesaxeb SeiZleba iTqvas – ideologia
yovelTvis Teoriuli sistemaa. msoflmxedveloba ki SeiZleba iyos
araTeoriulic. am SemTxvevaSi laparakia religiaze. msoflmxedvelobis (maT
Soris religiisac) mizania moiazros samyaro rogorc mTeli da gaarkvios
adamianis daniSnuleba samyaroSi. aq ideologia izRudeba sazogadoebrivi
da socialuri jgufebis interesebiT. ideologia garkveuli nawilis interess icavs,
amitomac igi apologetikaa. amitomac SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom religia
ideologia ar aris. religia msoflSegrZnebaa, magram ara ideologia!




gamoyenebuli literatura:


    1.   e. kodua, filosofiis Sesavali, Tbilisi, 1998, Tsu
    2.   v. erqomaiSvili, filosofia, Tb. 1998, gamomc. `kvari~
    3.   Тенасе А. Культура и религия. Москва, 1997
    4.   Мировоззренические проблемы интеграции науки, Москва,
         1985.

                                 Summary
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  65

David Taktakishvili
On the problem of different view pionts

      The article deals with the views about relationship between
philosophy and ideology. The problems of the human will’s freedom and
the force on their actions are also discussed in the article
     The articles deals with the problem of the relationship between religion
and some other issues of ideology



                                  Резюме

Давид Тактакишвили
Рассуждения о мировоззренческих проблемах

        В статье даются рассуждения о взаимоотноошениях
философии и мировоззрения, а также о проблемах свободы воли
человека и принуждения его в действиях.
        Важное место отводится в статье проблемам в
заимоотношений религии как особого мироощущения с другими
вопросами идеологии.




                  Temur Todua, mariam nacvliSvili
               administrireba da menejmenti saxelmwifo
                          marTvis sistemaSi
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 66

   kacobriobam mravalsaukunovani istoriis manZilze sazogadoebis
marTvis araerTi wesi, xerxi Tu meTodi SeimuSava. maT Soris
ganasxvaveben marTvis individualur da koleqtiur wesebsa Tu saSualebebs.
marTalia praqtikulad individualuri da koleqtiuri marTvis formebis gamijvna
SeuZlebelia, magram koleqtiuri individualurisgan gansxvavdeba imiT, rom
is sajaro xelisuflebiT xorcieldeba. swored sajaro xelisuflebis mier
gamoyenebuli marTvis sxvadasxva wesebi, meTodebi, saSualebebi da am
elementebis klasifikacia da Sefaseba marTvis mecnierebis arss Seadgens.
   marTvis mecnierebaSi formulirebulia mravali principuli pozicia
demokratiuli da avtoritaruli marTvis, marTvis meTodebisa da funqciis,
marTvis aparatis da marTvaSi xelisuflebis samive Stos rolis Sesaxeb.
marTva efeqturia im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is mecnierul monacemebs eyrdnoba.
   marTvis xelovneba uwinares yovlisa damokidebulia mmarTvelis,
xelmZRvanelis unarze, SesaZleblobasa Tu inovaciebze. mmarTveli Tavisi
miznebis miRwevisaTvis sajaro xelisuflebis saxeliT, koleqtivis marTvisas
ama Tu im saxiT administraciul meTodebs iyenebs. administrators SeuZlia
gamoiyenos voluntaristuli, “SiSveli” administrirebis meTodebi. aseT
SemTxvevaSi administratori mxolod sakuTari subieqturi SexedulebebiT
moqmedebs, naklebad iTvaliswinebs ukukavSiris principebs, mosalodnel
Sedegebs         da       etapobriv       Sesrulebazea        orientirebuli.
   administrirebis marTva zogadsaxelmwifoebrivi masStabiT, adgilobriv
doneze, ama Tu im koleqtivSi, marTvis organoebisa da Tanamdebobis
pirebis mier xorcieldeba. administrirebis Zalismieri meTodebis
gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas mmarTvels, sajaro xelisufleba aniWebs.
Teoriulad is mmarTvels uflebas aZlevs kanonis farglebSi miiRos nebismieri
gadawyvetileba. es e.w. “diskreciuli uflebamosilebaa”, romelic
aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis an saxelmwifo moxelis prerogativaa [2, gv.38-
39].
   dadgenili kanonis farglebSi marTvis organos an moxeles SeuZlia miiRos
marTvaze iseTi aqtebi, romlebic maT kanonierad, argumentirebulad da
marTebulad miaCniaT. “diskreciul uflebamosilebaSi” umTavresia
administrirebis gziT kanonis farglebSi kerZo pirebis da organoebis
sakiTxebis gadaWris ufleba. TavianTi uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas
aRmasrulebeli     xelisuflebis   organoebi      kanonqvemdebare      aqtebs
gamoscemen. aseTi aqtebi SeiZleba gamoices sakanonmdeblo organoebis
delegirebis safuZvelze. zogjer parlamentis mier miRebuli kanonebi
mTavrobis                        aqtebiT                       regulirdeba.
   marTvis aqtebi miiReba, aseve e.w. reglamentirebuli xelisuflebis
safuZvelze, rodesac konstitucia uflebas aZlevs aRmasrulebel organos an
Tanamdebobis pirs gamosces aqtebi ara marto individualuri qmedebisaTvis,
aramed normatiuli samarTlebrivi aqtebi sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis
regulirebisaTvis.
   marTvis optimaluri gadawyvetilebis miRebisaTvis menejmentis
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 67

meTodebi                                                     gamoiyeneba.
   sityva “menejmenti” warmosdgeba laTinur fuZiani sityvisagan “manus”,
rac xels niSnavs. zogadad is “xelmZRvanelobas” aRniSnavs. menejmentis
meTodebi, meqanizmebi, rogorc aRiniSna, saxelmwifo marTvis sxvadasxva
sferoSi (warmoebis, dawesebulebis, sazogadoebrivi gaerTianebebis
xelmZRvanelobisaTvis)             gamoiyeneba           [1,         gv.11].
   menejmenti     saxelmwifo      marTvis     sistemaSi    TaviseburebebiT
gamoirCeva: menejeri sajaro xelisuflebisagan garkveul uflebamosilebas
flobs, Tumca saxelmwifo marTvaSi es uflebebi araerTgvarovania. menejeri
Tavis uflebamosilebas yovelTvis ver iyenebs. zogjer is zemoqmedebis sxva,
magaliTad, piradi avtoritetis saSualebas aniWebs upiratesobas. swored es
ganasxvavebs menejments administrirebisagan, romelic mudam Zalauflebas
flobs, gansxvavebiT sajaro administrirebisagan, romlis zemoqmedeba mTel
qveyanaze vrceldeba, menejmentis zegavlena ki SedarebiT ufro konkretuli
da viwro sferoTi Semoifargleba. menejmentis Cveulebrivi sfero saSualo
raodenobis                koleqtivia               [4,             gv.285].
   saxelmwifo menejmentis subieqtia saxelmwifo menejeri_saxelmwifo
organo, saxelmwifo organizacia, dawesebuleba da saxelmwifo moxele;
saxelmwifo menejmentis obieqtia koleqtivi. menejmentis ZiriTadi mizania
koleqtivis organizacia, misi regulireba da dawesebulebis efeqturobis
amaRleba.
   menejmentis funqciebi arsobrivad gansxvavdeba saxelmwifos
funqciebisagan. Tu saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo funqciebis zogad
realizacias, menejmenti organizaciis konkretul amocanebs axorcielebs [3,
gv.98-100].
   saxelmwifo menejmentis funqciebia: gadawyvetilebis miReba, misi
ganxorcieleba da kontroli. es funqciebi Tavis mxriv, Semadgenel nawilebad
iyofa. gadawyvetilebis miReba Sedgeba sami qvenawilisagan: situaciis
Sefaseba, prognozireba da dagegmva. Tavdapirvelad fasdeba qveyanaSi
Seqmnili situacia. Semdeg xdeba prognozireba, romelic mecnierulad
dasabuTebuli winaswar ganWvretis meTodia. prognozireba albaTobiTi
xasiaTisaa, magram Tu prognozi xarisxianad ganxorcielda, maSin is
dagegmvisTvis arsebiTi xdeba. prognozirebasTan dakavSirebulia Semdegi
amocanebis ganxorcieleba: momavlis mecnieruli ganWvreta da
ganviTarebis kanonzomierebaTa dadgena, movlenebis dinamikis
gansazRvra.
   prognozirebisas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba sxvadasxva situaciebisa da
movlenebis sistemebis modelirebas. prognozirebis bolo etapia proeqtis
wardgena zemdgomi organoebisaTvis da im konkretuli dawesebulebebis
SexedulebaTa mosmena, romlebsac mouwevT prognozirebis cxovrebaSi
gatareba. prognozirebis safuZvelze dgeba ufro konkretuli gegmebi angariSis
momzadebisaTvis.
   menejmentis kontrolisa da analitikuri funqcia moicavs aRricxvas,
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 68

kontrolsa da analizs. xelmZRvaneli ama Tu im saxis aRricxvas mudam
awarmoebs. formaluri aRricxva iwarmoeba yvela koleqtivSi. is
mizanSewonilia            wliuri         angariSis         momzadebisaTvis.
    aRricxvis rTuli formaa kartoTekis Sedgena; personalisaTvis aRricxvis
specialuri forma dgeba. teqnikur saSualebaTa Soris saimedo da efeqturia
kompiuterebi.
    speciluri aRricxva warmoebs iseTi sazogadoebrivi movlenebis mimarT,
romlebic funqciurad saxelmwifo organoebisa da organizaciebis
kontrolqveSaa. saxelmwifo organoebi statistikur monacemebs agroveben da
aanalizeben. amgvari monacemebi saSualebas iZlevian ama Tu im movlenis
situacia, maTi ganviTarebis tendencia dadgindes. amis Semdeg Sesabamisi
marTvis           RonisZiebebi          unda          iqnes        miRebuli.
    mravalgvari forma axasiaTebs, aseve kontrols. rogorc aRiniSna, kontroli
marTvis gadawyvetilebis Sesrulebisas erT-erTi mniSvnelovani stadiaa.
kontrolis ori ZiriTadi saxe arsebobs: Sinagani da garegani. Sinagani kontroli
gulisxmobs Semowmebas mocemuli organizaciis an dawesebulebis SigniT.
xelmZRvaneli yoveldRiurad amowmebs SromiTi reJimis mdgomareobas,
mosamsaxureTa samuSoze gamocxadebas, ismens qveSevrdomTa
informacias, maT angariSebsa Tu moxsenebebs; garegan kontrols mravali
forma aqvs: zemdgomi organoebis, saxelmwifo kontrolis, mosaxleobisa da
sazogadoebrivi organizaciebis mxridan. magaliTad, parlaments SeuZlia
Seqmnas sagamomZieblo komisia gansazRvruli organos an dawesebulebis
gamokvlevisaTvis. is amowmebs, aseve calkeul dawesebulebebSi
saxelmwifo biujetis Sesrulebis saqmes. arsebobs, agreTve funqcionuri
kontrolis specialuri organoebi, romlebic garkveul sferoSi saqmianoben [5,
gv.10-11].
    Sinagani da garegani kontrolis gaTvaliswinebiT xdeba Sesabamisi
pozitiuri da negatiuri daskvnebis gamotana; aRricxva da kontroli
wanamZRvaria analitikuri daskvnebisa, saqmis mdgomareobisa da
saxelmwifo moxeleTa saqmianobis Sesaxeb. aseTi analizi unda iyos
siRrmiseuli da mravalmxrivi. dauSvebelia daskvnis gakeTeba, mxolod erTi
faqtis safuZvelze, vinaidan faqts SeiZleba kontrfaqti daupirispirdes.
amitomac gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos faqtebis kompleqsi, romelic xels
uwyobs                 amocanis               zustad             Sesrulebas.
    analizis    Sedegia    daskvna,     romlis     Sesabamisadac    marTvis
gadawyvetileba miiReba. is marTvis procesis axal cikls warmoSobs.
    menejmentis procesis umTavresi elementia komunikaciebi. isini
warmoadgenen pirovnul da organizaciul saqmianobaTa kavSirurTierTobas.
urTierTobaTa        mizani      qvemdgomi       organoebis      miTiTebebis,
gankargulebebis, moxsenebebis, angariSebis mosmenebsa da informaciis
miwodebaSi mdgomareobs. es SeiZleba moxdes TaTbirebze, telefoniT,
piradad an werilobiTi saxiT. komunikaciebi pirdapiri kavSiriTa da
ukukavSiris arxebiT xorcieldeba. menejmenti efeqturia maSin roca orive es
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                69

komponenti               funqcionirebs           [7,           gv.96-97].
   komunikaciebis dros dabrkolebebic aris. magaliTad, obieqtis
xelmZRvaneli Semowmebis aqts raime mizezis gamo, xels ar awers, ris
Sedegadac Sesabamisi brZaneba angariSis Sesworebis Sesaxeb Cerdeba.
menejmentis procesisas cdomilebas aqvs adgili. marTvis procesis seriozul
problemas warmoadgens informaciis, brZanebebis, angariSebis utyuaroba.
erTi da igive miTiTeba Tu gankarguleba SeiZleba sxvadasxvanairad iyos
aRqmuli sxvadasxva organoebis mosamsaxureTa da moqalaqeTa mier.
arasworad gageba SeiZleba moxdes inverbaluri komunikaciebisas
(Jestikulacia,                                                  mimika).
   komunikaciis procesisas barieris gadalaxvisaTvis rekomendirebulia xuTi
pirobis dacva: informaciis realuroba, sisrule, lakonuroba, konkretuloba,
obieqturoba.
   gadawyvetilebis Sesruleba saxelmwifo menejmentis umTavresi da
amave dros Sromatevadi etapia. gadawyvetilebis Sesruleba moicavs
organizaciuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebas, saqmianobis regulirebasa da
koordinacias, organizaciis TanamSromelTa stimulirebasa da iZulebas.
   miRebuli gadawyvetilebis realizacia, gegmis Sesabamisad, moiTxovs
garkveul organizaciasa da organizaciul RonisZiebebs. organizacias
garkveuli struqtura gaaCnia. esaa saxelmwifo organos, dawesebulebis is
koleqtivi,     romelic    gadawyvetilebasa   da    gegmas     axorcielebs.
gadawyvetilebis SesrulebisaTvis SeiZleba Seiqmnas axali organizacia an
moxdes Zveli organizaciis gadaxaliseba. organizaciis menejerma unda
Seasrulos zemdgomi organoebis mier dasaxuli amocana, magram am
amocanis Sesrulebisas is damoukidebel gadawyvetilebebs iRebs.
   erTmmarTvelobaze dafuZnebuli saxelmwifo organizaciisa da
Sesabamisad marTvis ierarqiis tipiuri sqema “piramidas” mogvagonebs. is
ZiriTadad sami safexurisagan Sedgeba: 1. xelmZRvaneli da misi
moadgileebi; 2. Sua safexuri organizaciebis nawilebis xelmZRvanelebi; 3.
qveda                safexuri_TanamSromlebi,             mosamsaxureni.



                                                          1
                                                          2
                                                          3

   warmomadgenlobiTi organos struqtura Sebrunebuli “piramidis” saxiT
warmogvidgeba. aseT dros gadawyvetilebas iRebs deputatebis
umravlesoba. saSualo safexuris warmomadgenlebi, mudmivi komitetebi
gadawyvetilebis proeqts adgenen, xolo xelmZRvaneli, krebis Tavmjdomare
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  70

mxolod diriJoris funqcias asrulebs. mas erTpirovnuli gadawyvetilebis
miRebis ufleba ara aqvs.



                                                                1
                                                                2
                                                                3




   organizaciis struqturas SeiZleba rombiseburi forma hqondes: 1.
xelmZRvaneli da misi moadgileebi; 2. TanamSromlebi; 3.referentebi.




                                                            1

                                                            2
                                                            3


   organizaciuli struqturis iseTi rTuli formebis arsebobas, rodesac erTis
mxriv iqmneba koordinaciis specialuri organoebi, xolo meores mxriv,
koleqtiuri gadawyvetilebis miRebis elementebi Zlierdeba. gavrcelebulia
aseve saxelmwifo organizaciebis “mSeneblobis” axali organizaciuli
koncefciebi, magaliTad “rbili piramidisebri” tipisa, rodesac SesaZlebelia
perioduli                                                        cvlilebebi.
   organizaciuli struqtura unda iyos efeqturi, mizanmimarTuli, perspeqtiuli,
harmoniuli da ekonomiuri. organizaciuli struqturebi TavianTi agebulebiT
araerTgvarovania. SeiZleba isini daiyos funqciebad, marTvis etapebis,
marTvis                obieqtis             xasiaTis             mixedviT.
   marTvis struqturis srulyofisaTvis mravali meTodi gamoiyeneba:
saeqsperto meTodi, Sedarebisa da analogiebis meTodi da organizaciuli
modelirebis                                                        meTodi.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  71

    organizacia ara marto statistikuri struqturaa, aramed procesicaa. is
gansazRvravs Sromis ganawilebis racionalur formebs, saxelmwifo
moxeleebze       konkretuli     davalebebis    gadanawilebas,     organizaciis
ganyofilebebis da mosamsaxureTa funqciebisa Tu saqmianobis
reglamentirebas.
    menejmentis mTavari figura, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, menejeria, romelsac
lideris Tvisebebic unda gaaCndes, ese igi, menejers unari unda Seswevdes
TanamSromlebze zemoqmedeba moaxdinos, daarwmunos isini, raTa miznis
miRwevisTvis maqsimalurad imoqmedos. menejeris Tanamdeboba
meqanikur liderobas rodi niSnavs. samecniero ganyofilebaSi zogjer liderad
SeiZleba mogvevlinos rigiTi mecnier-muSaki, romelic axal ideebsa da
koncefciebs warmoadgens, xolo dawesebulebis xelmZRvaneli organizaciuli
saqmianobiTaa dakavebuli. menejeris amocanaa gaxdes ara formaluri,
aramed realuri lideri. es ki ganyofilebis organizaciul xarisxs gaaumjobesebs,
mis saqmianobas efeqturs gaxdis. yvelaze ufro optimaluria Tu
xelmZRvaneli       erTdroulad        lidericaa   da     kargi     mmarTvelic.
    xelmZRvanels mTeli rigi profesionaluri moTxovnebi waredgineba: 1.
konceptualoba: man kargad unda icodes Tavisi ganyofilebis saqmianoba; 2.
kompetenturoba. menejerma kargad unda icodes ekonomika, iurisprudencia,
saxelmwifo marTvis elementebi; 3. saqmismcodneoba. xelmZRvanelma
unda icodes Tavisi ganyofilebis SesaZleblobebi, TanamSromelTa
profesionalizmis done; 4. analizisa da swori gadawyvetilebis miRebis unari.
xelmZRvanelma problemis diagnozireba unda SeZlos da misi
gadawyvetisaTvis analizis sxvadasxva meTodi gamoiyenos; 5.
operatiuloba; 6. komunikabeloba; 7. xelmZRvaneli ara marto kargad unda
flobdes Tavis profesias, aramed momijnave dargebis Sesaxeb codnis
garkveuli                          donec                         moeTxoveba.
    xelmZRvaneli-lideri marTvis sxvadasxva stils iyenebs. marTvis stili
xelmZRvanelisa da mis qveSevrdomTa urTierTzemoqmedebis konkretul
saSualebaTa erTobliobaa. is damokidebulia organizaciis, kulturis donisa Tu
arsebuli                     situaciis                  xasiaTze[6,gv.70-71].
    marTvis stili SeiZleba iyos demokratiuli da avtoritaruli. demokratiuli
stili decentralizebuli organizaciebis menejerebisaTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli.
aseTi xelmZRvaneli Tavis TanamSromlebs eTaTbireba da maT
rekomendaciebs iTvaliswinebs. marTvis demokratiul stils axasiaTebs, aseve
konsultaciur-demokratiuli da jgufuri monawileobis principebi. pirvel
SemTxvevaSi, xelmZRvaneli Tavis qveSevrdomebTan konsultaciebiT
Semoifargleba, Tumca maT mosazrebebs yovelTvis rodi iziarebs; jgufuri
monawileobis meTodi iTvaliswinebs xelmZRvanelisa da misdami
daqvemdebarebul TanamSromelTa erTobliv saqmianobasa da kontrols.
    marTvis avtoritaruli stili naklebad komunikabeluria da mbrZaneblur-
ganmkargulebeli formiT xasiaTdeba. xelmZRvaneli iSviaTad eTaTbireba
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  72

Tavis TanamSromlebs da maT mosazrebebs TiTqmis ar iTvaliswinebs.
pasuxismgebloba da kontroli zeda eSelonSia Tavmoyrili.




gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. baraTaSvili evg., TakalanZe l., abralava an., menejmenti da
administrireba. Tb.,
 2007
2. Дойль П., Менеджмент. Стратегия и Тактика. СПБ., 1999
3. Грауссмен Д., Стратегический государственный
менеджмент._Проблемы теорий и практики
   управления, №1, 1996
4. Чиркин В., Государственное управление. М.,2002
5. Carter S., Management and local Government., N.Y., 1984
6. Heady F., Public Administration. N.Y., 1991
7. Pery j., Public Management. N.Y., 1983




                                Summary

Temur Todua, Mariam Natsvlishvili
Administer and Management in the system of Public Administration

   Administrative Government has a broad sphere of application. It’s
realized on the state level as well as on the local, community, governmental
and official levels. In contrast to the Public Administration, which could
spread all over the country, the sphere of influence of regional and State
Management is more specific and narrow.
            xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             73

   The usual sphere of Management is relatively small community, where
manager is acting on behalf of this community.
   Management could be realized in Administrative body as well as in
communities having no connection with administrative activities.




                               Резюме

Темур Тодуа, Мариам Нацвлишвили
Администрирование и менеджмент в системе государственного
управления

Административное управление имеет широкую сферу применения.
Оно осуществляется в общегосударственном масштабе, на местном
уровне, в том или ином коллективе, органами управления и
должностными лицами. В отличие от публичного администрирования,
которое может распространятся на страну в целом, определенный
регион и др., государственный менеджмент имеет более узкую сферу
воздействия и более конкретный характер. Обычная сфера
менеджмента – сравнительно небольшой коллектив; действия
менеджера внутри этого коллектива и от имени коллектива вовне.
Менеджмент может осуществляться внутри чисто административного
органа и внутри колективов, которые не связаны с административной
деятельностью.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                    74



                              Temur Todua
                              ciala gagniZe
                      politikuri lideris roli saxelmwifo
                             marTvis sistemaSi




    sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze, socialuri da politikuri
struqturebis kardinalurma cvlilebebma da axalma RirebulebiTma
orientaciebma ganapiroba politokuri lideris fenomenis Seswavlis
aucilebloba. Aamdenad is mkvlevarTa yuradRebis centrSi moeqca. (2,gv.3)
Ppolitikuri lideri, rogorc konkretuli pirovneba, sayovelTao, zogad
niSnebTan erTad gansakuTrebuli da specifiuri niSnebis matarebelia.
TiTeuli lideri Tavisi epoqis produqtia. Mmocemuli epoqis ganviTarebisa da
cvalebadobis kanonebi, misi Taviseburebani mas ayalibebs, rogorc sxva
epoqis liderisgan gansxavebuli niSan-Tvisebebis mqone fenomens. L
    lideri ar Semoifargleba zogadi da gansakuTrebuli niSnebiT. mas am
niSnebTan erTad axasiaTebs calkeuli, mxolod individualuri niSnebi,
romlebic mravali sxvadasxva faqtoriT ganisazRvreba. Lliders yovel istoriul
epoqaSi, sxvebisgan gansxvavebuli adgili uWiravs. is xasiaTdeba pirvel
rigSi, socialuri pirobebiT, rac gansazRvravs mis individualur
Taviseburebebs, aqvs sxvebisgan gansxvavebuli bunebrivi da socialuri
niSnebi: biologiuri agebuleba, xasiaTi, temperamenti, niWi, midrekilebebi,
miznebi. Aamdenad, lideris, rogorc pirovnebis individualuroba
determinebulia. politikuri lideri ZiriTadad socialur da politikur miznebs
sakuTari, individualuri da ,,Tavisi gundis” SesaZleblobebis mixedviT
saxavs.
    bunebrivia, is gulgrili da indeferenciuli ar aris im samoqmedo
meTodebis, saSualebebisa da misaRwevi socialur-politikuri sitvaciisadmi,
romelTa gadaWrac aucileblobas warmoadgens. Aamitom igi yovelTvis
irCevs gansxvavebul elementebs, maT Soris sxvebze metad srulyofils.
amasTanave politikuri lideri ar unda iyenebdes saxelisuflebo berketebs.
    politikuri lideri specifiuri ,,bunebrivi SerCevis” produqtia. Cveulebriv,
politikuri lideri unda flobdes socialuri da politikuri viTarebis analizis unars,
magram es ar aris sakmarisi, amis garda, liders unda yavdes momxreebi,
mimdevrebi, e.i sakmaod avtoritetiani politikuri moRvawe unda iyos.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                     75

    yovelive zemoTqmuli gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens, rodesac
saqme exeba araoficialur politikur liderebs da maT qmedeba-
moRvaweobas. vfiqrob, rom politikuri xazis miRma, sakmaod xSirad
simarTle ki ara, aramed Zlierebaa. Zlieri gansazRvravs politikas. misi
Zliereba ki _ misi politikaa. Aadamiani am SemTxvevaSi saSualebaa da ara
mxolod gansazRvruli individualuri fsiqologiuri niSan-Tvisebebis mqone
pirovneba.
    lideris tipiuri warmomadgenlebi, individualuri, fsiqikuri struqturiT, rom
gamoirCevian xasiaTdebian Semdegi TvisebebiT: taqtiT, gambedaobiT,
xasiaTis simtkiciT, gonierebiT, samarTlianobiT, SeupovrobiT da a.S.
bunebrivia, eWvs ar unda iwvevdes is faqti, rom umravlesobis
mxardaWerisa da ndobis uzrunvelyofa da SenarCuneba politikur liderebs
rTuli amocanebis winaSe ayenebs.Aadamianis cnobierebis konservatiulbis
gamo gaZnelebulia demokratiuli saxelmwifos mmarTvelobis sferoSi axali
ideebis      SeTviseba.     xalxi    samarTlianad      moiTxovs      liderisgan
kompetenturobas, patosnebas, ndobas, zneobas da adamianur mopyrobas.
    politikuri lideris cxovrebaSi udides rols asrulebs misi imiji. imiji, es aris
sazogadobisadmi gamoxatuleba, esaa politikosis qmedebis koreqcia imis
gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu ras iTxovs da ras elis misgan xalxi.
    imiji sakmaod rTuli fenomenia, romelSic gadaxlarTulia sruliad
sxvadasxva faqtorebi, romlebic aucileblad unda iqnas mxedvelobaSi
miRebli, radgan imijis aRqma adamianis mier xdeba sxvadasxva arxis
meSveobiT da TiTeuli maTganis saTanado samuSao unda iqnas Catarebuli.
xSirad adamiani TavisTavs idealur arsebad aRiqvams, magram auditoriisa
da xalxis TvalTaxedva am dros SeiZleba sruliad sxva iyos. imiji SeiZleba
aseve gavigoT, rogorc adamianis daxmareba informaciis gadamuSavebaSi,
garkveu;li recepti imisa, Tu rogor moviqceT. (4,gv,7)
   liders xalxi unda aRiqvamdes, rogorc Zliers, agresiuls, winamZRols,
romelsac mocemuli aqvs rogorc xelmZRvanelobis, ise waxalisebis da dasjis
ufleba. xalxs ar uyvars susti da unebisyofo politikosebi. swori imijis
Seqmna saTuTi saqmea. erTi mxriv lideri miiswrafis warmoCindes iseTi,
rogoric yvela Cvengani. Aam TvalsazrisiT lideri erTi CvenTagania,
magram amavdroulad, lideri Cvengan gansxvavebuli pirovnebaa, ris gamoc
vaZlevT xmas arCevnebSi. Mman aqtiurad unda warmoaCinos
agresiulobisa da metoqeobis Tvisebebi. Lliders ar SeuZlia bodiSi moixados
yvelanairi saqcielis gamo. Mmas SeiZleba is braldeba wauyenoT, rasac is
Tavad aRiarebs. is ufro qmedebis kacia. lideris garegnoba da misi sityva da
manerebi_yvelaferi xazs unda usvamdes mis gansakuTrebul avtoritets
garSemomyofTTaTvis. Llideri saubrobs sxvebze mets, xalxSi gamoCenis
dros ar unda avlendes mRelvareba, radgan es daangrevs mis, rogorc
yovlismcodne da yovlisSemZle winamZRolis imijs xalxis TvalSi. L
    lideris Sesaxeb bevr informacias gvawvdis aramarto misi sityvebi,
aramed qceva. unda gvaxsovdes, rom adamiani SedarebiT ufro kargad
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  76

akontrolebs Tavis metyvelebas, vidre moZraobas. amitom liderebi ufro
mSvidad grZnoben Tavs, roca prezidiumSi dgas iseTi magida, romelic
faravs tanis qveda nawils, fexebis CaTvliT. Uunda gvaxsovdes, rom imijis
dangreva ufro advilia, vidre misi Seqmna, raTa acilebuli iqnas yovelgvari
uxerxuloba.
   garkveul mniSvnelobas iZens aramarto is, Tu ra swams liders, aramed
isic Tu ratom maincdamainc mas swams es, rac am faqts aniWebs pirovnul
mniSvenelobas da axdens biografiis mSrali faqtebiT dramatizirebas.
   imijze muSaoba P.R is erTerTi umTavresi amocanaa. imiji aris niRabi
sazogadoebisTvis, romelic aucileblad unda iyos individis monacemze
dayrdnobiT. magaliTad, Tu qmniT politikosis imijs, romelic bunebiT
mxiaruli pirovnebaa. Aar SeiZleba SeuqmnaT mas Zalian seriozuli
adamianis imiji.
   imiji awesrigebs informaciis nakads. imiji rogorc idealuri suraTi,
gacilebiT met xmas moutans kandidats, vidre politikoss warmodgenili
dadebiTi da uaryofiTi TvisebebiT, radgan sazogadoebam unda miiRos is
informacia, romelic surs rom moisminos. sazogadoebas ar aqvs Sexeba
kandidatTan piradad, mas Sexeba aqvs politikosis imijTan. Aamitom
warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi, ukeTesia imijis Secvla da ara politikosisa.
  arsebobs        imijis ramdenime varianti:
    funqciuri (sarkiseburi, mimdinare, sasurveli, korporaciuli, mravalmrivi
da a.S);
    konteqsturi;
    SepirispirebiTi.

  sarkiseburs pirovnebis TviTSefasebas ukavSireben, mimdinares_sxvaTa
mier individis aRqmas. sasurveli imijisken yoveli adamiani miiswrafis,
aseTi imiji metad saWiroa axalSeqmnili struqturebisaTvis.
   korporaciulSi _ dawesebulebis imijs moiazreben. Nnebismieri
organizaciisaTvis imiji aucilebeli iaraRia, romlis meSveobiTac igi
moipovebs klientebis ndobasa da sasurvel reputacias. aseT imijs
gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs finansuri struqturebisaTvis. rac Seexeba
mravalmxriv imijs – imiji, rogorc erTi mTlianoba sistemur xasiaTs atarebs,
amitom organizaciis romelime sferos warumateblobam SesaZloa uaryofiTi
Sedegi gamoiwvios da zogadad struqturis reputaciazec iqonios gavlena.
   SepirispirebiT anu SedarebiTi imiji – am SemTxvevaSi axlomdgomi
imijebis [magaliTad, ori politikuri pretendentis] Sedarebas axdenen. imijis
es saxe momgebiania saarCevno piar kampaniisTvis. (4, gv,16)
        piradi avtoriteti mniSvnelovani safuZvelia politikosis statusisaTvis,
agreTve im partiisaTvis, romelsac igi warmoadgens.
    politikuri lideri organizaciis, partiis an mTeli sazogadoebis avtoritetuli
wevria, romlis pirovnuli zegavlena mas saSualebas aZlevs arsebiTi roli
Seasrulos politikur da ekonomikur cxovrebaSi.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  77

        WeSmariti lideri yovelTvis gansxvavdeba sxvebisagan. swored
amaSia cnobili pirovnebebis saidumlo. isini garkveuli faseulobebiT
ipyroben xolme adamianis cnobierebas...               Tanamedrove lideri
Tanamemamuleebis cxovrebiT unda cxovrobdes da nebismier momentSi
swored unda gansazRvros maTi guneba-ganwyoba. man aTasobiT
adamianTan megobruli urTierTobis damyareba da maTi interesebis
dakmayofileba unda SeZlos.
        Tanamedrove lideri yovel nabijze unda axdendes adamianuri siTbosa
da xalxis bediT dainteresebis demonstrirebas, eswrafodes maTTan
daaxloebas. lideris gulwrfeloba da gulRiaoba did mniSvnelobas iZens.
   specialistebi lideris ramdenime tips gamoyofen:^
    1. maRali TviT Sefasebis mqone politikosi – rac ufro maRalia politikosis
TviT Sefaseba, miT ufro cudad reagirebs situaciaze da dabalia misi
reaqtiuloba. aseTi lideri naklebad aris damokidebuli garemoze da mas ufro
stabiluri “Sinagani standartebi” aqvs. am tipis pirovneba metismetad
ambiciuria da iSviaTad iTvaliswinebs sxvebis [Tanagundelebis] azrs;
    2. dabali TviTSefasebis mqone politikosi – is ufro metadaa
damokidebuli sxva adamianebze da amdenad ufro reaqtiulia. amavdroulad
Zalian mgrZnobiarea Sefasebis mimarT da misi TviTSefaseba imazea
damokidebuli, Seaqeben Tu ara. fsiqologTa azriT, lideris es stilic ar aris
efeqturi, radgan am SemTxvevaSi liders ar gaaCnia gamoxatuli pozicia;
   3. adekvaturi TviTSefasebis mqone politikosi – aseTi lideri yvelaze
saukeTeso saxea politikur arenaze. misi Sinagani da garegani politika
TviTmtkicebas ar saWiroebs. Mmisi urTierToba TanamoazreebTan ufro
efeqturia. Tavisi politikuri Sexedulebebis adekvaturad Semfasebeli lideri
rogorc wesi, pativicemiT efyroba sxvebis azrs. Lliders unda axasiaTebdes
Semdegi Tvisebebic:

                  - emociuri stabiluroba _ kargi lideri fsiqologiurad
                  zrdasruli da garemosadmi adaptirebuli unda iyos, raTa
                  efeqturad gadaWras mis winaSe mdgomi yvela sakiTxi;
                  - dominantoba _ liderebi xSirad konkurentulebi arian.
                  maT moswonT barierebis gadalaxva;
                   - enTuziazmi _ aseTi liderebi aqtiurebi da eqspresiulebi
                  arian, isini Tamamad reagireben cvlilebebze, swrafebi,
                  fxizlebi da Tavisuflebi arian;
         - keTilsindisiereba _ liderebSi movaleobis grZnoba Warbobs da
                  isini Zalze momTxovnebi arian. maT Cveulebriv
                  daxelovnebis maRali standartebi gaaCniaT da ukeT
                  muSaobis survilic aqvT;
         - “socialuri simamace” _ liderebs spontanurad gariskva sCveviaT.
        erTi mxriv, isini socialurad agresiulebi arian, xolo, meore mxriv,
                  sxvebis mimarT gulisxmierni da emociurad mdgradni;
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              78

               - civi goneba _ kargi liderebi praqtikulni, logikurni da
                 saqmianebi arian. maT ar axasiaTebT sentimentaloba da
                 saRi azriT aRiqvamen kritikas.
              - Tavdajerebuloba _ liderebs ar axasiaTebT danaSaulis
                   grZnoba. isini ZiriTadad usafrTxod grZnoben Tavs da
                   winaswar ar dardoben Secdomebsa da “Cavardnebze”;
              - “moniakaluroba” _ liderebi Zalian zustad akontroleben
                   TavianT socialur urTierTobebs. isini icaven sakuTar
                   xelSeuxebobas da reputacias. maT gansakuTrebuli
                   sifrTxile da windaxeduleba axasiaTebT, isini Zalze
                   mozomilad Rebuloben gadawyvetilebebs da gegmaven
                   ama Tu im RonisZiebebs. (4)

   am ZiriTadi Tvisebebis garda, dRevandelobis liderebs iseTi Tvisebebic
unda gaaCndeT, romlebic daexmareba maT sxvebis motivirebasa
gaZRolaSi. Ffsiqologebic erTmniSvnelovnad aRiareben, rom liders unda
SeeZlos momavlis Wvreta sxvebis darwmuneba imaSi, rom misi
TvalTaxedva ndobas imsaxurebs. amisaTvis ki saWiroa:

              -   energiuloba _ lideris erT-erTi piroba intensiuri
                  mogzavroba da xangZlivi muSaobaa;
              -   intuicia _ gamocdilma liderebma kargad ician intuiciis
                  fasi, radgan logika da argumentacia maT yvela
                  situaciaSi ver gamoadgebaT;
              -   simwife _ kargi liderisaTvis pirovnuli Zalaufleba da
                  aRiareba meore adgilze unda idges. sxvagvarad rom
                  vTqvaT, brZaneblobis magivrad TanamSromlebis
                  profesiul ganviTarebaze unda zrunavdes;
              -   gunduri orientacia _ gunduri muSaobisas metad
                  mniSvnelovania        Tanaswori       damokidebuleba
                  xelqveiTebis mimarT, romelic aZlierebs gundur
                  SekavSirebulobas;
              -   empaTia _ “sxvis adgilze dadgomis” unaria. empaTiis
                  gareSe adamiani ver moipovebs ndobas, rimelic esoden
                  mniSvnelovania saukeTeso Sedegebis misaRwevad;
              -   qarizma [pirovnuli xibli] _ Zlieri pirovnuli xiblis
                  matarebeli liderebi warmatebiT axerxeben adamianebSi
                  Zlieri    emociebis   aRZvras     da    iseTi   xedvis
                  Camoyalibebas, romelic ase aerTianebs da itacebs maT.

   aRsaniSnavia, rom qarizmatulobis mcneba qarTvelebisaTvis ucxo ara
aris da amdenad, qarTveli xalxisaTvis qarizmatuli lideris tipi metad
siboluria. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Zalian rTulia qarTveli xalxis idealuri
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 79

politikosis portretis Camoyalibeba, radgan qarTuli sazogadoeba sakmaod
kritikulia da sakuTar liders metad mkacr moTxovnebs uyenebs. Tumca
mainc SesaZlebelia gamovyoT is Tvisebebi, romlebic qarTveli liderisaTvis
aucilebelia:
  - saerTaSoriso avtoriteti
  - arakorumpirebuloba da patiosneba [es metad mtkivneuli Temaa Cveni
qveynis mosaxleobisaTvis, radgan qarTvelebs korumpirebuli Cinovnikebis
TviTnebobis mware gamocdileba gvaqvs].
politikosis imiji yovelmxriv unda Seesabamebodes mosaxleobis
ganwyobas.
    politikoss unda SeeZlos harmoniis damyareba misi amomrCevlis
SefasebasTan da warmodgenebTan, drois moTxovnasTan. imijis ageba
xdeba ara abstraqtulad, aramed damajerebeli faqtebisagan, romelsac
pirovnebis cxovrebaSi aqvs adgili, arafrisgan da araraobisgan imiji ar
iqmneba. imijis Sesaqmnelad garkveuli realuri safuZvlebia saWiro. imijis
Seqmna da realizacia mudmivad unda mimdinareobdes lideris
maxasiaTebeli Tvisebebidan udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs, kompetenturobas
da profesionalizms, rac mis mier miRebul ganaTlebasa da gamocdilebasTn
aris dakavSirebuli lideris kompetenturobas da profesionalizmis saCveneblad
xazi unda gaesvas mis monawileobas ama Tu im mniSvnelovani, sasicicxlo
mniSvnelobis procesSi.
    liderisTvis imijis Sesaqmnelad arsebobs damatebiTi faqtorebi: warsuli,
ojaxi. sporti, Sinauri cxovelebi,Hhobi da sisusteebi. (4,gv.63) Raribi
qveynis politikosi metismetad xelgaSlilad da mdidrad ar unda cxovrobdes,
yvelaferi es aSorebs politikosebs xalxisagan. Kkargi reputaciis Sesaqmnelad
imijmeikerebma unda gadalaxon is barieri rac dgas lidersa da sazogadoebas
Soris. Ees aris: mtroba, amoCemeba, apaTia, arcodna. saTanado muSaobis
Sedegad isini unda iqcnen simpatiad, aRiarebad, interesad codnad. Ees ki
warmatebis zrdis sawindari SeiZleba gaxdes. kanonia: xalxs ki ar unda
daSorde piriqiT unda ecado masTan daaxloeba.
   amrigad, politikuri lideri Tavis epoqis Svilia. Eepoqis ganviTarebis
kanonzomierebani, socialur-politikuri tendeciebi, obieqturoba, realobani
ayalibeben konkretuli politikuri lideris pirovnuli, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli
specifikur niSan_Tvisebebs. mas epoqis sazogadoebriv, politikur,
ekonomikur, kulturul da saxelmwifoebriv-erovnul cxovrebaSi Tavisi
gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia, xolo misi imiji Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom
xalxma MmasSi ,,Tavisiani” dainaxos, rasac uTuod mosdevs mxardaWera.




Ggamoyenebuli literatura:
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                    80


    1.   aristotele ,,politika” Tb, 1995-1996;
    2.   bucxrikiZe a. ,,politikri lideri” Tb, 1996;
    3.   makiaveli n. ,,mmarTveli’ Tb, 1996;
    4.   SubiTiZe v. ,,ra SeuZlia politikaSi karg imijs” Tb, 2000;
    5.   SubiTiZe v. ,,gogi TofaZe warmatebuli biznesmeni da politikosi”
         Tb, 2003.



                                  Summary

Temur Todua
Ciala Gagnidze
Political leader’s role in public administrative system

   Social development during contemporary stage, radical changes in social
and political structure, new trends and values showed the necessity of
studying political leader’s phenomenon. Political leader has special features.
He is the product of his epoch. Political leader has to have capacity for deep
political analyzis, sense of tact, courage, leadership and communication
skills, education and fairness.
   Sense of charisma is not unfamiliar for Georgian people. However
national charismatic leader is quite symbolic for Georgians. It is difficult to
create ideal political prototype in Georgia, because society is very critical
and expects him to face extremely hard challaenfes.
    Political leader is the product of his epoch. Modern epoch’s
development, social-political tendencies are creating specific features of
political leader. He has his own particular place and image in the epoch’s
social, political, economical, cultural and public life. If people see relations
between them, they will encourage their leader.


                                  РЕЗЮМЕ

Темур Тодуа
Циала Гагнидзе
Роль политического лидера в системе государственного
управления.

       На современном этапе общественного развития кардинальные
изменения социальных и политических структур и новые ценностные
ориентиры    обусловили   необходимость    изучения    феномена
            xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                          81

политического лидера. Политический лидер – носитель особенных
начал. Как таковой он всегда продукт своей эпохи. Политический
лидер должен обладать навыками глубокого анализа, обладать
чувством такта, быть напористым, смелым, умным, с твердым
характером и обостренным чувством справедливости.
        Понятие харизматичности не чуждо грузинскому менталитету,
наоборот, тип харизматичного лидера для грузин очень символичен,
но в Грузии с большим трудом можно создать портрет идеального
политического лидера по той причине, что грузинское общество само
по себе критично и предъявляет к своим лидерам достаточно высокие
требования.
        Вообщем, политический лидер – дитя своей эпохи.
Закономерности     развития    современной     эпохи,    социально-
политические тенденции создают специфические особенности,
характерные для конкретного политического лидера, который
занимает в общественной, политической, экономической, культурной
и государственно-национальной жизни страны свое особое место.
Очень важным является его имидж, в котором народ обязательно
должен узнавать «своего», после чего непременно следует поддержка.




                         sergo lominaZe
            PR-saqmianobis socialur-filosofiuri aspeqtebi




      PR-saqmianoba Tanamedrove epoqaSi sul ufro intensiurad iWreba
sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sxvadaxva sferoSi.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  82

       sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis demokratizacia aZlierebs socialuri
subieqtebis urTierTqmedebas ekonomikaSi, politikaSi, socialur sferoSi.
       socialur subieqtTa interesebis mravalferovnebas mivyavarT maT
Soris brZolis gamwvavebamde, konfliqtebamde.
       demokratia ver iarsebebs sazogadoebriv urTierTobaTa kargad awyo-
bili sistemis, socialuri procesebis marTvis mecnieruli meTodebisa da
konfliqtebis gadaWris specialuri meqanizmis gareSe. PR-i emsaxureba
sazogadoebriv interesebs, aqcents akeTebs saerTo interesebsa da saerTo
sakiTxebze. rogorc socialuri instituti, PR-i xels uwyobs adamianis,
moqalaqis uflebaTa gafarToebas, adamianuri potencialis realizaciaSi
Tanabari SesaZleblobebis Seqmnas.
       cnobilia, rom dadebiTi reputaciis menejmentisa da PR-is gareSe
SeuZlebelia sazogadoebis konsolidireba, qveynis stabilurobis uzrunvelyofa
da aqtualur amocanaTa gadaWra. saxelmwifos, misi struqturebis dadebiTi
imijis gareSe SeuZlebelia ekonomikuri da socialuri keTildReobis miRweva.
       araefeqturad funqcionirebadi politikuri sistema warmoadgens
politikur partiebs, regionebs, socialur da religiur jgufebs Soris mudmivi
konfliqtebis wyaros.
       PR-is rogorc marTvis Teoriisa da sazogadoebrivi urTierTqmedebis
praqtikis ganviTareba mkafio maCvenebelia demokratiuli Tavisuflebebisa
da marTvis inovaciuri gzebis Ziebis survilisa. PR-i rogorc socialur procesTa
marTvis meqanizmi SegvaZlebinebs ganvaviTaroT moqalaqeobrivi
Segneba, SevagulianoT adamianebi problemaTa gadaWraSi. misi
meTodebi, socialuri pasuxismgebloba, Tavisufali individis Segnebuli
arCevani, sruli informacia SesaZlebels xdis efeqturad, umtkivneulod da
minimaluri danakargebiT gadavWraT konfliqti ekonomikaSi, politikaSi,
socialur sferoSi.
       yovelive     Tqmuli     badebs     moTxovnas       kvalificiur    PR-
momsaxureobaze, gvkarnaxobs PR-saqmianobis mecnieruli analizis, misi
praqtikis srulyofis aucileblobas. uamisod PR-saqmianoba gadaiqceva Sou-
biznesis nawilad, rac aucileblad gaxdeba mizezi sazogadoebis mxriv misi
armiRebisa.
       PR-is mravalgvarovan literaturaSi araiSviaTad vxvdebiT PR-is
rogorc marketinguli komunikaciis (mxolod da mxolod gamoyenebiTi
amocanebiT) erT-erTi mimarTulebis viwro gagebas. PR-is funqciebi
dayvanili xdeba informirebaze, darwmunebaze, komunikaciaze. ismis
kiTxva, saWiroa Tu ara PR-Teoria (ix. 5, gv. 24-28, 75-78).
        aRniSnul Tvalsazriss PR-saqmianoba dahyavs momxmareblebTan
urTierTobebze, ugulvebelyofs ra amiT PR-is socialur funqciebs. sakmarisad
ar fasdeba PR-is roli firmis, partiis imijis marTvaSi, mtkice reputaciis
Seqmnis unari. PR-saqmianobis komunikaciaze reduqcia amaxinjebs PR-ze
warmodgenas, mivyavarT misi socialuri funqciebisa da SesaZleblobebis
ugulebelyofamde.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 83

        yovelive Tqmuli aucilebels xdis PR-saqmianobis socialuri aspeqtebis
aqtualizebas. am statiis amocanaa gviCvenos PR-is socialuri, kulturuli
mniSvneloba. statiis aqtualuroba mdgomareobs PR-saqmianobis socialur,
eTikur da kulturul SesaZleblobaTa gaSlaSi.
        PR-i sazogadoebriv cnobierebaze zemoqmedebs xatebisa da
simboloebis sistemiT. amitom PR-is ukeTesi gagebisaTvis aucilebelia
avxsnaT misi funqcionirebis ZiriTadi meqanizmebi. amgvar safuZvels,
Cveni SexedulebiT, warmoadgens Sinaarsisa da formis gageba. Sinaarsisa
da formis urTierTdamokidebulebaSi Sinaarsi mTelis gansazRvruli mxarea,
obieqtis yvela Semadgeneli elementis, misi Sinagani Tvisebebisa da
procesebis erTobaa. forma ki Sinaarsis gamoxatulebaa. Sinaarsi dinamiuri
mxarea mTelisa, forma ki moicavs sagnis myari kavSirebis sistemas.
obieqtis ganviTaebis gansazRvrul etapze forma TamaSobs ganmsazRvrel
da aqtiur rols. forma i. kantis Tanaxmad mowesrigebis principia.
        PR-saqmianoba, Cveni azriT, asrulebs Sinaarsis mowesrigebisa da
TviT koreqciis funqciasac ki. Tumca es ar niSnavs imas, rom PR-
specialistma mTeli yuradReba unda dauTmos mxolod formas. formis
funqcia uzarmazaria da mniSvnelovani, Tumca misi Sinaarsisagan
mowyveta gadaaqcevs mTels PR-saqmianobas formalizmad, sapnis buStad.
Cveni azriT, PR-saqmianobaSi formis mniSvnelobis absolutizireba asaxavs
socialur procesTa mecnieruli gagebis ararsebobas. msgavs primitiul PR-s ar
ZaluZs Seasrulos strategiuli amocanebi da mudam firmisa Tu politikuri
partiis kraxiT damTavrdeba.
        Zalian mniSvnelovania gvesmodes, rom Tavad Sinaarsi cvalebadia,
mudam ganviTarebis procesSia. maSasadame, forma mudam dinamiuri
unda iyos, Seesabamebodes sazogadoebriv cvlilebaTa realur Sinaarss. axali
Sinaarsi uryevad daiqvemdebarebs yvela formas da Secvlis maT. amasTan
unda gvaxsovdes, rom forma es aqtiuri sawyisia da, maSasadame, mas
SeuZlia gaSalos Sinaarsis potenciali, misces mas mimarTuleba. formas
ZaluZs gaaaqtiuros mTelis aRmSeneblobiTi Zalebi, xeli Seuwyos yvelaze
mTavarisa da faseulis ganviTarebas. sainformacio teqnologiebis batonobis
epoqaSi izrdeba sazogadoebis zegavlena xatebisa da simboloebis
meSveobiT.
        PR-is mTavari amocanaa Camoayalibos xatebisa da simboloebis
axali pozitiuri sistema, e.i. formis _ xatebisa da simboloebis meSveobiT
Camoayalibos axali kultura urTierTobebisa politikaSi, biznessa da
pirovnebaTaSoriso komunikaciaSi.
        PR-is mTavari amocanaa gamovavlinos faruli, gamorCenili
rezervebi, dagvexmaros SeuTanxmeblobis acilebaSi, urTierTmisaRebi da
urTierTsasargeblo gadawyvetilebis povnaSi.
        PR-s ZaluZs Sescvalos sazogadoebrivi azri da adamianTa qceva
ukeTesi mimarTulebiT. Sokuri PR-is meTodiT specialists SeuZlia
daexmaros sazogadoebas, socialur jgufs, gadalaxos saukuneobrivi
            xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              84

stereotipebi. Sokuri PR-i qmnis sainformacio nakads, sazogadoebis
yuradRebas miapyrobs ganviTarebis aqtualur problemebze. igi aZlevs
saSualebas PR-specialists flobdes da marTavdes sainformacio sivrces.
amitom, Cveni azriT, PR-saqmianobas ZaluZs zegavlena moaxdinos
sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifos istoriuli ganviTarebis veqtorze.
       ra Tqma unda, yovelive es SesaZlebelia, Tu PR-saqmianoba
daeyrdnoba sazogadoebriv mecnierebebs, mkacs angariSsa da kreatiulobas.
       PR-saqmianobaSi did rols TamaSobs sazogadoebis winaSe mdgari
problemebis gadaWris meTodebi da instrumentebi. sazogadoebis ndoba
mxolod maSin SeiZleba moipovoT, Tu Tqven adamianebs aZlevT
movlenebis Sesaxeb srul informacias, aZlevT maT Tavisufali da Segnebuli
arCevanis uflebas. PR-specialistis pozicia mudam unda iyos pozitiuri,
konstruqciuli da urTierTsasargeblo.
       pozitiuris safuZvelze SesaZloa moinaxos gamosavali, aigos
konstruqciuli urTierTobani ekonomikursa da politikur subieqtebs Soris.
negatiuri ki sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis paralizebas axdens, amZimebs
problemebs, xels uSlis sazogadoebis winsvlas progresisaken. negatiuri
mudam `Savi~ PR-is manipulatorebisa da moyvarulebis instrumentia.
manipulatorebi mudam orientirebulni arian lokalur, viwrojgufur da
arakeTilsindisier amocanebze. maTi meTodebi arasicocxlisunariania da
negatiurad moqmedebens sazogadoebis ganviTarebaze. sazogadoeba
uaryofs `Savi~ PR-is meTodebs, vinaidan xedavs mis uperspeqtivobas.
adamianebi xvdebian, rom `Savi~ PR-i ki ar wyvets problemebs da
konfliqtebs, aramed amwvavebs maT. `Savi~ PR-is manipulatorebsa da
momxreebs sazogadoeba pasuxobs maTi legitimurobis uaryofiT, rasac es
politikosebi da biznesmenebi daRupvamde mihyavs (ix. 4. gv. 113-120).
PR-Si mTavaria ara darwmuneba an gadarwmuneba, aramed arsebul
problemaTa piris swori gagebis miRweva, maT gadaWraSi dainteresebul
mxareTa erToblivi monawileobis miRweva.
       es SesaZlebelia mxolod maSin, roca aqcenti keTdeba individis
(adamianis) rogorc zogad, ise pirad sargeblobaze. amitom PR-specialisti
unda gaerkves mTelisa da nawilis dialeqtikaSi.
       adamiani rogorc subieqti mudam mTelis nawilia. misi arseboba,
TviTrealizacia warmoudgenelia sazogadoebis, e.i. mTelis gareSe.
sazogadoebis ganviTareba ki damokidebulia subieqtis, e.i. individis
ganviTarebis doneze. amitom PR-is amocanaa gaaaqtiuros dainteresebuloba
mTelis, e.i. sazogadoebis ganviTarebiT. PR-s ZaluZs uCvenos subieqts,
rom saxeldobr mis aqtiur cxovrebiseul poziciazea damokidebuli
sazogadoebis ganviTarebis done da xasiaTi, pirovnebaTaSoriso
urTierTobaTa, adamianis komfortuli yofis kultura.
       PR-saqmianobis sayrdenia socialuri pasuxismgeblobis principis
dacva. principi `fuli nebismier fasad~ warsuls bardeba. firmis momavali
ganisazRvreba ara mxolod teqnologiuri parametrebiT, aramed upirveles
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                85

yovlisa, sazogadoebis ndobis doniTa da Tavad firmis, komunikaciis sferos
xelmZRvanelebisa da specialistebis eTikuri reputaciiT. moralis normebisa
da socialuri pasuxismgeblobis ugulebelyoba aramomgebiania da mas
mivyavarT daRupvamde (kraxamde) rogorc biznesSi, ise politikaSi.
sazogadoebis keTildReoba nebismieri biznesisa da politikis mizania. amis
ugulebelyofas mivyavarT ndobis Seryevamde da PR-saqmianobis
araefeqturobamde.
        socialuri pasuxismgeblobis demonstrireba xorcieldeba ekologiur,
socialur proeqtebSi monawileobiT, ganaTlebis, kulturis, sportis
dasponsprebiT. socialuri pasuxismgeblobis pozicionireba unda gaxdes
prioriteti PR-saqmianobis yvela formaSi. es gaxdeba PR-amocanebis
efeqturi gadaWris safuZveli.
        PR-specialists unda axsovdes, rom moraluri avtoriteti mudam maRla
dgas realur ekonomikur da politikur Zalauflebaze. ZiriTadi eTikuri normebi
istoriulad mimarTulia sicocxlis dacvasa da ganviTarebaze, Rrmad zis
adamianis qvecnobierebaSi da amitom mTavar rols asrulebs
garemomcvelTa aRqmaSi, Sefasebasa da moqmedebaSi. is firmebi,
politikosebi, romlebic ugulebelyofen moralis normebs, iCenen
araSorsmWvretelobas, xelmZRvanelTa msoflmxedvelobis SezRudulobas.
mzardi       konkurenciisa     da     sazogadoebis     yvela     segmentis
urTierTganpirobebulobis Tanamedrove pirobebSi SeiZleba warmatebiT
vimoqmedoT mxolod grZelvadiani strategiis filosofiaze dayrdnobiT.
eTikuri normebis dacvas mivyavarT amgvar warmatebamde da did
mogebamde.
        mTavari faseuloba yovel droSi iyo da iqneba adamianis sicocxle da
janmrTeloba. amitom warmoebul saqonelSi mudam unda mivuTiToT misi
SesaZlo uaryofiTi Sedegebi, gansakuTrebiT bavSebisaTvis, fexmZime
qalebisaTvis, invalidebisaTvis. am problemebisadmi yuradReba amaRlebs
firmis avtoritetsa da reputacias. firmis mxridan bavSvebis momavalze
zrunva mudam pozitiurad aRiqmeba sazogadoebis mier.
        adamianebma unda dainaxon da Seignon Tqveni firmis, partiis
mniSvneloba sazogadoebisTvis, misi socialur-ekonomikuri da zneobrivi
ganviTarebisaTvis. PR-saqmianobis wyalobiT Tqveni firma, partia xdeba
socialuri ganviTarebis mniSvnelovani subieqti. amis gageba Secvlis
adamianTa azrsa da qcevas, rogorc mTlianad biznesis, ise Tqveni firmis
mimarTac.
        PR-specialisti firmis, partiis moraluri agenti unda iyos. PR-
saqmianobis daxmarebiT amgvar moralur agentebad SeiZleba da unda
gaxdnen firmis muSakebi. PR-is amocanaa firmis SigniT politikuri
saorganizacio kulturis formireba. damtkicebulia, rom danakargi personalis
araloialuri damokidebulebisa gamo saSualod samjer metia, vidre
konkurentebisa da aramegobrul masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa
saqmianobisa gamo. samwuxarod, zogierTi firma ifargleba personalis
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  86

qcevis kontroliT, personalis informireba ki arasrul da araregularul xasiaTs
atarebs. personalTan ukukavSiri Zalian SezRudulia. personali mudam
informaciis gareT translatoria. amitom Sinaganma PR-ma unda aamaRlos
personalis loialobisa da motivirebulobis done. amaSi mTavar rols
TamaSobs PR-menejeris mier keTilganwyobisa da fsiqologiuri komfortis
atmosferos Camoyalibeba. es amaRlebs urTierTsargeblobis da
urTierTdaxmarebis dones, rac mTlianobaSi Seesabameba sociumis
ganviTarebis amocanebs.
       amgvarad, PR-saqmianobis eTikur standartebs ZaluZs daaCqaron
civilizebuli da harmoniuli socialuri urTierTobebis Seneba. calkeuli firmebis
mier eTikuri standartebis amaRlebis Sedegad igebs mTeli sazogadoeba.
       firmis SigniT axali urTierTobani zegavlenas axdens momxma-
reblebTan da mTlianad sazogadoebasTan urTierTqmedebis kulturaze.
kulturas, rogorc normebis, tradiciis, Rirebulebebis, adamianuri
moRvaweobis organizaciis sistemasa da fabliq rileiSenzs Soris arsebobs
mravalferovani kavSiri. Tavad PR-moRvaweoba adamianTa urTierTobis,
samewarmeo da saxelmwifoebrivi cxovrebis gansazRvruli da ganviTarebuli
kulturis gamovlenaa. firmis, partiis moRvaweobas PR-i aCvenebs farTo
socialur da kulturul konteqstSi. mTavari ideebis gadmosacemad PR-
aqciebis dagegmvisas farTod gamoiyeneba kulturis da xelovnebis sfero.
PR-i xels uwyobs kulturisa da xelovnebis dafinansebas. PR-moRvaweoba
kulturis    dargSi    aseve     dadebiTad     moqmedebs      PR-specialistis
profesionalizmis srulyofaze.
       Tanamedrove menejmenti atarebs upirvelesad kulturul xasiaTs. PR-
moRvaweoba gamoiyeneba kompaniis saofise sivrcis meSveobiT,
esTetikuri stilisa da ganwyobis gadmosacemad. PR-i axdens dizainis
stimulirebas. PR-i garkveuli azriT xels uwyobs modeluri xelovnebis
ganviTarebas, radgan personalis Cacmis stili, urTierTobis manera xSirad
specialistis mier dasmuli miznis miRwevaSi sakvanZo sakiTxs
warmoadgens.
       PR-s Seswevs unari Secvalos adamianis ieri, garegnoba, qcevis
manera. PR-specialists unda axsovdes, rom xelovnebaSi, Sou-biznesSi
forma yovelTvis dominirebs Sinaarsze. formis mravalferovneba,
dinamiuroba warmoadgens warmatebis sawindars. dinamikuri formebi
axdens ufro mZlavr gavlenas axalgazrdobaze. statikuri formebi ki meti
popularobiT ufros TaobaSi sargeblobs. PR-specialists unda axsovdes, rom
Sou-biznesSi moqmedebs gansxvavebuli moraluri da sazogadoebrivi
standartebi. xelovnebas, Sous yovelTvis aRiqvamen rogorc Semoqmedebis,
TviTgamovlenis maqsimalur Tavisuflebas. amitom aq uaryofilia
administraciuli da zneobrivi SezRudvebic ki. axalgazrdebisaTvis Zalian
mimzidvelia urCi meambozis xati. skandali, intriga, xmamaRali
ganscxadebebi politikaze, ekologiaze, omze msaxiobis mudmiv Tana-
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 87

mgzavrad iqca. msaxiobi yovelTvis unda rCebodes unikalur, ganumeorebel
pirovnebad.
       PR-specialistebs SeuZliaT Seitanon arsebuli wvlili kinos, Teatraluri
festivalebis, mxatvarTa gamofenebis, musikaluri koncertebis organizebaSi.
PR-s ZaluZs xeli Seuwyos sarestavracio samuSaoebis, talantTa moZiebis
dafinansebasa da kulturis axali Sedegebis Seqmnas.
       PR-specialistma unda dainaxos cvlilebani sazogadoebriv cnobiere-
baSi da Seqmnas is xatebi, romlebic yvelaze ufro adekvaturad asaxavs
socialur procesebs. axali xatebis Seqmna daexmareba adamianebs ukeT
gaigon mimdinare movlenebi da warmarTon sisxlsavse da saintereso
cxovreba.
       amgvarad, PR-saqmianoba qmnis sazogadoebriv cnobierebasa da
adamianis qcevaSi cvlilebaTa wanamZRvrebs. PR-i xasiaTdeba im
funqciebisa da gadasaWreli amocanebis mravalgegmianobiT, romlebic
sazogadoebis winaSe warmoiSoba. PR-aqciebsa da RonisZiebebs moaqvs
konkretuli Sedegebi garigebebis, investiciebis dadebis, vaWrobis zrdisa da
finansuri maCveneblebis saxiT. PR-i mniSvnelovanwilad xels uwyobs
firmis, saxelmwifos aramaterialuri aqtivebis zrdas.
       PR-saqmianoba saboloo jamSi iZens mniSvnelovan ekonomikur
Rirebulebas. PR-i xels uwyobs socialur-ekonomikur urTierTobaTa
subieqtebis gavlenis sferoTa da SesaZleblobaTa gafarToebas. igi exmareba
adamianebs Seeguon axal realiebs da gaaumjobeson sazogadoebriv
urTierTobaTa mTeli sistema.
       PR-i praqtikaSi wyvets sazogadoebis winaSe mdgar socialur-
filosofiur problemebs.

gamoyenebuli literatura:
1. e. xaxutaSvili, l. kapanaZe. sazogadoebasTan urTierToba. Tb., 2007.
2. v. Wiaureli, s. lominaZe, r. strelkova. sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis
   ZiriTadi principebi, Tb., teqnikuri universiteti, 2006.
3. sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis samagido enciklopedia `cotne~, Tb., 2006.
4. xelisufleba da sazogadoeba. #3, 2007.
5. Entwicklung von Public Relations als Spiegel der ökonomischen und
   sozialen Prozesse in Osteuropa. Universität Bremen, 2002.


                     Summary
Sergo Lominadze
SOCIAL-PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF PR-ACTIVITIES

    The social-philosophical basis of PR-activities is considered in the
article. It is marked that reduction of PR-activities to communications
doesn’t reflect significant aspects of PR. Social aspects have great
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                   88

importance in manifold PR-activities. Knowledge of dialectic, its
categories, forms and contents, whole and parts let us open deeply sense of
PR. It is important to keep principles of ethics and social responsibilities in
PR-activities. Importance of PR in the context of changing social perception
and culture is also emphasized. PR-activities help to solve social-
philosophical problems of society.

                          Резюме
Серго Ломинадзе
Социально-философские аспекты PR- деятельности

      В статье рассматриваются социально-философские аспекты PR-
деятельности. Отмечается, что редукция PR-деятельности к
коммуникации не отражает важных аспектов PR. В статье
подчеркивается, что в многообразной PR-деятельности особое
значение имеют социальные аспекты. Понимание диалектики,
содержания и формы, части и целого позволяет глубже раскрыть
сущность PR. Показывается, что в PR-деятельности важно соблюдать
принцип этики и социальной ответственности. Подчеркивается
значимость PR в изменении общественного сознания и культуры. PR –
деятельность помогает решать социально-философские проблемы
общества.




                             Maia Chkheidze
             The Problem of Constructing Logical Arguments



   Logic is a very effective tool for persuading an audience about the
accuracy of an argument. However, people are not always persuaded by
logic. Sometimes audiences are not persuaded because they have used
values or emotions instead of logic to reach conclusions. But just as often,
audiences have reached a different logical conclusion by using different
premises. Therefore, arguments must often spend as much time convincing
audiences of the legitimacy of the premises as the legitimacy of the
conclusions.
   For instance, assume a writer was using the following logic to convince
an audience to adopt a smaller government:
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                     89

Premise 1: The government that governs best, governs least.
Premise 2: The government I am proposing does very little governing.
Conclusion: Therefore, the government I am proposing is best.
    Some members of the audience may be persuaded by this logic.
However, other members of the audience may follow this logic instead:
Premise 1: The government that governs best, governs most.
Premise 2: The government proposed by the speaker does very little
governing.
Conclusion: Therefore, the government proposed by the speaker is bad.
    Because they adhere to a different logical sequence, these members of
the audience will not be persuaded to change their minds logically until they
are persuaded to different values through other means besides logic. See the
handout on rhetorical tactics for more information on non-logical
persuasion.
     In order to understand what an argument is, one must understand what a
fallacy is. Very briefly, an argument consists of one or more premises and
one conclusion. A premise is a statement (a sentence that is either true or
false) that is offered in support of the claim being made, which is the
conclusion (which is also a sentence that is either true or false). A fallacy is,
very generally, an error in reasoning. This differs from a factual error,
which is simply being wrong about the facts. To be more specific, a fallacy
is an "argument" in which the premises given for the conclusion do not
provide the needed degree of support. A deductive fallacy is a deductive
argument that is invalid. An inductive fallacy is less formal than a deductive
fallacy. They are simply "arguments" which appear to be inductive
arguments, but the premises do not provided enough support for the
conclusion. In such cases, even if the premises were true, the conclusion
would not be more likely to be true.
    Slippery slope: This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A
happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X,
Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't want Z to
occur, A must not be allowed to occur either. Example: “If we ban
Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the
government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers”. In this
example the author is equating banning Hummers with banning all cars,
which is not the same thing.
    Hasty Generalization: This is a conclusion based on insufficient or
biased evidence. In other words, you are rushing to a conclusion before you
have all the relevant facts. Example: “Even though it's only the first day, I
can tell this is going to be a boring course”. In this example the author is
basing their evaluation of the entire course on only one class, and on the
first day which is notoriously boring and full of housekeeping tasks for most
courses. To make a fair and reasonable evaluation the author must attend
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                   90

several classes, and possibly even examine the textbook, talk to the
professor, or talk to others who have previously finished the course in order
to have sufficient evidence to base a conclusion on.
   Post hoc ergo propter hoc: This is a conclusion that assumes that if 'A'
occurred after 'B' then 'B' must have caused 'A.' Example: “I drank bottled
water and now I am sick, so the water must have made me sick”. In this
example the author assumes that if one event chronologically follows
another the first event must have caused the second. But the illness could
have been caused by the burrito the night before, a flu bug that had been
working on the body for days, or a chemical spill across campus. There is
no reason, without more evidence, to assume the water caused the person to
be sick.
   Genetic Fallacy: A conclusion is based on an argument that the origins
of a person, idea, institute, or theory determine its character, nature, or
worth. Example: “The Volkswagen Beetle is an evil car because it was
originally designed by Hitler's army”. In this example the author is equating
the character of a car with the character of the people who built the car.
However, the two are not inherently related.
   Begging the Claim: The conclusion that the writer should prove is
validated within the claim. Example: “Filthy and polluting coal should be
banned”. Arguing that coal pollutes the earth and thus should be banned
would be logical. But the very conclusion that should be proved, that coal
causes enough pollution to warrant banning its use, is already assumed in
the claim by referring to it as "filthy and polluting."
    Circular Argument: This restates the argument rather than actually
proving it. Example: “He is a good communicator because he speaks
effectively”. In this example the conclusion that he is a "good
communicator" and the evidence used to prove it "he speaks effectively" are
basically the same idea. Specific evidence such as using everyday language,
breaking down complex problems, or illustrating his points with humorous
stories would be needed to prove either half of the sentence.
   Either/or: This is a conclusion that oversimplifies the argument by
reducing it to only two sides or choices. Example: “We can either stop using
cars or destroy the earth”. In this example where two choices are presented
as the only options, yet the author ignores a range of choices in between
such as developing cleaner technology, car sharing systems for necessities
and emergencies, or better community planning to discourage daily driving.
   Ad hominem: This is an attack on the character of a person rather than
their opinions or arguments. Example: “Green Peace's strategies aren't
effective because they are all dirty, lazy hippies”. In this example the author
doesn't even name particular strategies Green Peace has suggested, much
less evaluate those strategies on their merits. Instead, the author attacks the
characters of the individuals in the group.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  91

    Ad populum: This is an emotional appeal that speaks to positive (such
as patriotism, religion, democracy) or negative (such as terrorism or
fascism) concepts rather than the real issue at hand. Example: “If you were
a true American you would support the rights of people to choose whatever
vehicle they want”. In this example the author equates being a "true
American," a concept that people want to be associated with, particularly in
a time of war, with allowing people to buy any vehicle they want even
though there is no inherent connection between the two.
    Red Herring: This is a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues,
often by avoiding opposing arguments rather than addressing them.
Example: “The level of mercury in seafood may be unsafe, but what will
fishers do to support their families”. In this example the author switches the
discussion away from the safety of the food and talks instead about an
economic issue, the livelihood of those catching fish. While one issue may
effect the other it does not mean we should ignore possible safety issues
because of possible economic consequences to a few individuals.
    Straw Man: This move oversimplifies an opponent's viewpoint and then
attacks that hollow argument. Example: “ People who don't support the
proposed state minimum wage increase hate the poor”. In this example the
author attributes the worst possible motive to an opponent's position. In
reality, however, the opposition probably has more complex and
sympathetic arguments to support their point. By not addressing those
arguments, the author is not treating the opposition with respect or refuting
their position.
    Moral Equivalence: This fallacy compares minor misdeeds with major
atrocities. Example: “That parking attendant who gave me a ticket is as bad
as Hitler”. In this example the author is comparing the relatively harmless
actions of a person doing their job with the horrific actions of Hitler. This
comparison is unfair and inaccurate.
    Logical fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the
logic of your argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments or
irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that
supports their claim. Avoid these common fallacies in your own arguments
and watch for them in the arguments of others.

                               reziume
maia CxeiZe
logikuri argumentebis konstruirebis problema

   komunikaciis efeqturobas sxvadsxva faqtori gansazRvravs. erT-erTi
maTgani komunikaciaSi koreqtuli deduqciuri da induqciuri argumentebis
gamoyenebaa. argumentis koreqtuloba gulisxmobs mis vargisianobas, sxva
sityvebiT, mis realurobasa da safuZvlianobas. rogor unda Sefasedes
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  92

argumenti? ra aris misi vargisianobis mtkicebuleba? rogor unda
SevamowmoT da davrwmundeT, rom argumenti efeqturia?
   logika warmoadgens argumentis vargisianobis gansazRvris yvelaze
efeqtur saSualebas. logikuri argumentis konstruireba gulisxmobs rogorc
formis, ise Sinaarsis mixedviT efeqturi argumentis konstruirebas.

                          Резюме
Майа Чхеидзе
Проблема конструирования логических арнументов

        Эффективность коммуникации определяется различными
факторами. Одним из них является использование корректных
индуктивных и дедуктивный аргументов в коммуникации.
Корректность аргумента подразумевает его годность, другими
словами, его действительность и основательность. Как оценить
аргументы? Что является доказательством их годности? Как проверить
и убедиться в том, что они эффектны?
        Логика     является   самым    эффектным     инструментом
определения годности аргумента. Конструирование логических
аргументов подразумевает конструирование эффектных аргументов,
другими словами, аргументов, эффектных как по форме, так и по
содержанию.


                             Maia Chkheidze

            The Problem of Effective Verbal Communication




     To effectively communicate, we should realize that we are all different
in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to
our communication with others.
    Verbal Communication involves the sending and receiving messages
between and among the participants in the group. The verbal language is
intellectual and suitable for transmitting information in a sophisticated
manner.
    The power of language is a broad term used to describe some of the
functions language can have. Language can provide a way to influence
people’s behaviours and attitudes. People usually use forms of persuasion
and argumentation in order to carry out their attempts at influencing
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  93

people. The process of persuasion relies on facts and logic to accomplish its
goals. Now, facts and logic must change to the situation and language will
be the basis for that change.
    In small and large organizational units there does exist an order of power
or hierarchy. When a person enacts their influence and control on to a
person who has to obey, feelings of resentment can occur within the group
causing interpersonal conflict.
    The process of persuasion is the use of language to persuade, issue an
order, make a request and so on. Persuasion is a goal oriented ideal because
the persuader is attempting to change what the other person is doing or
saying. Although nonverbal factors play a role in persuasion, such as
physical appearance, the basic premise for persuasion is that the proposal
has to be in linguistic form.
    Ice breakers play a very important role in small group communication.
The sole purpose of an ice breaker is to get the members of the group to
relax and participate in group discussions.
 Examples of some Ice Breakers include the following:
 What person in your life has most influenced you?
 What is something you want people to remember about you?
 If you could make one wish that would come true, what would it be?
 What is one thing you would like to accomplish in your lifetime?
 Who would you lend $500 no questions asked?
 What is something you want to see before you die?
 Have you ever had something stolen?
    In order for language to accomplish the users goals there must be
different ways to express their ideas, goals, wants and needs within the
group.
 The instrumental function of language can be used to express what a person
wants or needs. “I want.”
    The regulatory function of language can be used to instruct somebody or
to maintain order within the group. “Do as I tell you.”
The interactional function of language is the exchange of dialogue between
people within the group. “Me and You.”
    The personal function of language is used to inform someone of your
intentions within the group. “Here I come.”
    The heristic function of language is used to question something within
the group. "Tell me why.”
    The informative function of language is used to relate information to the
group. “I have something to say.”
    Miscommunication is a problem that may occur in a group. That group
must then be able to deal with the miscommunication. Three types of
miscommunication are misunderstanding, non-understanding and
misinterpretation.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                     94

    Misunderstanding is when one group member gains an interpretation that
he/she believes is accurate, but in reality is not the interpretation the speaker
intended the listener to gain.
Non-understanding is when a group member either does not gain any
interpretation at all, or gains more than one interpretation with no way to
choose                               between                                them.
    Misinterpretation is when the interpretation of a group member’s
statement suggests that his/her values and beliefs are different from the
other group members values and beliefs.
    Miscommunication can occur in anything that communication is used
in. Some good examples can be found in ads that you would find in
newspapers and magazines.
 Dog for sale: eats anything and is fond of children.
 Tired of cleaning yourself? Let me do it.
 Stock up and save. Limit: one.
 Used Cars: Why go elsewhere to be cheated? Come here first!
 Wanted. Man to take care of cow that does not smoke or drink.
Our experienced Mom will care for your child. Fenced yard, meals, and
smacks                                                                  included.
Illiterate? Write today for help.
    Miscommunication can also be found in quotes of people in the media.
“I am a jelly doughnut”- English translation of John F. Kennedy speaking at
the Berlin Wall. “Nixon has been sitting in the White House while George
McGovern has been exposing himself to the people of the United States."-
Frank Licht, then governor of Rhode Island, campaigning for McGovern in
1972.
    Misleading words are used by speakers in order to mislead their
listeners into believing only a part or none of an actual message.
    Devious messages require the use of indirectness in order to escape from
embarrassing questions. The idea is to satisfy the questioner without
responding with a yes or no.
    Lying and evasion can be classified as deceptive communication. This
deceptive communication acts as a way for the speaker to hide their actual
beliefs or actions. By using lying and evasion the speaker gains some
power over the listeners because he/she has obscured the true beliefs or
actions.
    Words that bypass critical thought are used to misdirect attention while
at the same time achieving the speaker’s goals. By using these words the
speaker can convey his/her message without it being examined.
    Evocative words have the ability to evoke a very precise structure of
beliefs, values, or emotions. These are often loaded words that when
provide a very strong response in the direction of that person’s beliefs and
values.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  95

    Improving communication skills is a vital part of being a group member.
By improving your communication skills you will be able to make it easier
for others in the group to interpret your remarks as you intended.
    When listeners appear bored, or inattentive, you may have talked too
long. You should state your ideas as simply and briefly as possible. When
you talk too long it reduces the opportunity for others to speak and causes
members to tune out the speaker.
    You should not contribute more than one idea at a time. A several point
speech is out because the group can only discuss one point at a time. If you
attempt to give all the information on an issue, the group will not be able to
follow you and respond meaningfully.
    A good pattern to follow when in a group discussion is as follows, relate
your contribution to what has already been said, state your idea, develop
and support it with evidence, and connect it to the topic or phase of the
problem being discussed.




                               reziume
maia CxeiZe
efeqturi verbaluri komunikaciis problema

   adamianebi gamoxataven TavianT ideebs, miznebs, survilebsa da
moTxovnilebebs enis meSveobiT. imisaTvis rom efeqturad vurTierTobdeT,
unda gavacnobieroT, rom Cven ganvsxvavdebiT erTmaneTisagan samyaros
aRqmis TvalsazrisiT. swored am Tvalsazriss viyenebT adamianebTan
urTierTobaSi. ena, SesaZloa, iqces adamianTa qcevasa da maT
Sexedulebebze zegavlenis saSualebad. adamianebi, rogorc wesi, iyeneben
efeqturi komunikaciis teqnologiebs, raTa gavlena moaxdinon sxvebze.
darwmunebis procesi efuZneba faqtebsa da logikas.


                          Резюме
Майа Чхеидзе
Проблема эффективной вербальной коммуникации

  Люди выражают свои идеи, цели, желания и потребности при
помощи языка. Чтобы эффективно общаться, мы должны осознать, что
мы разные в том, как мы воспринимаем мир и используем это
понимание для нашего общения с другими людьми. Язык может стать
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                96

способом влияния на поведение людей и на их взгляды. Люди, как
правило, используют технологии эффективной коммуникации с тем,
чтобы повлиять на других. Процесс убеждения опирается на факты и
логику.



             studenturi gverdebi




                          mariam geliaSvili
                           maia geliaSvili
             saqarTveloSi ganaTlebis istoriuli saZirkvlebi




          adamianis ganaTleba misi zrdis, misi pirovnuli Tvisebebis
Camoylibebis mTel process moicavs. cxadia, cneba ganaTleba adamianis
oficialur saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi swavliT ar Semoifargleba. is
sul swavlobs, swavlobs da sakuTar Tvalsazriss ayalibebs sxva adamianebis,
zogadad, samyarosa da masSi moqmedi bunebis kanonebis Sesaxeb. es
uwyveti procesia da aSkaraa, rom oficialuri swavleba am procesis mxolod
erTi nawilia.
          bibliis Tanaxmad, yovelgvari swavla-ganaTleba anu sibrZne
uflismieria da adamianebs igi RmerTisgan eZlevaT, amitom codnis
daufleba, anu swavlis mizani RmerTis saqmeTa wvdomaa, RmerTis
gangebulebiTve: “... uflis SiSia sibrZne da borotisagan ganridebaa goneba
(iob. 28:28). amdenad, radgan goniereba borotisagan gamijvnas niSnavs, igi
sikeTe yofila, romelic uflis mcnebaTa Secnoba-SesrulebiT miiRweva,
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 97

amitom “netaria adamiani sibrZnis mpovneli da adamiani – Wkuis
momxveWeli!” (igav. 3:13) (3)
          saukuneebis manZilze amierkavkasiis qveynebi da maT Soris
saqarTvelo Zlieri mezobeli saxelmwifoebis yuradRebis centrSi iyvnen. am
faqts, erTi mxriv, qveynis ekonomikuri Zliereba da bunebrivi simdidre, xolo
meore mxriv, samxedro-strategiuli TvalsazrisiT xelsayreli mdebareoba
ganapirobebda. amitom saqarTvelos yovelTvis uxdeboda sxvadasxva
saxelmwifoebis winaaRmdeg brZola da maTgan Tavdacva. saqarTvelo
nebiT Tu uneblied odiTganve eziara aRmosavlur da dasavlur kulturul
mimdinareobebs, romelTa ganviTarebaSi Tavadac Sehqonda garkveuli
wvlili. am mxriv gansakuTrebuli roli wina aziis da saberZneTis teritoriaze
aRmocenebulma qarTuli kulturis kerebma Seasrules.
          qarTveli filosofosebi cnobilni iyvnen, rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise
wina aziur Tu berZnul samyaroSi. aseTi iyo magaliTad, 3-4 saukuneSi
moRvawe bakuri, romlis saxiTac farTo erudiciis mqone neoplatonuri
mimarTulebis filosofosi warmogvidgeba, me-5 saukuneSi moRvawe petre
iberi, romelmac garkveuli mimdinareobis skola Seqmna siriaSi.
          petre iberis siriul skolasTan iyvnen dakavSirebuli me-6 saukunis
saqarTveloSi Semobrunebuli asureli mamebi, romlebic Teologiur-filosofiuri
codniT iyvnen aRWurvilni. saqarTveloSi Semosvlis Semdeg maTi
saqmianoba qristianobis ganmtkicebas isaxavda miznad.
          uxsovari droidan saqarTveloSi Seiqmna saswavlo-samecniero
dawesebulebani, romlebmac kavSiri daamyares sxva qveynebis analogiur
centrebTan. III-IV saukuneebSi qalaq fazisSi (foTSi) yofila filosofiur-
ritorikuli akademia, romlis arseboba viciT berZnebisagan, radgan CvenTan
waSlilia misi yoveli literaturuli kvali. kolxeTis akademiaSi “ritorikuli
ganaTleba” miuRiaT berZen filosofosebs mama-Svils evgeniossa da
Temistioss. erTaderTi cnoba akademiis Sesaxeb Temistiosis werilSia
daculi; Tu ra enaze mimdinareobda swavleba, samwuxarod, araferia
naTqvami rogorc akad. s. yauxCiSvili aRniSnavs “raki foTis maxloblad
iseTi ritorikuli skola moipoveboda, sadac bizantiidan warmogzavnili,
axalgazrdebi swavlobdnen, TavisTavad igulisxmeba, rom kolxeTis
teritoriaze saswavlebeli daarsebuli iqneboda ara marto ucxoelebisaTvis,
aramed pirvel rigSi adgilobrivi kolxebisaTvis”. (1)
          saqarTveloSi filosofiuri codnis miRebis ZvelTaganve arsebuli
tradicia qristianobis damkvidrebis Semdeg periodSic grZeldeba, magram
amieridan igi       Teologiis saburvelSia gaxveuli da mis samsaxurSi
Cayenebuli.
          Tavdapirvelad kolxeTsa da qarTlSi iseTi specifikuri skolebi,
romlebSic SesaZlebeli iqneboda qristes moZRvrebis swavleba da
gavrceleba, ar arsebobda. qristianuli swavlebis iaraRad gamoiyeneboda:
mqadagebelTa cocxali sityva, piradi magaliTi da qristianuli ojaxis saTno
cxovrebis wesi. qristianuli ojaxi, romelic misdevda ieso qristes da
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               98

mociqulTa swavlebas, didi xnis ganmavlobaSi iTvleboda WeSmaritebasTan
ziarebis da aRzrdis erTaderT skolad.
         qarTlis cxovrebaSi daculia cnobebi vaxtang gorgaslis aRzrdis
Sesaxeb – “Semdgomad amisa moxada mefeman yovelTa warCinebulTa
qalaqad, da dReTa mravalTa yo puroba da gancxroma, da evedrebodes
yovelni RmerTsa aRzrdisaTvis yrmisa vaxtangisasa. moiTxova mefisagan
sazrdod saurmag spaspetman vaxtang, didiTa vedrebiTa, xolo mianiWa
mefeman da misca Ze misi vaxtang saurmags spaspetsa sazrdod. rameTu
wesi iyo, romel Svilni mefeTani warCinebulTa saxlsa Sina aRizardian”.(1)
es wesi saqarTveloSi uZvelesi droidan Cans gavrcelebuli. aseT aRmzrdels,
romelTanac Svils gaabarebdnen “mamaZuZe” erqva, mis movaleobas
mibarebuli bavSvis aRzrdaze meTvalyureoba Seadgenda.
         saqarTveloSi qristianobis oficialur religiad gamocxadebis Semdeg
swavleba ZiriTadad eklesia-monastrebTan warmoebda, romelTa daarsebam
xeli Seuwyo qristianuli rwmenis gavrcelebas. swored eklesiebi gaxdnen is
adgilebi, sadac mosaxleoba axali religiis – qristianobis Sesaxeb codnas
iRebda. qristianuli swavlebis gavrcelebis erT-erT organizebul formad
kaTakmevelTa skolebi iqcnen, romlebic qristianuli samyaros pirvel
saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebad iTvlebian. qarTuli marTlmadidebluri
skola, rogorc uZvelesi samociqulo eklesiis Semadgeneli nawili, kanonierad
iTvleboda uZvelesi qristianuli skolebis memkvidred. amitom is WeSmariti
suliereba, romelic gzas unaTebda Cvens eklesias saukuneebis manZilze,
qarTuli qristianuli ganaTlebis mtkice safuZveli unda iyos amJamad da
momavalSic.
         qristianobam gansakuTrebuli gavlena iqonia saqarTvelos istoriis
oriaTaswlovan monakveTSi momavali Taobis aRzrda-ganviTarebaze,
saerTod skolis da pedagogikuri azris ganviTarebaze. saqarTvelom, radgan
ganviTarebis mTavar orientirad qristianoba airCia misi gavlena
ganmsazRvreli gaxda sazogadoebisaTvis, amitomac aRmoCnda igi
momavali Taobebis aRzrda-ganaTlebis safuZvelTaA-safuZveli. qarTuli
aRzrda-ganaTlebis sistema qristianuli religiis wiaRSi viTardeboda da misi
warmmarTveli qvakuTxedi Zveli da axali aRTqma iyo.
         saqarTveloSi qristianobis damkvidrebis Semdgomi xanidan, vidre
me-10-11 saukuneebamde aRzrdis procesSi ZiriTadi saswavlo sagnebi iyo
“qarTuli mwignobroba, risTvisac ZiriTadad himnografiuli Janris
Txzulebebi gamoiyeneboda, Teologia, filosofia, himnografia, liturgika
(eklesia-monastrebTan arsebul skolebSi), ucxo ena, an enebi, saqarTvelos
da sazRvargareTis qveynebis mokle istoria da bolos moZRvreba adamianis
bunebis Sesaxeb.
         saswavlod gankuTvnili saxelmZRvaneloebi jer kidev asureli
mamebis dros iwereboda. magaliTad, Sio mRvimelis originaluri
saxelmZRvanelo wigni dauweria Tavisi moswavleebisaTvis, roca “raTa
misces maT swavlani mis mierni”. maSin “aRuwera maT” Siom “as samoci
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  99

Tavis swavla‡ yovlad mSvenieri da tkbili, romliTa ganiswavleboda yovelni
igi krebulni”. (1)
         me-9-10 saukuneebis Satberdis krebuli erTgvar warmodgenas
qmnis imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra saxis saxelmZRvaneloebi arsebobda am dros
saqarTveloSi. Satberdi kulturis erT-erTi kera iyo, iseve, rogorc
saqarTveloSi arsebuli sxva samonastro centrebi da amave dros, rogorc
Cans, aq saswavlo centric arsebobda. Satbrdis krebulSi Setanilia Sromebi,
kerZod, grigol noselis adamianis bunebis Sesaxeb codnis Semcveli
Txzuleba – “kacisa SesaqmisaTvis”, saistorio matiane - “moqceva‡
qarTlisa‡”, basili didis cxovelTa qcevebis Semcveli Txzuleba, ipolite
romaelis Zveli da axali saRmrTo werilebis Sesaxeb mocemuli
ganmartebebi, epifane kviprelis naSromi Tormeti Zvirfasi Tvlis Sesaxeb,
daviTis fsalmunebis daCiseuli Targmani, qronologiuri cnobebi gamoCenil
ebraelTa, sparsTa, romaelTa da bizantiel mefeTa Sesaxeb da bolos
saswavlo wigni ebraul da berZnul anbanze da Zveli aRTqmis wignTa
Sesaxeb.
         adrefeodaluri xanis saqarTveloSi, iseve, rogorc mis wina
periodebSi, ganaTlebis miRebis saSualeba da uflebac mxolod maRali wris
Svilebs hqondaT. warCinebuli ojaxebi saxlSi iwvevdnen maswavleblebs an
mozards mRvdels miabarebdnen gasawvrTnelad. magaliTad, ilarion
qarTveli “iyo ... samTavroTagan kaxeTisa, mSobelTagan didebulTa da
warCinebulTa        da simdidriTa gardasulTa, xolo mama misi
mxedarTmflobeli iyo”. (1) am warCinebulma eris kacma, roca mis Svils
ilarions eqvsi weli Seusrulda, miiyvana mRvdelTan saswavleblad da
Teologiur mecnierebaSi “iwurTida maradis” vidre Teqvsmet wlamde.
         giorgi mTawmindelic warCinebuli ojaxidan iyo da mamamisma
iakobma Svili dawyebiTi ganaTlebis misaRebad jer taZrisis monasterSi
miiyvana, xolo Semdeg xaxuls gadaiyvana, sadac ilarion Tualels Caabares.
         giorgi merCules “grigol xanZTelis cxovrebidan” Cans, rom grigoli
qarTlis erisTavma nersem iSvila, Tavisi zedamxedvelobis qveS zrdida da
mas saxlSi mowveuli maswavlebelebi aswavlidnen.
         swavlebis, codnis gadacemis terminad ixmareba “moZRvreba”. es
termini Semdgom xanebSi (me-11s) swavlebis gamomxatveli ZiriTadi
cneba xdeba. ufro adre ki “swavliTa” da “wurTiT” gamoixateboda.
         me-8 saukunis naxevridan me-10 saukunis dasasrulamde tao-
klarjeTi xdeba savane qarTuli kulturisa da ganaTlebisa. qarTlidan devnili da
arabTagan Seviwroebuli mosaxleoba tao-klarjeTisken midioda, sadac
simSvide iyo. qarTlidan daiZra samonastro kolonizaciac, romlis moTave
iyo beri grigol xanZTeli. grigols klarjeTSi daxvda mxolod erTi qarTuli
monasteri opiza, xolo Semdeg ukve gaxda klarjeTis Tormeti monastris
arqimandriti, romlebic qarTuli kulturis da ganaTlebis kerebs
warmoadgendnen. yovel monasterTan iyo skola, seminaria, sadac
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               100

aswavlidnen wera-kiTxvas, saRmrTo sjuls, filosofias, berZnuls da sxva
enebs, galobas, kaligrafias, mxatvrobas, oqromWedlobas da sxva.
          swored tao-klarjeTidan daiwyo da gaerTianda mTeli saqarTvelo
bagrationTa dinastiis meTaurobiT. bagrat III-is Semdeg centralizebuli
xelisuflebis ganmtkicebisaTvis brZola sabolood Zlieri monarqiuli
xelisuflebis SeqmniT damTavrda daviT aRmaSeneblis dros da aqedan
iwyeba gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos oqros xana.
          qveynis gaerTianebam saqarTvelos sxvadasxva mxareebis
ekonomikur daaxloebas Seuwyo xeli. misi erTiani istoriis dawerac
moiTxova da me-11 saukunis meore naxevarSi safuZveli Caeyara “qarTlis
cxovrebis” Seqmnas. agebul iqna xuroTmoZRvrebis brwyinvale Zeglebi:
bagratis taZari, sveticxoveli, bedia, alaverdi, samTavisi, nokorwminda,
ikorTa, berTubani, beTania, gelaTi da sxva taZrebi.
          saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareTac Sendeboda eklesia-monastrebi,
romlebSic ZiriTadad warmoebda kulturuli da literaturul-saganmanaTleblo
muSaoba. am mxriv gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqonda aTonis iveriis
monasters (saberZneTis teritoriaze), sadac eqvTime da giorgi
mTawmindelebi moRvaweobdnen da petriwonis qarTvelTa monasters
(dRevandeli bulgareTis teritoriaze), sadac Tavdapirvelad cnobili qarTveli
filosofosi ioane petriwi moRvaweobda.
          saqarTveloSi kulturis saerTo donis ganviTarebas swavla-
ganaTlebis saqmis aRmavlobac kvaldakval mihyveboda. me-11-12
saukuneebSi eklesia-monastrebTan arsebuli skolebi erT-erTi oficialuri saxis
skolebi iyo. aseve am droisaTvis gavrcelebuli yofila tradiciuli kerZo saxis
saSinao swavlebac.
          adreuli xanis did monastrebTan (oSki, opiza, Satberdi, xanZTa,
berTa, oTxTa eklesia) arsebobda farTo moculobis mqone Senobebi.
akademikos eqvTime TayaiSvilis dakvirvebiT es Senobebi monastrebTan
arsebuli seminarebisaTvis iyo gankuTvnili.
          oSkis monastris kompleqsSi ZiriTadi taZris CrdiloeTiT mdgari
aseTi Senoba oTxkuTxa darbazia, aseve iyo oTxTa eklesiis seminariaSi da
sxva. seminariis Senobebi aRniSnul monastrebTan calke dgas iseve, rogorc
gelaTisa da iyalTos akademiis Senobebi.
          istoriuli wyaroebidan Cans, rom me-11 saukunis saqarTveloSi
swavleba jgufuri, saklaso sistemiT mimdinareobda, sadac moswavleebi
asakobrivi principis mixedviT iyvnen dayofili, amis damadasturebelia
giorgi mcires cnoba, rom saqarTvelos qalaqad Tu soflad maswavleblebi aT,
TxuTmet an oc moswavles erTad aswavlian.
          skolebSi imave sagnebis swavleba xdeboda, rac adrefeodaluri
xanis saqarTveloSi iyo gaTvaliswinebuli (Teologia-filosofia, himnografia,
liturgika-eklesia-monastrebTan arsebul skolebSi, qarTuli mwignobroba da
ucxo ena). rac Seexeba saswavlo saxelmZRvaneloebs, Teologiis safuZvlebi
iswavleboda berZnulidan gadmoRebuli katexizmoTi, romelic Seicavda
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               101

istoriul elementebs, qristianuli religiis gavrcelebas, saeklesio krebebis
Sinaarss, am krebaTa mowvevis adglsa da mefeTa moRvaweobis dros.
          filosofiur-Teologiuri codnis misaRebad umetesad berZnulidan
Targmnil wignebs iyenebdnen. Tu me-11 saukunemde am mxriv
gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisa iyo ioane damaskelis filosofiuri Txzulebebi,
me-11 saukunidan ioane petriwi Targmnis filosofiur Txzulebebs da
nemesios-emeselis, prokle diadoxosis, aristoteles Sromebs da Tavisi cnobili
komentarebiT gelaTis umaRlesi saswavleblisaTvis qarTul saxelmZRvanelo
filosofiur Txzulebebs qmnis.
          me-11 saukunidan, roca saistorio nawarmoebebi Seiqmna da
safuZveli Caeyara “qarTlis cxovrebis” (saqarTvelos istoriis) Sedgenas,
istoria saswavlo programebSi Sevida, rogorc damoukidebeli, calke sagani.
          vinaidan me-5 saukunidan me-12 saukunemde saqarTveloSi
umaRlesi ganaTlebis centri ar arsebobda, swavlis gagrZelebis msurveli
didgvarovnebi ukve me-11 saukunidan bizantiaSi miemgzavrebodnen,
sadac umaRles ganaTlebas manganis akademiaSi Rebulobdnen, romelic
konstantine monomaxma 1045 wels daaarsa konstantinepolSi da romelic
mowinave msoflios umaRlesi ganaTlebis kerad iqca. akademiaSi
swavlobdnen sxvadasxva qveynebidan Casuli axalgazrdebi, romelTa Soris
qarTvelebic iyvnen. magaliTad, cnobili qarTveli filosofosebi ioane petriwi,
arsen iyalToeli, iezikieli, ioane tariWisZe da sxvebi.
          saqarTvelos gaerTianebisa da erT mTlian saxelmwifoebriv-
politikur erTeulad Camoyalibebis Semdeg umaRlesi saswavleblis
saWiroeba gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobi gaxda da me-12 saukunis dasawyisSi,
1106 wels, mefe daviT aRmaSeneblis iniciativiTa da xelSewyobiT gelaTis
akademia daarsda. mematianes gadmocemiT, daviTs gelaTSi
samoRvaweod mouwvevia, rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise mis farglebs gareT
myofi Rirseuli swavluli xalxi. maT Soris iyo petriwonis qarTvelTa
monastris seminariaSi moRvawe qarTveli filosofosi ioane petriwic.
          gelaTis akademia aSenda sayrdenad qarTveli eris qristianul-
religiuri da saxelmwifoebrivi arsebobisa, amitom iyo, rom qarTuli
aRorZinebis xanis poetebma da mematianeebma swored gelaTi dasaxes
“sxvad aTinad” da “sxvad ierusalimad”. es imas niSnavda, rom gelaTi unda
gabrwyinebuliyo taZrad qarTuli azrovnebisa da qarTuli sarwmunoebisa,
aTenisa da ierusalimis simaRleze.
          gelaTSi Seiqmna ara mxolod Targmani da ganmartebani prokles
“Teologiis safuZvlebisa”, aramed Targmanebi qristianuli eklesiis iuridiuli
safuZvlebisa, Targmanebi saeklesio kanonsamarTlisa, arsen iyalToelis
mier, romelsac ewoda “didi sjulis kanoni”.
          gelaTis akademiis specialuri Tanamdebobis piri xelmZRva-
nelobda, romelic “moZRvarT moZRvaris” tituls atarebda. akademikos
eqvTime TayaiSvilis mier aRmoCenil da gamocemul “xelmwifis karis
garigebis~ winasityvaobaSi “moZRvarT-moZRvari” metad patvcemuli,
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               102

ganaTlebuli piria, romelic maswavlebelTa maswavleblis SinaarsiTaa
moxseniebuli da gelaTSi imyofeba, rogorc iq arsebuli akademiis reqtori.
“karis garigebis” mixedviT “moZRvarT moZRvari” sasuliero da
didxarisxovan monazonTa Soris yvelgan pirveli ixseneba (magaliTad,
“moZRvarT-moZRvari”, Wyondideli da kaTalikozni qarTlisa da
abxazeTisa”).
         aris cnoba imis Sesaxeb, rom umaRlesi saswavlebeli arsebobda
iyalToSi akademiis saxiT, romelsac arsen iyalToeli xelmZRvanelobda.
amaze metyvelebs xuroTmoZRvruli Senobis naSTebi, romelic saeroO
daniSnulebis nagebobas ufro waagavs, vidre samonastros. mkvlevarebi
aRiareben iyalTosa da gelaTis akademiebis SenobaTa msgavsebas,
miuxedavad imisa, rom gelaTisagan gansxvavebiT iyalTos akademiis
Senoba orsarTuliania.
         gelaTis akademiis saswavlo programas safuZvlad unda dasdeboda
is samecniero disciplinebi, romlebzec ioane petriwi msjelobda, da romelTa
mixedviTac imxanad aswavlidnen bizantiis umaRles saswavlebelSi. es
samecniero disciplinebi e.w. trivium-quadrivium-is cikli. petriwi jer
trivium-Si Semaval disciplinebze – geometriaze, ariTmetikaze da musikaze
msjelobs, romlebic saRvTismetyvelo ganaTlebis pirvel ciklad aqvs
warmodgenili. meore ciklis disciplinebia: filosofia, romelsac samgvari saxe
aqvs – praqtikuli (saqmiTi), Teoriuli (mxedvelobiTi) da dialeqtikuri
(ganmsityvelobiTia) ritorika, romelic samad iyofa. saTaTbiro, anu
bWobisaTvis gamosayenebeli ritorika, sapaeqro, romelsac Zvel
saberZneTSi da saqarTveloSi praqtikuli mniSvneloba hqonda da
dResaswaulebze gamosayenebeli ritorika. amave ciklSi Sedioda –
gramatika da astronomia.
         garda am disciplinebisa gelaTis akademiaSi, rogorc Cans,
medicinac iswavleboda. profesor mixeil Sengelias dakvirvebiT me-13
saukunis dasawyisSi Targmnilia samedicino xasiaTis „wigni saaqimo‡„
swored saswavlo daniSnulebis saxelmZRvanelo naSromi unda yofiliyo,
romelic qarTul umaRles saswavlebelSi, kerZod, gelaTSi medicinis sagnis
swavlebasTan dakavSirebiT ixmareboda.
         qarTul eqstrateritorialur dasaxlebaTa Soris cnoba erTaderTi
saswavleblis arsebobis Sesaxeb mxolod petriwonis monasterTan gvxvdeba.
es saswavlebeli petriwonis monastrisaTvis mRvdlebs amzadebda, swavla
qarTul enaze mimdinareobda, radgan tipikoni aRniSnul monasterSi mxolod
qarTuli wera-kiTxvis mcodne berebis yofnas iTvaliswinebda.
         daviT aRmaSeneblis mier ganxorcielebulma reformebma
ganamtkica qveynis saSinao da sagareo mdgomareoba, aamaRla misi
kulturis done. saxelovani mefis saganmanaTleblo muSaobam SeakavSira
erTmaneTs qarTveli swavlulebi, aaRorZina iyalTosa da gelaTis
akademiebi, daiwyo intensiuri samecniero-kvleviTi saqmianoba. qarTuli
renesansis epoqis wyaroebSi farTod aris gamoyenebuli Zveli
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               103

aRmosavleTisa da antikuri qveynebis moazrovneebis – sokrates, platonis,
aristoteles da sxvaTa progresuli filosofiur-politikuri moZRvrebebi, ramac
asaxva hpova rusTavelis, SavTelis, CaxruxaZis, petriwis, qarTveli
istorikosebis nawarmobebSi, romelTa warmoSoba Semzadebuli iyo
mravalsaukunovani kulturiT. amis naTeli dadasturebaa SoTa rusTaveli
Tavisi ukvdavi ,,vefxistyaosniT”.


gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. gamsaxurdia s. ,,swavla-ganaTleba Zvel saqarTveloSi“. Tbilisi, 1975;
2. swavla-aRzrdis istoria saqarTveloSi masalebis krebuli. tomi I. Tbilisi,
      1937;
3. asaTiani a. narkvevebi ,,qristianobis pedagogikis istoriidan“. tomi I.
      Tbilisi, 2007;
4. lobJaniZe g. narkvevebi qarTul sazogadoebriv-politikur moZRvrebaTa
      istoriidan. tomi I. Tbilisi, 1998;
5. sumbaZe d. „deda uflisaTvis anu gelaTis akademia da berZnuli filosofiis
      dasasruli“. Tbilisi, 1997;
6. javaxiSvili iv. „qarTveli eris istoria“. tomi IV. Tbilisi, 1967;
7. qarTuli emigrantuli literatura, “dabruneba” eqvTime TayaiSvili. tomi I,
      Tbilisi, 1991.




                                 Resume


Mariam Geliashvili
Maia Geliashvili
Historical roots of education in Georgia

  The Georgian erudites brought up on rich traditions of Kolkhetian
Academy, have played the leading role in spreading educational ideas in
antique and other periods in Georgia. This fact resulted in the strong
humanistic movement. Rich soil for the Georgian Renaissance and its
ideology has been prepared, which has been based on rich materialistic and
spiritual leadership.
   Since the ancient times, when there were no educational centers, the
educational system has been based on a family, private education, but after
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                104

announcing Christianity as State religion, teaching was carried out at
schools at churches and monasteries, where the Georgian pedagogic thought
has been evolved, which is the main condition for materialistic and spiritual
development.



                                  Резюме

Мариам Гелиашвили
Майя Гелиашвили
Исторические корни образования в Грузии

  Грузинские учѐные, воспитанные в богатых традициях Колхетинской
Академии, сыграли большую роль в деле основания и распространения
просветительной мысли античного и последующего периода. С их
помощью в Грузии началось сильное гуманистическое движение. Была
подготовлена почва для грузинского Ренессанса и его идеологии,
которая основывалась на материальных и духовных предпосылках
единой Грузии.
  С древних времѐн, когда в Грузии еще не существовало
образовательных очагов, вся система образования опиралась на
частную и семейную учебу, но после того, как государственной
религией была объявлена христианская религия, учѐба велась в
школах и семинариях при монастырях и церквях, где была заложена
основа грузинской педагогической мысли и учебно-просветительной
работы, что представляло главную задачу в развитии материальной и
духовной силы в стране.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                105




                              daCi TaqTaqiSvili

                 xmamaRali fiqrebi deda-Svilobis fenomenze




                        `dedas vuyvarvarT Svilebi,
                        deda ar gvaxsovs Svilebsa,
                            mitomac wuTisofeli
                        sul mudam gvacodvilebsa~
                                       xalxuri

         qarTveli kacis es brZnuli amonaTqvami amoativtiva Cems
gonebaSi deda-Svilobis maradiulma problemam da gadavwyvite, es strofi
epigrafad wamemZRvarebina Cemi saTqmelisaTvis deda-Svilobis
fenomenze.
         antuan de sent egziuperis Tqmisa ar iyos, yvelani Cveni
bavSvobidan movdivarT! hoda, maxsendeba skolis wlebi, rodesac yvelaze
bejiTi moswavleebic ki skrupulozurad gadmoscemdnen sakontrolo weris
dros jer nawarmoebis Sinaarss, xolo Semdeg garCevis wignebidan
amokrebil kritikosTa azrebs. dRes, albaT, srulwlovanma adamianma
TviTdamkvidreba sakuTari (Tundac mcdari!) da ara sxvaTa azriT unda
moaxerxos. amitomac Sevecdebi, am problemaze sakuTari Tvalsawieridan
gavmarTo TqvenTan bWoba da Cemeburi xedva SemogTavazoT!
Secdomebisgan ar var dazRveuli, magram me xom xelovnebis samsaxuri
avirCie da, rogorc pianists, Semoqmeds, ufleba ar maqvs epigonobis. me
Cemi bgera unda aRmovaCino, Cem saTqmels mivagno da giTxraT!
vnaxoT, ra gamomiva.
         nebismier qarTvels araerTxel aqvs wakiTxuli rogorc didi ilia
WavWavaZis `oTaraanT qvrivi~, aseve ubrwyinvalesi qarTveli novelistis –
niko lorTqifaniZis `Tavsafriani dedakaci~. bevric dauweriaT am or tragikul
dedaze, - lorTqifaniZesTan Svilebs Soris siaruliT gamcvdar, swori gzis
ZiebaSi Caferflil qvriv qalze, iliasTan ki rkinis nebisyofis mqone, Seudrekel
oTaraanT qvrivze, romelic mxolod Svilis tragedias SeeZlo gaetexa da
misive saflavze aResrulebina.
         imis miuxedavad, rom Tavsafriani dedakaci Svilebis umadurobam
samudamod gadakarga ugzo-ukvlod ojaxidan, mas ar daviwyebia zrunva
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                106

imisaTvis, rom misi Svilebis Rirseba ar Selaxuliyo, saxeli ar gaetexa
maTTvis, xalxSi ar Seercxvina da ukanasknel werilSi maTdami, pirvelad
icrua Tavis sicocxleSi: `sayvarelo Svilebo! nu miwyenT, salocavad wavedi,
nu meZebT... SviliSvilebi damikocneT. Cemze nu swuxarT, mSvidobiT
samudamod!~...
          niko lorTqifaniZem am Svidgverdian novelaSi imgvari saocari
sisruliT dainaxa da gviCvena erTi Tavsafriani dedakacis sulieri samyaro,
rom am gmiris saxeSi gamoxata Tavisi xalxis mravali umaRlesi da
uwmindesi Rirseba.
          nawarmoebis epigrafSi avtori SeniSnavs, rom wers `SemTxveviT
Sexvedrilis ambavs~. nu damiwunebTo, - mogvmarTavs mkiTxvelebs, - ar
SemiZlia grZnoba-goneba did pirovnebaze SevaCeroo... `isini aSlian
sulisSemxuTav suraTebs... Semdeg, odesme, maT aRmouCndebaT
mociquli vinme markozi an ioane~ (n. lorTqifaniZe, rCeuli Txzulebani, t. II.
gv. 116).
          me vwer Tavsafrian dedakaczeo.
          damTavrebiT ki es novela ulmobeli WeSmaritebiT mTavrdeba -
`didebuli adamianebi uZeglod ikargebian~...
          rac Seexeba `rkinis qalamnebian~ oTaraanT qvrivs, me mainc
vfiqrob, rom aq ara imdenad `sajanabo qisaze~, an `Catexili xidis~
problemaze msjelobaa mniSvnelovani, ramdenadac maradiul dilemaze
Taobebs Soris, - mamebisa da Svilebis, anu am SemTxvevaSi, deda-
Svilobis maradiul problemaze. vidre am ukanasknel problemas
CavuRrmavdebi, minda gavixseno is, rac Cven yvelas kargad gvaxsovs
skolidanve, - umZafresi kamaTi da winaaRmdegoba Tergdaleulebsa (anu
me-19 saukunis 60-ianelebsa) da maT winamorbed mamuliSvilTa Soris, rac
zogjer erTmaneTis Seuracxmyofeli da miutevebeli cinizmiTac iyo
gamoxatuli. gavixsenoT grigol orbelianis sityvebi ilia WavWavaZis
mimarT: `is liberali, burTiviT mrgvali~... da aranakleb mZafri pasuxi ilias
mxridan:
                  `vina yrixarTo,
                  virebi xarTo, -
                  mag Tqvens zrdilobas
                  viT ekadreba?
                  magram SoTam sTqva, -
                  rac kokaSi sdgas,
                  igive, Turme
                  warmosdindeba!~
(ilia WavWavaZe, Txzulebani or tomad, I t. Tb. 1977, gv. 97)
          mamaTa da SvilTa Taobebs Soris amgvari dapirispirebis safuZveli
ara raRac yofiTis TviTmiznuri da axirebuli akviateba gaxldaT, aramed
uwmindesi, sakraluri ram orive TaobisaTvis, - RvTaebrivi sawyisis mqone
fenomeni – qarTuli sityva, rac umdidresi qarTuli enis Semadgeneli nawilia.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                107

                   `ena mdidari,
                   Tqvens xelSi mkvdari,
                   Cven migviRia gasacocxleblad,
                   da amasac Tqven
                   codvad gviTvliT Cven,
                   raRa piriTa daxvalT am qveynad~... (iqve)
          ilia gaxldaT swored Semoqmedi axali qarTuli saliteraturo enisa.
man moaxdina mSobliuri enis kultivireba, anu qarTl-kaxur dialeqtze
dayrdnobiT, Tanamedrove moTxovnaTa safuZvelze enis daxvewa da
gamorandva, moZvelebuli arqaizmebisa da araqarTuli (kerZod, rusuli)
terminebisagan gaTavisufleba, rac advilad ar eTmoboda wina Taobas.
          Taobebs Soris aseTi dapirispireba ara mxolod qarTul kulturaSi
gvxvdeba, aramed civilizebuli msoflios nebismieri kulturis maxasiaTebelia,
anu (gavbedav da vityvi!) kanonzomierebaa.
          gavixsenoT msoflioSi saxelganTqmuli ori genialuri kompozitoris –
ferenc listisa da rihard vagneris profesiuli uTanxmoebani, romlebic
erTmaneTs siZe-simamrad moxvdebodnen.
          vagneri: `rarig ar miyvars musikaTmcodneobrivi pedantizmi. me
piradad arc erTi `klasikuri da koreqtuli~ monografia ar damiweria, radganac
mwamda, rom amgvari qirurgiuli gakveTiT – rogorc Cemi megobari da
simamri listi ambobda, - ufro klaven kompozitoris pirovnebas, vidre mTeli
Tavisi sulieri samyaroTi warmoaCenen~ (jorje belani, `me, rihard vagneri~,
Tb. 1974, gv. 14). ai, swored am `megobarTan da simamrTan~ hqonia
vagners principuli kamaTi da winaaRmdegoba wminda profesiuli
TvalsazrisiT, rasac mogvianebiT amgvari wrfeli aRiarebiT moinaniebs:
`listi gaxldaT im drois erTaderTi didi musikosi, vinc savsebiT Caswvda
Cems miswrafebas da araTu Suris raime natamali gamoumJRavnebia,
piriqiT, ibrZoda Cemi nawarmoebebis gasavrceleblad. rarig umarTebulod
moviqeci ramdenime wlis winaT parizSi, roca avCqardi da brali davde lists,
ar ki vicodi, rom mis sulSi sastikad ebrZoda erTmaneTs msmenelis mier
damonebuli Semsrulebeli da musikis ganaxlebisaTvis mowadinebuli
gamWriaxi kompozitori~ (iqve, gv. 88).
          CemTvis saintereso problemasTan dakavSirebiT, erTi SesaniSnavi
filmic minda gavixseno. es gaxlavT `ukvdavi satrfo~, romelic eZRvneba
beThovenis cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebas, sadac beThovens gamorCeuli
msaxiobi gari oldmeni ganasaxierebs. sayuradReboa is epizodi, genialur
beThovens misi STamomavali rom dascinis: `es biZaCemi sul
gamoCerCetda, dadis da gaiZaxis: laa-lala lala-lala, laa-lala, la-la-la~. ai,
swored es - umcrosi beThovenis mier gaqilikebuli melodia gaxlavT
`gamoCerCetebuli biZamisis~, diadi ludvig van beThovenis me-9 simfoniis
finalis Tema - `oda sixarulisadmi~, rasac genialuri, ukve dayruebuli
kompozitori imJamad qmnida da musikosad Seumdgari STamomavlis
gasagonad waiRiRinebda xolme.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               108

         magram mivubrundebi isev Cems mTavar saTqmels, oTaraanT
qvrivs, misgan mimavali erTaderTi Svilis Semyures, mis gausaZlisi
kaeSniT savse sityvebs: `Cemgan midis, TiTqo Zafic ar iWers; sxvagan
midis, TiTqo TokiT eweviano~... (ilia WavWavaZe, Txzulebani or tomad, t.
I, Tb. 1977, gv. 502).
         es – gaucxoebaa! Svili dedisaTvis sxva `me~-a, magram dedac aris
da dedac! zogi deda sulgrZelad egueba Svilis `gaucxoebas~, anu dedisgan
gansxvavebul pirovnebad Camoyalibebas; zogs ki surs, sicocxlis bolomde
TviTon iyos zrdadasrulebuli Svilis meurve. es cudia ara mxolod SvilisTvis,
aramed dedisTvisac, romelic Svils pirovnebad ki ara, - monad, an ukeTes
SemTxvevaSi, qveSevrdomad ayalibebs...
         oTaraanT qvrivi umZimesi sulieri tkivilisa da avismomaswavebeli
utyuari deduri intuiciis miuxedavad, sakuTar Tavs gadaabijebs da Svilis
tkivilis gaTavisebas cdilobs, magram... bedisweris winaSe deda-Svili
uZluria.
         miqelanjelo buonarotim da rafael santim siqstinis kapela rom
moxates, rafaelma saocreba aCuqa kacobriobas `siqstinis madonas~ saxiT.
RvTismSobels Svili mihyavs kacobriobis samsxverploze, magram iesos
dedas Segnebuli aqvs am msxverplis aucilebloba, raTa ar moisras
adamianTa modgma, romelTa codvebic swored qristem unda gamoisyidos
Tavisi sisxliTa da ekliani gvirgviniT.
         `...daadges eklis gvirgvini, golgoTas miiwvieso;
         Sesamoseli gaxades, qlamindi moaxvieso...
         qmna sulgrZeloba maTzeda da dasTmo man CvenTvi eso,
         dideba moTminebasa Sensa, ufalo ieso!...
         vai, ra kargi saCino ra avad migiCnieso!...
         dideba moTminebasa Sensa, ufalo ieso!~
(daviT guramiSvili, - `jvarcmis ambavi~, daviTiani, Tbilisi, 1955, gv. 39).
         qarTvel dedasac hqonda Svilis gawirviT siamayis ufleba, radgan
RvTismSoblis wilxvedr qveyanasa da miwas ewirebodnen zvarakad Svilebi,
iqneboda es 9 Zma xerxeuliZe, Tu 300 aragveli, saxelovani yrmani Tu
`usaxelo ufliscixelebi~... es vaJkacebi qarTvel dedaTa Svilebi ki iyvnen,
magram ara `dedikos biWebi~, aramed arwivebi – SiSis zars rom scemdnen
mters TavianTi kamariT qarTul caze.
         dedas Svili acocxlebs da Svili klavs!... RmerTma nu qnas, magram
mtrad Tu moekida, gadamTieli pirsisxliani mteric ver miayenebs dedas iseT
Rrma Wrilobas, rogorsac sakuTari Svili. es Wriloba Seuxorcebelia, es
RvTis risxvaa!
         sokratem `maievtikis Teoria~ Seqmna Tavisi filosofiiT.
`maievtika~ bebiaqalobas niSnavs. sokrate Tvlida, rom agrZelebda Tavisi
dedis, bebiaqalis – fainaretes profesiul saqmianobas zneobriv sferoSi.
ucnauria, magram sokratem es profesia moazrovne mamakacisTvis
misaRebad miiCnia, radgan Tvlida, rom sxvas codnis dabadebaSi unda
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             109

daxmareboda. es iyo moazrovne, romelmac delfosis frontonze warweriT -
`Seican Tavi Seni~, mouwoda adamianebs codnis dauflebisken, codnis
Sesaxeb codnis miRebisaken.
         sakuTari Tavis Secnoba ki pirvelwyaros – gamCenisa da
dambadeblis – dedis moazrebiT iwyeba, magram Tu Svili aq SeCerdeba da
Tu ganviTarebis aucileblobas ver acnobierebs, maSin es kraxia, fiaskoa!
         roca me, 3 wlis bavSvma, dedis xvevna-kocnisagan Turme Tavi
gaviTavisufle da mis alersian sityvebs: `Cemi lamazi, Cemi kargi biWi~,
ase uxeSad gaveci pasuxi: `Sen Seni xar da me Cemi-meTqi~, - deda albaT
unda gamwyromoda, magram dRes rogor mixaria, rom arc gamiwyra,
magram xSirad aRarc manebivrebda Tavisi moferebiT.
         man me, 3 wlisas neba damrTo ukve `pirovneba~ vyofiliyavi.
amiT me, pawawina biWunas gasaocari grZnoba gamiCnda dedis dacvis,
gafrTxilebisa da patronobis.
         me deda-Svilobis aseTi fenomeni momwons da iseTi dedebi,
romelTac SeuZliaT samyaros Svilis TvalebiT Sexedon.
         oTaraanT qvrivi Seecada Svilis suliskveTebas Caswvdomoda,
magram swored Svilis sabediswero Secdomam Seiwira orTave.
         RmerTma dagvifaros `Tavsafrian dedakacSi~ mocemuli
antiRirebulebiTi Svilobis fenomenTan identifikaciisgan! adamianis yvelaze
saZraxi Tviseba umadurobaa, miTumetes, roca `uZRebi Svili~ am
kontrTvisebas dedis winaaRmdeg avlens...
         deda-Sviloba ki iseTi wminda ramaa da iseTi gamWvirvale, rogorc
cremli da mas msaxvrali xeliT ar unda SevexoT, Torem `wuTisofeli sul
mudam gvacodvilebsa~...
         me ase mjera!

gamoyenebuli liiteratura:
   1. ilia WavWavaZe, Txzulebani or tomad, t. I, Tbilisi, 1977;
   2. niko lorTqifaniZe, rCeuli Txzulebani, t. II, Tbilisi, 1953;
   3. jorje belani, me, rihard vagneri, Tb. 1974;
   4. sergi danelia, narkvevebi antikuri da axali filosofiis istoriaSi,
       Tbilisi, 1978, gamomc. Tsu
   5. mose gogiberiZe, rCeuli filosofiuri Txzulebani, III, filosofiis
       istoria, Tbilisi, 1972, gamomc. Tsu
   6. platoni, did hipia, menoni, ioni, Targmani baCana bregvaZis, Tb.
       1975
   7. Швеицер А. «Культура и этика», Москва, 1973
   8. Ф. Ницше, З. Фрейд, Э. Фромм, А. Камю, Ж.П. Сартр,
       Сумерки богов, изд. Политической литературы, М. 1990


                               Summary
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             110


Dachi Taktakishvili
Highbrow Speculation on Mother-and-children Relationship

        This paper deals with the author’s view on the phenomenon of
mother-and children relationship. It implies old but permanently actual
problem of generation gap. It leads to the problem of uprising the
adolescent.
        The above mentioned problem is viewed from the example based
on Georgian classical art, as well as world culture.

                                Резюме

Дачи Тактакишвили
Гласные раздумья о родительском феномене

        В статье предлагается точка зрения автора на проблему
родительского (материнского) феномена, что подразумевает древнюю,
однако вечно актуальную проблему взаимоотношения между
поколениями, которая ведет нас к новой проблеме формирования и
становления подростка как «личности».
        Названные проблемы автором рассмотрены на примерах как
грузинского классического искусства, так и мировой культуры.




                       gvanca gogiSvili
                  oratoruli xelovnebis saTaveebTan



    ritorika, anu mWermetyvelebis Teoria, aris moZRvreba sajaro
gamosvlebis, oratoruli xelovnebis wesebisa da kanonebis Sesaxeb.
    oratoruli xelovnebis istoria antikuri saberZneTidan iwyeba.
imisaTvis, rom SevafasoT antikur xanaSi oratoruli sityvis
gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba, upirveles yovlisa, unda gavixsenoT, rom
saberZneTisa da romis kultura iyo ufro zepiri xasiaTis, wignebi iyo
cota da isic xelnaweri. adamianebi inaxavdnen sayvarel Txzulebebs ara
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                111

Taroebze, aramed gonebaSi. istoriuli Txzulebani, filosofiuri traqtatebi,
samecniero kvlevebic ki iwereboda xmamaRali kiTxvisaTvis. amitom
rTuli gasagebi araa, Tu raoden didi mniSvneloba hqonda antikuri
literaturis mxatvruli stilis ganviTarebisaTvis mWermetyvelebas –
Janrs, sadac xmamaRali sityva mefobda yvelaferze. mWermetyveleba
niWia, imis niWi, rom sityviT gamoiwvio msmenelebSi sasurveli
ganwyobileba an rwmena, Seaguliano isini miiRon esa Tu is
gadawyvetileba, zegavlena moaxdino msmenelTa gonebaze, grZnobasa
da nebisyofaze.
     “mWermetyveleba xelovnebaa: imnairi metyvelebis xelovneba,
rom msmeneli aramarto Zaldautaneblad, aramed siamovnebiTac
gvismenen da cdiloben ufro Rrmad Caswvdnen sityvis Sinaars”- werda
paskali. (5)
     oratoria     mWermetyveli         ostati,    romelic      logikurad,
maxvilgonivrulad, Sinaarsianad agebul sityvas maRali xelovnebiT
warmoTqvams sadme sajarod. oratoris movaleobaa daicvas
sazogadoebrivi interesebi, xalxi da samarTali.
     oratorebi Cveulebriv arc xataven da arc weren, magram
Taviseburad mxatvrebic arian da mwerlebic, azrTa mbyrobelnic da
mesityveebic. iSviaTad, Tu vinmes gaaCnia maTebr adamianTa
emociebis aRZvris , darwmunebis, aRelvebis, gaZRolis unari.
     oratori ar unda imeorebdes Tavis Tavs da arc sxvas. cocxlad da
gabedulad unda gadaeSvas azriT datvirTul sityvis zRvaSi,
maxvilgonierebiTa da polemikuri Tu logikuri SeupovrobiT miaRwios
msmenlis gulamde, sadac naxavs saimedo yures, pauzebsac apatieben
da mcire Secdomebsac.
     kargia ara is oratori, romlis sityvamac TviT oratorze gamoiwvia
laparaki, aramed is oratori, is sityva, romelmac Caafiqra mseneli im
sakiTxebze, rasac oratori Seexo Tavis sityvaSi.
     oratori msaxiobi _ cudi oratoria. oratori unda iyos ara oinbazi, ara
klouni, ara mxiaruli momTxrobi, aramed tribuni, romelsac masa
usmens da mis naTqvams gulwrfelad iTvisebs. misi movaleobaa
faqtebis gadmocema obieqturad, miudgomlad, yovelgvari gazviadebis
an Semcirebis gareSe.
     Zveli welTaRricxvis V-IV s-Si aTenSi Seqmnili pirobebi oratoruli
xelovnebis ganviTarebisaTvis metad xelsayreli aRmoCnda. kerZod,
mWermetyvelebis ganviTarebas xels uwyobda aTenis qalaq-
saxelmwifos demokratiuli sistema, moqalaqes SeeZlo monawileoba
mieRo saxalxo krebaSi, rac mas avalebda, SeiaraRebuli yofiliyo
msmenelTa dasarwmuneblad saWiro xerxebiT. aTenuri sasamarTlos
warmoebis wesi moqalaqes avaldebulebda TviTon ewarmoebina Zieba,
dacva, saqmis aRZvra, mowmis mowveva. momCivani da mopasuxec
TviTon unda gamosuliyo sityviT, mogvianebiT sasamarTloSi
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               112

warmosaTqmel sityvas gamocdil ritors awerinebdnen, romelTac
“logografosebs” eZaxdnen.
     oratorul xelovnebis ganviTarebaSi didia sofistebis wvlilic. maTi
azriT, adamianis yvela warmodgena SefardebiTia. protagora ambobda:
“adamiania yoveli sagnis sazomi, arsebulTa, ramdenadac isini
arseboben da ararsebulTa, ramdenadac isini ar arseboben”... (1) am
moZRvrebam sagangebo roli mianiWa ritorikul xerxebs, romelTa
saSualebiT SeiZleboda damajereblad laparaki. sofistebi aswavlidnen
TavianT mowafeebs, Tu rogor daesabuTebinaT yovelgvari, Tundac
mcdari debuleba.
     oratoruli xelovnebis antikuri Teoritikosebi da TviTon oratorebic
mWermetyvelebaSi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevdnen or mxares:
Sinaarss da formas. maTi azriT, oratoruli xelovnebis arsebiTi
mxareebia:
                           RirsSesaniSnavi Sinaarsi
                           kazmuli forma
                           damarwmunebeli azri
                           gamometyvelebiTi Sesruleba
     amaTgan umTavresi mainc Sinaarsobrivi mxarea. platoni kicxavs
oratoruli xelovnebis imgvar gagebas, romlis mixedviT mTavaria
garegnuli mxatvruloba sityvisa, romelic ar pasuxobs saqmis arss da
mxedvelobidan gamorCeba mTavari da arsebiTi. oratori ar unda
aRviqvaT, rogorc mxolod “lamazad da mimzidvelad molaparake
adamiani. garegnuli silamaze, romelic ase ityvevebs zogierTebs,
TavisTavad arafris Semcvelia”. (1) fuWia mWermetyveleba, Tu is
emsaxureba mxolod siamovnebas, garTobas. platonis azriT, sityvis
warmoTqmis dros oratorma unda gadasdos msmenelebs Tavisi
Sinagani mRelvareba, unda warsdges xalxis winaSe, e.i. mis sityvas
unda hqondes sazogadoebrivi, sajaro xasiaTi, unda hqondes garkveuli
mizani, romliskenac miiswrafvis TviTon da romliskenac unda, rom
warmarTos msmenelebi. oratorisTvis mTavaria, daarwmunos auditoria,
ganawyos xalxi Tavis sasargeblod, daanaxos is, rasac ver xedavs
sazogadoeba da xedavs oratori.
     gansakuTrebul yuradRebas oratoruli xelovnebis sakiTxebs uTmobs
aristotele, romelmac am sakiTxebs sagangebo traqtati uZRvna. misi
“ritorika” oratoruli xelovnebis Teoriuli principebis ganmsazRvreli
naSromia, romelSic aristotele iziarebs ra winamorbed ritorTa
mosazrebebs, xazs usvams Sinaarsobrivi mxaris mniSvnelobas da,
amasTanave, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevs formasac, kerZod stilis
sakiTxs.
     aristorele Tavis “ritorikaSi” oratorul stilTan dakavSirebiT wers:
“ar aris sakmarisi imis codna, rac unda iTqvas, aucilebelia agreTve ise
iTqvas, rogorc saWiroa”... (2)
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 113

     oratoris metyveleba, aristoteles azriT, paTetikuri unda iyos:
”msmeneli mudam TanaugrZnobs grZnobiT metyvel orators, maSinac
ki Tu is arafers ambobs mniSvnelovans”... (2)
     aristotele exeba oratoruli sityvis agebis konkretul xerxebsac. sityva
ise unda aigos, rom gaTvaliswinebuli iyos moulodnelobis efeqti.
mimzidvelia roca saqme gvaqvs sityvis “moulodnel mobrunebasTan”,
msmenlis erTgvar “motyuebasTan”, roca igi elis erTs da eubnebiT
meores. amiT iqmneba efeqturoba.
     Zveli oratorebi miuTiTeben oratoris sam movaleobaze: aswavle,
moawone, aaRelve. oratoris mTavari movaleobaa damoZRvra,
STagoneba, swavleba. am miznis misaRwevad aris swored saWiro
mowoneba da aRelveba.
     miuxedavad imisa, rom Zvel ritorTa mtkicebiT mTavaria Sinaarsi,
aranaklebi mniSvneloba eniWeba am Sinaarsis gadmocemis formas,
gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebebs, kerZod imas, Tu rogor miewodeba
msmenels is saTqmeli, rac, oratoris azriT, mniSvnelovani da
aucilebelia. ra? da rogor?_ai, is ori mxare, rac gansazRvravs oratoruli
xelovnebis arss. ra_esaa Sinaarsi, azri, idea, saTqmeli, romelSic unda
daarwmunos oratorma msmeneli. rogor_es aris gamoxatvis saSualeba,
forma riTac oratorma unda SeZlos miznis miRweva. e.i. man ise unda
aagos sityva, rom moewonos msmenels, ganawyos is misTvis sasurveli
azris misaRebad da moZraobaSi moiyvanos im ideis xorcSesasxmelad,
romelsac qadagebs. amisTvis saWiroa ramdenime pirobis dacva.
                        1.     SeirCes sityvis Tqmis dro
                        2.     SeirCes sityvis Tqmis adgili
                        3.     oratori unda iyos Zlier aRelvebul
                   mdgomareobaSi, maSin is Tavisi saqmis Sesaxeb ver
                   ilaparakebs duned da mosawyenad. is STagonebuli
                   unda iyos, e.i. sityva unda iyos paTetikuri. paTosis
                   gareSe warmoudgenelia oratoruli metyveleba.
                        4.     oratoris stili unda iyos daxvewili, mkafio,
                   naTeli. roca metyveleba bundovania, is ver aRwevs
                   mizans. stili unda Seesatyvisebodes saubris sagans.
                        5.     msmenelze zemoqmedebisTvis oratorma
                   unda gamoiyenos yvelanairi saSualeba: Jesti, mimika,
                   pauza, replika, xmis qceva da a.S.
     antikuri saberZneTis gamoCenil oratorTa rigebSi dganan: gorgia
leontieli, lisia, isokrate, demosTene.
     gorgia leontieli sicilieli filosofosi iyo. igi 429 wels
Tanamoqalaqeebma aTenSi elCad gagzavnes, rom sirakuzis
winaaRmdeg brZolaSi maTTvis daxmareba eTxova. sicilieli elCis
sityva saocar STabeWdilebas axdenda msmenelze. gorgias sityvis
Sinaarsze metad misi forma aintersebda. mTavari iyo msmenlis
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                114

darwmuneba da ara WeSmariteba. aTenSi man didi avtoriteti moipova.
gorgia mibaZvis obieqti gaxda. igi aTenSi darCa da axalgazrdebs
ritorikas aswavlida. “WeSmariteba ar aris arsad, yvelaferi
damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor daarwmuneb. darwmunebis xerxebi
umTavresia”_ ambobda gorgia, (1) rasac ar eTanxmeba platoni. misi
azriT, oratori WeSmaritebis codniT unda iyos aRWurvili, igi
filosofosic unda iyos.
     lisia mdidari sirakuzelis Svili iyo da mTeli cxovreba cdilobda,
aTenis moqalaqeobis ufleba moepovebina, magram amaod. roca
aTenSi demokratia oligarqiam Secvala, lisias devna dauwyes, radgn is
demokratiis aRdgenisaTvis mebrZolT emxroboda, amitom lisia
iZulebuli gaxda, aTenidan gaqceuliyo. gaRaribebulma lisiam xeli
mohkida logografosobas. man moigo sasamarTlo Tavisi Zmis mkvlelis
winaaRmdeg, ramac saxeli gauTqva. lisias mier sxvebisTvis dawerili
425 sityvidan Cvenamde moaRwia mxolod 34-ma.
     isokrate mdidari aToneli iyo, fleitebis fabrikis mepatronis Svili,
gorgias moswavle da pirdapiri memkvidre sofisturi saganmanaTleblo
sistemisa. igi jer logografosobda, Semdeg ki ritorikis skola gaxsna da
sakuTari programac SeimuSava ritorTa mosamzadeblad: misi skola
aZlevda moqalaqeebs ara codnaTa jams, aramed codnis sargeblobis
xelovnebas, gasaRebs adamianuri kulturisas. isokrate Tavis Tavs
uwodebda filosofoss, magram es sityva mas esmoda sxvagvarad, vidre
sokrates da platons. amitom moRvaweobis is gasaRebi, rac
platonisTvis iyo WeSmariteba, isokratesaTvis gaxda sityva. misi azriT,
mWermetyveli adamiani Tavis gamosvlis avtoritets ganamtkicebda
pirovnebis avtoritetiT. rogorc oratori, isokrate maRali stilis Semqmneli
da prozauli periodis damxvewia. man daamkvidra oratorul sityvebSi
brZnuli gamonaTqvamebis gamoyeneba.
     Zveli romaelebi amtkicebdnen da samarTlianadac: poetebad
ibadebian, oratorebad ki xdebiano. Tu survili da unari gaqvs, saTanado
muSaobis Sedegad SeiZleba oratori gaxde, magram survils saTanado
safuZveli unda hqondes. gansacvifrebel magaliTs, Tu ra SeuZlia
adamianis Sromas, daJinebasa da xasiaTs oratorad gaxdomis saqmeSi,
iZleva demosTene. uZlurma, enaCleqiam, sustxmianma mravali
warumateblobisa da dacinvis Semdeg, xangrZlivi varjiSis gziT mainc
miaRwia imas, rom gaxda yvela drois udidesi oratori.
     demosTene – saxelganTqmuli berZeni oratori da politikuri
moRvawe iaraRis saxelosnos mdidari ostatis Svili iyo, Svidi wlisas
daoblda. Tavisi moRvaweoba demosTenem logografosobiT daiwyo.
sxevebisTvis werda warmosaTqmel sityvebs, aswavlida ritorikas,
monawileobda sasamarTlo procesebSi.
       demosTene Tavis sityvaSi “gvirgvinis Sesaxeb” ambobs:
“Rirebulebas warmoadgens oratoris sityva ara TavisTavad, da arc JRera
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               115

misi xmisa, aramed is, Tu raoden iziarebs igi xalxis gulisnadebs da
ramdenad sZuls an uyvars adamianebi iseve, rogorc samSoblo”... (6)
     demosTenem gansakuTrebiT gaiTqva saxeli filipe II makedonelis
agresiuli zraxvebis samxileblad warmoTqmuli sityvebiT, romelsac
“filipikebi” ewoda. pirveli “filipikis” warmoTqmisTanave igi gaxda
aTenis faqtobrivi xelmZRvaneli da antimakedonuri partiis beladi.
     demosTenes “filipikebi” miCneulia oratoruli xelovnebis
Sedevrebad. mis sityvebSi gamoyenebulia darwmunebis, dasabuTebis
xerxebi, dapirispireba, ritorikuli SekiTxvebi, magram rogorc
aRniSnaven, dawerili “filipikebi” mxolod susti anareklia zepirad
warmoTqmulisa.
     filipes sikvdilis Semdeg man aleqsandres winaamRdeg gaagrZela
“sityviT brZola”. aTenSi aleqsandres Semosvlamde demosTene
aTenidan gaiqca. aleqsandrem aTenelebisgan erT-erT pirobad swored
demosTenes gadacema moiTxova. devnilma demosTenem, mtrebs rom
ar Cavardnoda xelSi, mowamluli lerwmis kalami daReWa da Tavi
moikla. mis saflavze berZnebma aseTi epitafia amokveTes: “rogori
gonieric iyavi, iseTi Ronieric rom yofiliyavi Sen, demosTene, maSin
eladas makedoniis omis RmerTi ver daipyrobda.”... (1)
     antikuri kulturis TvalsaCino moRvawe, iuristi, mravali sajaro
sityvis, filosofiuri nawarmoebisa da publicisturi werilis avtori, romis
udidesi politikuri oratori iyo markus tulius ciceroni. cicieronis
pirovnebisa da moRvaweobis mdidar masalas warmoadgens misi farTo
miwer_mowera, agreTve mravalricxovani sityvebi da sxvadasxva
Sinaarsis traqtatebi.
     ciceroni aTenSi cnobili ritoris apoloniosis mowafe iyo. erTxel
berZnulad warmoTqmuli savarjiSo sityvis Semdeg, ciceroni
msmenelebma didi taSiT daajildoves.marto apoloniosi dumda. bolos
dafiqrebulma mimarTa: “beds davtiri, aSkarad vxedav, rom Seni
wyalobiT romaelTa xelSi gadadis ganaTleba da mWermetyvelebac_es
erTaderTi upiratesoba, rac dResdReobiT SemogvrCa mraval
mSvenierebaTagan”(1). momxiblavi metyveleba did daxmarebas
uwevda cicerons msmenelis darwmunebaSi.
     ciceronis saxelganTqmuli Tanamedrove kvintiliani exeboda
ciceronis oratorobas, aRniSnavda: ,,zecam gamogzavna dedamiwaze
ciceroni imisaTvis, rom masSi moeca magaliTi, Tu ra didad
moqmedebs sityvis Zlireba”... (3)
     momxiblavi metyveleba did daxmarebas uwevda cicerons
msmenelis darwmunebaSi. ar momwonso,_ ambobs didi oratori,_roca
bgerebs warmoTqvamen metismeti xazgasmiT an bundovnad,
gaugebrad, an susti, momakvdavi xmiT, an zedmeti xmauriT. is
oratorebi, romlebic xmamaRali yviriliT cdiloben fons gasvlas, ciceronis
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                116

azriT, dasacinni arian. isini uZlurebis gamo iseve cdiloben gavidnen
fons yviriliT, rogorc koWli adamiani cxenis daxmarebiT.
     romaeli oratori, garda praqtikuli oratoruli moRvaweobisa, riTac
man didi saxeli moixveWa romSi, oratorul xelovnebis Teoritikosic iyo.
“oratoris udidesi Rirsebaa ara marto Tqma imisa, rac saWiroa, aramed
uTqmelobac imisa, rac araa saTqmeli” – ambobda igi. (5)
     ciceroni ayalibebs ritorikis ZiriTad principebs:
                            mWermetyvelia is, vinc sajaro gamosvlisas
                 msmenels mianiWebs tkbobas da daarwmunebs mas.
                            WeSmariti oratoria is, visac SeuZlia
                 Cveulebrivi ambis Sesaxeb ilaparakos ubralod. diadis
                 Sesaxeb – amaRlebulad, saSualos Sesaxeb – saSualo
                 stiliT.
                            saukeTeso oratori isaa, vinc Tavisi sityviT
                 msmenels aswavlis, aniWebs siamovnebas da axdens
                 masze did STabeWdilebas.
                            aswavlo – movaleobaa oratorisa.
                            moaxdino Zlieri STabeWdileba – es ki
                 aucilebelia.
     ciceroni svams kiTxvas: ratom aris, rom mWermetyvelebiT
dakavebulia Zalian bevri, magram warmatebas aRweven erTeulebi – da
TviTonve pasuxobs - imitom rom mWermetyveleba urTulesi
xelovnebaa, radgan oratorisgan moiTxivs did codnas. amis Semeg
ismis meore kiTxva: raSi mdgomareobs mWemetyvelebis namdvili
dideba? – esaa adamianuri Zalis udidesi gamovlineba, safuZveli
sazogadoebriv da kerZo keTildReobisa.
        oratoruli xelovneba warmatebiT viTardeboda elinistur xanaSic.
am dros moRvawe ritorTa Soris saukeTesod miiCnevian Temistiosi da
libaniosi. Temistioss, rogorc misi erT-erTi sityvidan Cans, IV saukunis
Sua wlebSi kolxeTSi, dRevandeli foTis maxloblad, fazisis
saxelganTqmul ritorikul skolaSi miuRia ganaTleba. fazisis ritorikulma
skolam didad Seuwyo xeli saqarTveloSi oratoruli xelovnebis
ganviTarebas. amaze metyvelebs kolxeTis mefis, gubazis, warCinebuli
kolxi oratorebis, aietisa da fartazis sityvebi, romlebic aRiarebulia
qarTuli mWermetyvelebis brwyinvale nimuSebad.
     rogorc vxedavT, antikuri epoqis moazrovneni wamyvan faqtorad
miiCneven oratoruli sityvis Sinaarss, amave dros, aranakleb
mniSvnelobas        aniWebdnen       sityvis   formalur   mxares,     im
gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebas, romlebic msmenels esTetikur
siamovnebas aniWebs. antikur mWermetyvelebas hqonda didi
avtoriteti da gamocdileba sityviT xalxze zemoqmedebisa. Zvel
saberZneTSic da romSic sityvis Tqmis xelovneba erTerTi
dawinaurebuli da kargad ganviTarebuli dargi iyo. am saqmes
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                117

emsaxureboda antikuri ritorika Tavisi TeoriebiTa da skolebiT. Zveli
berZnebi da romaelebi amayobdnen saxelovani oratorebiT da ritorebiT.

gamoyenebuli literatura:
         vaxtang kaWaxiZe “ politikuri mWermatyveleba”.
             gamomcemloba “sabWoTa saqarTvelo.” tbilisi 1985w
         aristotele “ritorika”. Tbilisi 1981w
         d. enuqiZe “oratoruli xelovneba”. gamomcemloba
             “sabWoTa xelovneba” 1958w
         Цицерон Марк Туллий. Три трактата об ораторском
             исскустве. М. «Наука», 1972.
         akaki gelovani “oratoruli xelovneba”. Tbilisi 1985w
         nikoloz kandelaki “qarTuli mWermetyveleba”.
             gamomcemloba “sabWoTa saqarTvelo”. Tbilisi 1968w
         nana gafrindaSvili, darejan TvalTvaZe “ritorikis
             Sesavali”. Tbilisi 1963w


                                Summary
Gvanca Gogishvili


    Orators played a special role in the social life of the ancient states.
   In order to make a particular impression on the listeners a good speaker
had to master effective verbal communications skills.
   Rhetorical art was used in politics, at the public meetings, in the army
etc., in other words it was used in the places where the word-power was a
necessary factor. The speech with poor plot but with some rhetoric effect
used to make a better impression on the audience than the speech with good
plot, but with no rhetoric effect.
   A good speaker could have definite influence on the state policy by
making one impressive speech. The greatest orators of the ancient world
Demostene and Tsitceron were fighting to depend the republics of Greece
and Rome.
  The ancient orators had a big authority and experience to influence people
by means of words.

                            Резюме
Гванца Гогишвили
У истоков ораторского искуства
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             118

        В общественной жизни античных государств особую роль
играла хорошая риторика.
        Хороший оратор должен владеть такими формами беседы,
чтобы производить на слушателей особое впечатление. Риторическое
искусство часто было использовано чисто в практических целях: на
народных собраниях, в войсках и в других общественных местах, где
было необходимо использовать сила слова.
        Бедное по содержанию, но ораторски хорошо выправленное
слово производило на аудиторию более хорошее впечатление, чем
содержательное, но плохое, неинтересное и утомительное
выступление.
        Хороший оратор одним впечатляющим выступлением мог
воздействовать на государственную политику страны.
        Великие ораторы Древнего Мира Демосфен и Цицерон своим
несравненным политическим чутьем и предвидением боролись за
защиту Греческой и Римской республик.
        Античные ораторы имели большой авторитет и опыт
воздействия на окружающих с помощью слова.




                             mariam lomiZe

              saqarTvelos wylis resursebis marTva da dacva




   wyali dedamiwis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis bunebriv resurss
warmoadgens. amasTan, cocxali organizmebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi
mtknari wyali planetis wylis uxvi resursebis Zalian mcire (mxolod 0.014%)
nawils Seadgens. amrigad, mTel msoflioSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeba
wylis racionalurad moxmarebas da dabinZurebisagan dacvas. wyali
gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens wylis resursebiT Rarib qveyanaSi,
sadac igi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis mizezic xdeba.
  saqarTvelo wylis resursebiT mdidar qveyanad iTvleba. Tumca, isic unda
aRiniSnos, rom wylis resursebi ara Tanabrad aris gadanawilebuli da
umetesad qveynis dasavleT nawilSia Tavmoyrili. amdenad wylis marTvis
erT_erT mniSvnelovan amocanad wylis resursebis swori gadanawileba da
resursiT Raribi aRmosavleT nawilis wyliT momarageba rCeba. garda
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              119

amisa, saqarTveloSi kvlav seriozul problemas warmoadgens zadapiruli
wylebis dabinZureba, maT Soris transsasazRvro dabinZurebac.
  dResdReobiT saqarTveloSi wylis marTvisa da dacvis sakiTxebi
garemosdacvis sferoSi erT_erTi prioritetulia. wylis resursebis saauzo
marTvaze gadasvlis uzrunvelyofa garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis
saministros 2007 wlis prioritetebSi Sedis. amasTan, zedapiruli wylebis
dabinZurebisagan dacvis sakiTxebi saqarTvelos garemos dacvis
moqmedebis erovnuli programis nawilia.




saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba wylis Sesaxeb

  wylis     Sesaxeb     kanonmdebloba      saqarTveloSi   warmodgenilia
mravalricxovani kanonebiTa da kanonqvemdebare aqtebiT. aqedan wylis
politikis ganmsazRvreli umniSvnelovanesi dokumentia saqarTvelos kanoni
”wylis Sesaxeb” (1997). kanoni “wylis Sesaxeb” wylis kanonmdeblobis
sabaziso dokuments warmoadgens, romelmac unda uzrunvelyos erTiani
saxelmwifo politikis gatareba wylis dacvisa da gamoyenebis sferoSi; wylis
obieqtebis dacva da wylis resursebis racionalurad gamoyeneba mdgradi
ganviTarebis principebis gaTvaliswinebiT; sufTa sasmel wyalze
mosaxleobis pirvel rigSi dakmayofileba; wylis cxovelTa samyaros
mdgradoba da mdgradi gamoyeneba; wylis mavne zemoqmedebis acileba
da Sedegebis efeqturi likvidacia da sxva.

wylis resursebis marTva

  “garemos dacvis Sesaxeb” kanonis mixedviT, bunebrivi resursebiT
sargeblobis saxelmwifo marTva niSnavs bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobis
regulirebas. kerZod, aRricxvas, licenzirebas, zedamxedvelobas da kontrols
(muxli 4). “fasiani bunebaTsargeblobis” principidan gamomdinare,
saqarTveloSi      dadgenilia     mosakreblebi     bunebrivi     resursebiT
sargeblobisaTvis. mosakreblis odenoba TiToeuli saxis bunebrivi resursiT da
maT Soris wylis resursebiT sargeblobisaTvis wylis obieqtebis jgufebis
mixedviT da saqmianobis tipis gaTvaliswinebiT mocemulia saqarTvelos
kanonSi ”bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobisaTvis mosakreblebis Sesaxeb”
(2004). amasTan, bunebrivi resursebis saxelmwifo regulireba licenziebisa
da nebarTvebis sistemis saSualebiT xorcieldeba.

 wylis statusi
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                120

  saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli
wyali saxelmwifo sakuTrebaa da gaicema mxolod sargeblobisaTvis. kanoni
krZalas yovelgvari saxis qmedebas, romelic pirdapir an faruli formiT
xelyofs wylis saxelmwifo sakuTrebis uflebas. wylis saxelmwifo sakuTrebis
uflebis darRveva saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis
mixedviT Sesabamisi jarimebiT isjeba.
  wyalsargebloba saqarTveloSi fasiania. wyalsargeblobisaTvis gaicema
saqarTvelos wylis saxelmwifo fondis obieqtebi. kerZod, saqarTvelos
zedapiruli da miwisqveSa wylebi: mdinareebi, tbebi, wyalsacavebi,
bunebrivi da xelovnuri zedapiruli wyalsatevebi, arxebisa da tborebis wylebi,
miwisqveSa wylebi; myinvarebi da Tovlis mudmivi safari; Waobebi;
saqarTvelos teritoriuli wylebi. amasTan, gansakuTrebuli saxelmwifo
mniSvnelobis an gansakuTrebuli samecniero Tu kulturuli Rirebulebis wylis
obieqtebiT sargebloba SeiZleba, mTlianad an nawilobriv ikrZalebodes,
saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT.
  wylis resursebis marTva
  rogorc aRiniSna, saqarTveloSi saerTo wyalsargebloba arasamrewvelo,
individualuri, sasmeli da sayofacxovrebo, esTetikuri, rekreaciuli,
gamajansaRebeli da sxva moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad da iseTi
nagebobebis da mowyobilobebis gamouyebeblad, romlebic gavlenas
axdenen wylis mdgomareobaze, ufasoa da ar saWiroebs licenzias. specialuri
wyalsargebloba, rac gulisxmobs iseTi nagebobebisa da teqnikuri
mowyobilobebis gamoyenebas, romlebic gavlenas axdenen wylis
mdgomareobaze, fasiania da Sesabamis licenziasac saWiroebs.
  2005 wlis 24 ivnisis kanoni ”licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb”
awesebs licenziebisa da nebarTvebis saxeebs sxvadasxva saqmianobisa Tu
qmedebebisaTvis. am kanonis miRebamde wyalsargeblobis licenzirebas
aregulirebda kanoni “wylis Sesaxeb”, romlis 48_e muxli gansazRvravda
wyalsargeblobis       aTze met saxes, romlisTvisac aucilebeli iyo
wyalsargeblobis licenziis mopoveba, maT Soris, zedapiruli wylis obieqtidan
wylis amoRebisaTvis, wylis obieqtSi Camdinare wylebis CaSvebisaTvis,
miwisqveSa wylebiT sargeblobisaTvis, sakurorto da sportuli miznebisaTvis,
wylis obieqtebze xe_tyis dasacureblad, samonadireo meurneobis
Sesaqmnelad, saTevze meurneobisaTvis da sxva.
   “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxe” kanonis miRebiT SeizRuda
wyalsargeblobis is saxeebi, romlebic saWiroeben saxelmwifo regulirebas
licenzirebis gziT. wylisa da monaTesave bunebrivi resursebis moxmarebis
sferoSi kanoni awesebs sargeblobis licenzias TevzWerisTvis, miwisqveSa
sivrcis     gamoyenebisTvis da sasargeblo wiaRiseulis (maT Soris,
miwisqveSa       wylebis)    mopovebisTvis.     rac    Seexeba      uSualod
wyalsargeblobas, kanoni, ”wylis Sesaxeb” kanonisgan gansxvavebiT,
moiTxovs nebarTvas mxolod 2 tipis qmedebisTvis, esenia: zedapiruli wylis
obieqtidan wyalaReba da zedapiruli wylis obieqtSi wyalCaSveba.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             121

Sesabamisad, wylis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi dagegmilia da
ukve xorcieldeba cvlilebebi. amJamad wyalsargeblobis zemoaRniSnul or
saxeze nebarTvis gacemis pirobebi da wesi regulirdeba “licenziebisa da
nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” kanonis moTxovnaTa Sesasruleblad gamocemuli,
saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2005 wlis 11 agvistos 137 dadgenilebiT
damtkicebuli “zedapiruli wylis obieqtidan wyalaRebisa da zedapirul wylis
obieqtSi wyalCaSvebis nebarTvis gacemis wesisa da pirobebis Sesaxeb“
debulebiT. debulebis Tanaxmad, nebarTvas gascems saqarTvelos garemos
dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro da aseve, “aWaris avtonomiuri
respublikis mTavrobis saqveuwyebo dawesebulebis _ garemos dacvisa da
bunebrivi resursebis sammarTvelosaTvis licenziisa da nebarTvebis gacemis
uflebamosilebis delegirebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos mTarobis 2006 wlis 26
ianvris 21 dadgenilebiT gansazRvrul SemTxvevaSi, aWaris avtonomiuri
respublikis mTarobis saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba _ garemos dacvisa da
bunebrivi resursebis sammarTvelo. nebarTvis gacemis uflebamosileba
saministrom SeiZleba, mianiWos Tavis teritoriul organoebsac.
  debulebis me_6 muxlis mixedviT, saqarTelos Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo
aqtebiT dadebuli sanebarTvo pirobebis garda, maZiebels damatebiT
sanebarTvo pirobad SeiZleba, ganesazRvros damatebiTi informaciisa da
Sesabamisi dokumentaciis wardgena, rogoricaa, ganmartebiTi baraTi
wyalsargeblobis saxeobaze da parametrebi; sawarmos generaluri gegma
wyalsadenis sistemis dataniT; sawarmos adgilmdebareobis topografiuli ruka
wylis aRebis wertilebis dataniT an Sesabamis garemosdacviTi teritoriuli
organos daskvna. aseve, wyalCaSvebis nebarTvis mosapoveblad, sawarmos
Camdinare wylebTan erTad zedapiruli wylis obieqTSi CaSvebul
damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi CaSvebis normativebi,
romlebic damtkicebulia saministros mier. garda amisa, “licenziebisa da
nebarTvebis” kanonis Tanaxmad, damatebiTi sanebarTvo pirobebi SeiZleba
ganisazRvros adgilobrivi TviTmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiTi organos
gadawyvetilebiT (muxli25).
  miwisqveSa wylebiT sargeblobis licenzireba regulirdeba saqarTvelos
mTavrobis 2005 wlis 11 agvistos 136 dadgenilebiT damtkicebuli
“sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mopovebis licenziis gacemis wesisa da pirobebis
Sesaxeb” debulebiT. iseve rogorc sxva saxis licenziebis SemTxvevaSi,
miwisqveSa wylebiT sargeblobis licenzia auqcionis wesiT gaicema
(muxli3). licenziis gamcemi organoa saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da
bunebrivi resursebis saministro da aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis
mTavrobis saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba _ geremos dacvisa da bunebrivi
resursebis sammarTvelo (muxli2). sasargeblo wiaRiseuliT sargeblobis
konkretul wesebs, moTxovnebs da resursiT sargeblobis raodenobriv,
Tvisebriv da droSi gansazRvrol normebs da wesebs saministro
gansazRvravs da amtkicebs calke kanonqvemdebare normatiul aqtiT
konkretul SemTxvevaSi (muxli 3).
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              122

  saministros mier gacemuli licenziebisa da neberTvebis pirobebis
Sesrulebis kontrols saministros saxelmwifo saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba _
garemos dacvis inspeqcia axorcielebs. garemos dacvis inspeqcia
uflebamosilia ganixilos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa saqmeebi da
gamoitanos dadgenileba administraciuli saxdelis dadebis Sesaxeb. aseve,
kanoneT gansazRvrul SemTxvevaSi, daayenos sakiTxi licenziis an
nebarTvis gauqmebis Taobaze.
  salicenzio pirobebis darRvevisaTvis pasuxismgebloba iTvaliswinebs
licenziis mflobelis dajarimebas. amavdroulad, licenziis gamcemi
gansazRvravs Semdgom vadebs salicenzio pirobebis dakmayofilebisaTvis.
Tu pasuxismgeblobis dakisrebis miuxedavad, licenziis mflobeli am
vadebSic ar Seasrulebs salicenzio pirobebs, dakisrebuli jarima
gasammagdeba an moxdeba Semdegi vadebis daweseba, romlis
Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi, jarima kvlav gasammagdeba. xolo Tu
licenziis mflobelis mier amis Semdegac ar iqna uzrunvelyofili salicenzio
pirobebis Sesruleba dadgenil vadebSi, licenziis gamcemi auqmebs licenzias.
analogiur pasuxismgeblobebs iTvaliswinebs nebarTvis mflobelis mier
sanebarTvo pirobebis darRveva. samjeradi dajarimebis Semdeg sanebarTvo
pirobebis dadgenil vadebSi Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi, nebarTvis
gamcemi iRebs gadawyvetilebas nebarTvis gauqmebis Sesaxeb.
  saqarTvelos kanoni ”wylis Sesaxeb” gansazRvravs wylis da misi
gamoyenebis aRricxvis saxelmwifo sistemis Seqmnas da saxelmwifo
kadastris warmoebas, rac gulisxmobs wylis obieqtebis da maTSi arsebuli
wylis raodenobisa da xarisxis, misi gamoyenebis monacemebis dadgenas,
wyalmosargebleTa Soris wylis mecnierulad dasabuTebul ganawilebas
mosaxleobis sasmeli da sayofacxovrebo saWiroebis pirvel rigSi
dakmayofilebiT.
  saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis ministris 1996 wlis
12 agvistos 106 brZanebiT damtkicebuli ”wylis gamoyenebis saxelmwifo
aRricxvis Sesaxeb” debuleba gansazRvravs wylis gamoyenebis saxelmwifo
aRricxvis wesebs saministroebis, departamentebis, uwyebebis, saxelmwifo,
saaqcio, kerZo, kooperatiuli da sazogadoebrivi sawarmoebis,
organizaciebisa da dawesebulebebisaTvis.
  wylis gamoyenebis saxelmwifo aRricxva wylis obieqtze anTropogenuri
zemoqmedebis wyaroebis raodenobriv da xarisxobriv maxasiaTeblebze
regularuli dakvirvebis sistemis Seqmnas gulisxmobs. wylis saxelmwifo
aRricxvis monacemebi unda gamoiyenebodes wylis gamoyenebisa da
dacvis dagegmvis, wyalmoxmarebisa da wyalCaSvebis normirebisaTvis da
wylis xarisxis gansazRvrisaTvis da sxva. saministro wyalmomxmareblebis
angariSebis safuZvelze, unda axorcielebdes wylis saxelmwifo aRricxvas,
monacemebis analizs da gamoqveynebas.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             123


wylis dacva

  saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, wylis dacvis RonisZiebebis
dagegmva unda xorcieldebodes qveynis mdgradi ganviTarebis strategiis,
garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa erovnuli programis, regionuli, uwyebrivi da
adgilobrivi garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa programebisa da saqmianobis
obieqtebis garemos dacvis samenejmento gegmebis safuZvelze, “geremos
dacvis Sesaxeb”, “wylis Sesaxeb”, “wiaRis Sesaxeb”, “cxovelTa samyaros
Sesaxeb” da “daculi teritoriebis sistemis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonebisa
da sxva normatiuli aqtebis Sesabamisad.
  wylis dacvis RinisZiebaTa dagegmvisa da ganxorcielebis dros
uzrunvelyofili unda iyos wylis obieqtebis dacva dabinZurebis, daSretisa da
sxva iseTi uaryofiTi zemoqmedebisagan, romelmac SeiZleba, ziani
miayenos mosaxleobis janmrTelobas, Seamciros Tevzis maragi, gaauaresos
wyalmomaragebis pirobebi da gamoiwvios wylis fizikuri, qimiuri,
biologiuri Tvisebebis gauareseba da sxva.
  garemoSi ekologiuri wonasworobis SenarCunebisaTvis, saqarTvelos
kanonmdebloba adgens garemos mdgomareobis xarisxobriv normebs da
garemoSi mavne nivTierebaTa emisiisa da mikroorganizmebiT garemos
dabinZurebis zRvrulad dasaSveb normebs. garemos mdgomareobis
xarisxobrivi normebi unda SemuSavdes yovel xuT weliwadSi erTxel
saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministros mier
garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosTan SeTanxmebiT.
wylis dacvisa da gamoyenebis sferoSi saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT
wesdeba:
        wylis mdgomareobis xarisxobrivi normebi _ wyalSi adamianis
janmrTelobisa da bunebrivi garemosaTvis mavne nivTierebebis
koncentraciisa da mikroorganizmebis raodenobaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi
normebi;
        wylis obieqtebSi mavne nivTierebaTa emisiis (CaSvebis) zRvrulad
dasaSvebi       normebi      __       wylis    obieqtebSi     samrewvelo,
sayofacxovrebo_komunaluri da sxva Camdinare wylebis CaSvebis normebi,
romelic dgindeba dabinZurebis yoveli konkretuli wyarosaTvis misi
teqnologiuri Taviseburebebisa da adgilmdebareobis fonuri dabinZurebis
gaTvaliswinebiT      imgvarad,      rom     emisiuri   nivTierebebis    da
mikroorganizmebis koncentraciam adgilze ar gadaaWarbos zRvrulad
dasaSvebi koncentraciis dones.
        wylis obieqtebis datvirTvis normebi _ wylis obieqtebidan wylis
amoRebis kvotebi, romlebic mdgradi ganviTarebis principebis
gaTvaliswinebiT, dgindeba damtkicebuli wylis gamoyenebisa da dacvis
generaluri, saauzo da teritoriuli kompleqsuri sqemebis da wyalsameurneo
balansebis safuZvelze yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               124

  garda amisa, kanoniT gansazRvrulia garemos mdgomareobis xarisxobrivi
da raodenobrivi maCveneblebis aRricxva, angariSgeba da Sefaseba, rac
gulisxmobs garemos mdgomareobis da bunebrivi resursebis kadastrebis
Sedgenas, statistikis warmoebas, inventarizacias, pasportizacias da
kartografirebas.
  saqarTveloSi zedapiruli wylebis dabinZurebisagan dacvis ZiriTad wesebs
gansazRvravs saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis
ministris 1996 wlis 17 seqtembris 130 brZanebiT damtkicebuli
“saqarTvelos zedapiruli wylebis dabinZurebisagan dacvis wesebi”, romelic
aregulirebs: samewarmeo saqmianobis sxvadasxva saxeebs, romlebsac
SeuZliaT uaryofiTi zegavlena moaxdinon wylebis mdgomareobaze;
wertilovani da difuzuri wyaroebidan zedapiruli wylis obieqtebis
dabinZurebas. dokumentSi gansazRvrulia zedapiruli wylebis dabinZurebis
Tavidan acilebisa da masTan brZolis ZiriTadi saSualebebi: wylis obieqtSi
wylis xarisxis normireba; zedapirul wylebSi damabinZurebeli nivTierebebis
CaSvebis reglamentireba; wyaldacviTi RonisZiebebis dagegmva; axali
teqnikis da teqnologiis masalebis da nivTierebebis, agreTve sawarmoebis
mSeneblobis (rekonstruqciis) proeqtebis ekologiuri eqspertiza da sxva.
  dokumenti adgens wyalsatevebis wylis xarisxis normebs wyalsargeblobis
calkeuli         kategoriebis        mixedviT          (sasmel_sameurneo;
sameurneo_sayofacxovrebo da Tevzsameurneo wyalsargebloba). amisaTvis
dokumentis danarTebSi mocemulia zedapiruli wylebis Semadgenlobis da
Tvisebebis dadgenili normativebi, romlebic unda SemuSavdes Sesabamis
samecniero_kvleviT dawesebulebebSi. garda amisa, Camdinare wylebis
TiToeuli wertilisaTvis dgindeba damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa zRvrulad
dasaSvebi CaSvebis normativebi.
  saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvis ministris
1996 wlis 12 agvistos 105 brZaneba amtkicebs wyalsatevebSi Camdinare
wylebTan erTad CaSvebul dabinZurebul nivTierebaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi
CaSvebis normativebis gaangariSebis meTodikas. zRvrulad dasaSvebi
CaSvebis      normativebis    proeqtis    momzadebas       wyalmosargeble
uzrunvelyofs. Semdeg normativebs TiToeuli wyalmosargeblisaTvis
amtkicebs saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros
wylis resursebis dacvis sammarTvelo.
  saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris 2001 wlis
16 agvistos brZaneba 279/n amtkicebs garemos xarisxobrivi mdgomareobis
normebs. brZaneba gansazRvravs centralizebuli, aracentralizebuli da
zedapiruli wyalmomaragebis sistemis wylis xarisxobriv normebs, agreTve
adgens zRvis sanapiro wylis dacvisa da gamoyenebis higienur normebs da
sanitarul wesebs.
  wylis dacvis reJimis darRveva _ wylis sxvadasxva saxis dabinZureba
saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis mixedviT isjeba
Sesabamisi jarimebiT (muxli 58).
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              125

  wylis dacvaze saxelmwifo kontroli da monitoringi xorcieldeba garemos
dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mier. kanonis mixedviT
wyalmosargeble valdebulia awarmoos TviTkontroli da saministros
miawodos informacia wyalmoxmarebis, Camdinare wylebis raodenobisa da
Semadgenlobis, agreTve damabinZurebeli nivTierebebis zRvrulad
dasaSvebi normebis normativebis gadaWarbebis Sesaxeb.
  miwisqveSa wylebis dacvas da gamoyenebas, wylis cxovelTa samyaros
dacvas, wyalsargeblobis dros cxovelTa samyaros, mcenareuli safaris, tyis,
miwis da sxva bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebas aregulirebs rogorc kanoni
“wylis Sesaxeb” ise sxva Sesabamisi kanonmdebloba _ kanoni “wiaRis
Sesaxeb”, kanoni “cxovelTa samyaros Sesaxeb” da sxva.


axali iniciativebi wylis marTvis politikis sferoSi

  kanonproeqti “wylis Sesaxeb”
  “wylis Sesaxeb” axali kanonis proeqtis mixedviT, wylis resursebis
marTva saqarTveloSi saauzo marTvis principebis safuZvelze unda
ganxorcieldes (muxli10). garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis
saministrom unda daadginos mdinareTa auzis marTvis gegmis Sedgenis
wesi. auzis marTvis gegmis SemuSavebas, wylis resursebis moxmarebis
dagegmvas da Sesabamisi gegmis mixedviT mdinareTa auzebis marTvas
ganaxorcieleben sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli pirebi, romelTa raodenobas, maT
samoqmedo teritorias da debulebas garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis
ministri amtkicebs (muxli12 da 13). sajaro samarTlis iuridiulma pirma
aseve unda uzrunvelyos zedapiruli wylebis inventarizacia; yvela saxis wyal
mosargebleTa inventarizacia; zedapiruli wylis obieqtebis raodenobrivi da
xarisxobrivi monitoringis qselis Seqmna da monitoringis warmoeba;
garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mier gacemuli
wyalaRebisa da wyalCaSvebis nebarTvebis registracia; gacemuli
nebarTvebis monitoringi; mdinaris auzis dacva aralegaluri saqmianobisagan
da sxva.
  Tavis mxriv, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi axorcieleben maT
sakuTrebaSi arsebuli wylis resursebis marTvas. kanonproeqtis mixedviT,
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis sakuTrebas warmoadgens
adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis jgufebSi Semavali wylis resursebi (muxli9).
Sesabamisad, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi maT sakuTrebaSi
arsebuli wylis resursebis marTvis sferoSi uzrunvelyofen: wylis resursebis
marTvis wesis gansazRvras; wylis racionalurad gamoyenebis da dacvis
RonisZiebebis zedamxedvelobas; wyliT unebarTvo sargeblobis da wylis
obieqtebze TviTneburi sameuneo saqmianobis aRkveTas; adgilobrivi
TviTmmarTvelobis teritoriaze wylis dacvisa da gamoyenebis kontrols,
saxelmwifo aRricxvas da sxva.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              126

  kanonproeqtis me-19 muxlSi mocemulia zedapiruli wylis dacvisa da
gamoyenebis normebi. kanonproeqtiT gaTvaliswinebulia mxolod zedapiruli
wylis mdgomareobis xarisxobrivi normebi da zedapiruli wylis obieqtebSi
damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi CaSvebis normebis
dadgena. gansxvavebiT moqmedi kanonisagan “wylis Sesaxeb”,
kanonproeqti ar iTvaliswinebs wylis obieqtebis datvirTvis normebs, raSic
igulisxmeba “wylis obieqtebidan wylis amoRebis kvotebi, romlebic
mdgradi ganviTarebis principebis gaTvaliswinebiT dgindeba damtkicebuli
wylis gamoyenebis da dacvis generaluri, saauzo da teritoriuli kompleqsuri
sqemebis da wyalsameurneo balansebis safuZvelze yovel konkretul
SemTxvevaSi”.
  kanonproeqtis me_5 TavSi, romelic wyalsargeblobas exeba,
gaTvaliswinebulia is cvlilebebi, rac bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi ganxorcielda
salicenzio da sanebarTvo wesebis maregulirebel kanonmdeblobaSi. 32_e
muxlis mixedviT, specialur wyalsargeblobaze gaicema ori saxis nebarTva:
zedapiruli wylis obieqtidan wyalaRebis nebarTva da zedapiruli wylis
obieqtSi wyalCaSvebis nebarTva. amasTan, wyalaRebis an wyalCaSvebis
nebarTvis misaRebad moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli SesaZlo
damatebiTi dokumentacia rogoricaa magaliTad, ganmartebiTi baraTi
wyalsargeblobis saxeobaze da parametrebi; Sesabamisi garemosdacviTi
teritoriuli organos daskvna; sawarmos Camdinare wylebTan erTad
zedapiruli wylis obieqtSi CaSvebul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa zRvrulad
dasaSvebi CaSvebis normativebi da sxva. ”wylis Sesaxeb” kanonproeqtiT
gansazRvrulia rogorc savaldebulo.

 wylis politika

  wylis sferoSi politikis ganmsazRvreli dokumentebidan yuradReba unda
gamaxvildes or mniSvnelovan dokumentze, romelTagan jerjerobiT arcerTi
ar aris oficialurad damtkicebuli. pirvelia wylis integrirebuli marTvis
koncefciis proeqti, romelic, Tu oficialur wyaroebs davujerebT, ukve
ganxiluli da mowonebuli iqna mTavrobis sxdomaze. meore dokumenti ki,
geremos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mier momzadebuli
saqarTvelos wylis resursebis marTvis politikis koncefciis proeqtia.
  iseve rogorc “wylis Sesaxeb” kanonproeqtSi, orive dokumentSi
xazgasmulia wylis resursebis saauzo marTvis ganxorcielebis aucilebloba.
amasTan, pirveli dokumenti gansakuTrebul yuradRebas amaxvilebs wylis
resursebis efeqturad gamoyenebis da ekonomikuri sargeblis mniSvnelobaze.
mdinare warmodgenilia rogorc “erTiani fizikuri da ekonomikuri obieqti”.
mdinaris auzis erTeulis CamoyalibebisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba
eniWeba geografiul princips _ “auzi unda iyos fizikurad erTiani” da
ekonomikur princips _ “auzi unda iyos ekonomikurad mdgradi”.
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 127

  garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros proeqti miznad
isaxavs wylis resursebis gaumjobesebuli da efeqturi marTvis 25 wliani
modelis Seqmnas, romelmac unda uzrunvelyos: saqarTvelos wylebis
ekologiuri faseulobebisa da funqciebis SenarCuneba; wylis raodenobrivi da
xarisxobrivi maCveneblebis SenarCuneba da gaumjobeseba; usabrTxo
sufTa wylis xelmisawvdomoba; wyaldidobebisa da gvalvebisagan dacva da
prevencia; hidrologiuri reJimis SenarCuneba.
  proeqtSi aRniSnulia wylis resursebis marTvis arsebuli administraciuli
modelis araefeqturobis Sesaxeb. kerZod, proeqtis Tanaxmad, arsebuli
administraciuli modeliT, SeuZlebelia wylis resursebis efeqturi moxmarebis
dagegmva mdinaris auzis farglebSi, wyalmosargebleTa interesebisa da
ekosistemis SenarCunebisa da dacvis gaTvaliswinebiT.
  Sesabamisad, proeqtSi warmodgenili wylis resursebis marTvis politikis
prioritetul mimarTulebas wylis resursebis saauzo marTvis danergva da
Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi da instituciuri safuZvlebis gaZliereba
warmoadgens.


daskvna

  dResdReobiT saqarTvelos moqmed wylis kanonmdeblobaSi an
SemoTavazebul koncefciaSi erTaderTi inovacia aris wylis saauzo marTvis
danergvis iniciativa. saauzo marTva, Tavis mxriv, wylis resursebis
integrirebuli marTvis mxolod instruments da marTvis erTeuls
warmoadgens. mdinaris auzSi ki ar unda ganxorcieldes wylis resursebis
integrirebuli marTva, rogorc magaliTad wylis koncefciis Sesaxeb
dokumenti gvTavazobs.
   wylis koncefciis samTavrobo dokumentSi aqcenti ekonomikur
mogebazea gadatanili. kerZo seqtoris CarTva, iol gamosavlad aris miCneuli
_rodesac saxelmwifo ixsnis wylis “movlis“ valdebulebas da mas kerZo
seqtors gadaabarebs. Tumca, daviwyebulia, rom kerZo saqtoris CarTva
saxelmwifos maregulirebel funqcias ara Tu amsubuqebs, aramed ufro
aZlierebs. amdenad, mTavari mizani wylis resursebis sworad marTvis,
wylis dacvis saWiroebis gacnobierebaa.
  maSin, roca finansuri, adamianuri da teqnikuri resursebis simcire jer kidev
SeuZlebels xdis kargi garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobis bazisis Seqmnas
saqarTveloSi, Zalze naadrevi Cans radikaluri nabijebis gadadgma wylis
resursebze sakuTrebis sferoSi. garda, amisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom
garemosdacviTi     mmarTvelobis       warmateba      mniSvnelovnad        aris
damokidebuli garemosdacviTi sakiTxebis integraciaze ekonomikur da
ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebul gadawyvetilebebSi.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              128


gamoyenebuli literatura:

    1. saqarTvelos kanoni garemos dacvis Sesaxeb, 1997
    2. saqarTvelos kanoni wylis Sesaxeb, 1997
    3. saqarTvelos kanoni licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb, 2005
    4. saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsi, 1984
    5. saqarTvelos kanoni bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobisaTvis
         mosakreblebis Sesaxeb, 2004
    6. mwvane alternativa. “wylis resursebis marTva da dacva saqarTvelosa
         da evrokavSiris midgomebi” Tbilisi, 2007


                               Summary

Mariam Lomidze
Management and protection of water resources of Georgia

 Nowadays according to the existing Georgian Water legislation, or offered
conception, the only innovation is the initiative of introduction of
management of water ponds. Pond management represents the instrument of
integrated management of water resources. Integrated management of water
resources should not take place in the river pond, as it is given in the
document about water conception. In addition, it is remarkable that the
success of enviromental managenment depends on the integration of
enviromental question and the decisions concerning economy and
development.


                                Резюме

Мариам Ломидзе
Управление и охрана водных ресурсов Грузии

На сегодняшний день в действующем в Грузии водном
законодательстве или в его предложенной концепции единственной
инновацией является инновация введения управления водным
бассейном. Управление бассейном, в свою очередь, представляет
собой лишь инструмент интегрированного управления водными
ресурсами. В бассейне же реки не должно осуществляться
интегрированное управление водными ресурсами, как, к примеру,
предлагает документ о водной концепции. Кроме того, необходимо
учесть, что успех управления средой в значительной степени зависит
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              129

от интеграции в вопросах защиты среды и в решениях, связанных с
экономикой и ее развитием.




                     TinaTin iaSvili,   irina iaSvili

          ruseTis agresiuli energetikuli politika mezobeli
                     saxelmwifoebis mimarT




  msoflioSi mimdinare globaluri procesebis fonze saxelmwifoebisTvis sul
ufro globaluri xdeba energousafrTxoebis Tema. energopolitika dRes
nebismieri qveynis politikuri usafrTxoebis qvakuTxedia.
     dRes msoflio politikis dRis wesrigSi energomatareblebis Temas pirveli
adgili ukavia da Sesabamisad gazisa da navTobisken mimavali yvela gza
didi saxelmwifoebis politikuri brZolis frontia. am gzis mniSvnelovani
monakveTi saqarTvelozec gadis.
  sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg ruseTi yvelanairad cdilobs sakuTari
politikuri gavlenis SenarCunebas kavkasiis regionSi, gansakuTrebiT
saqarTveloSi. dRes am regionSi aSS-s interesebis gaZlierebaSi da nato-s
gafarToebaSi ruseTi Tavisi nacionaluri interesebisTvis safrTxes xedavs
  dsT-s farglebSi ruseTis politikuri gavlenis uzrunvelyofa ZiriTadad
ekonomikuri interesebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. kavkasiasTan mimarTebaSi es
interesi kaspiis navTobis mopovebasa da misi transportirebis kontrolSi
gamoixateboda. dasavleTisTvis ki, ruseTisgan damoukideblad kaspiis
navTobis tranzitis saukeTeso alternativas saqarTvelo warmoadgenda. baqo-
Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis amoqmedebiT ruseTma regionSi seriozuli
marcxi ganicada
      21-e saukunidan ruseTma Tavis kavkasiur geopolitikaSi, uSualo
samxedro      Carevebis     nacvlad,   politikuri  brZolis    instrumentad
energomatareblebisa da ekonomikuri sanqciebis gamoyeneba daiwyo.
mkveTri prodasavluri orientaciisa da nato-Si realuri gawevrianebis
perspeqtivis gamo, man gansakuTrebuli dartyma saqarTvelos miayena.
     ruseTSi saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisTvis savizo reJimis SemoRebas,
2005 wlis dekemberSi ukve qarTuli agraruli produqciis, 2006 wlis martSi
qarTuli Rvinos da amave wlis maisSi qarTuli mineraluri wylebis akrZalva
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                130

mohyva. swored am periodSi ruseTma saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg
energoblokadac ganaxorciela, rodesac gazsadenis ~afeTqebis~ Sedegad
umkacres zamTarSi saqarTvelos mosaxleoba erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi
gazis gareSe darCa. 2007 wlis dasawyisSi ki ruseTma saqarTvelos gazis
fasi gauormaga. (1)
     saqarTveloSi situaciis destabilizaciam SeiZleba mniSvnelovani
zemoqmedeba iqonios baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis momaval bedze
da Sesabamisad dasavleTis interesebis gafarToebis strategiul gegmebze.
marTalia, aRniSnuli milsadeni 2005 wlidan muSaobs, magram is jer kidev
iseTi momgebiani ar aris, rogorc dagegmili iyo. imisaTvis, rom is
rentabeluri gaxdes, saWiroa yazaxeTisa da TurqmeneTis gadawyvetileba,
rom maTi navTobisa da gazis transportireba moxdeba jer baqoSi da
baqodan Semdeg gaedineba Tbilisi-jeihanis milsadenSi. es ruseTisTvis
morigi seriozuli marcxi iqneba. amitom, saqarTveloSi situaciis
destabilizacia ruseTs, kaspiis navTobis sakuTari teritoriidan tranzitisTvis,
saukeTeso kartebs sTavazobs.
     marTalia, dRes kavkasiaSi navTobis transportirebaze ruseTis
monopolia aRar arsebobs, magram igi gaaqtiurda kaspiis regionis
aRmosavleT nawilSi. saerTo energo da koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis interesebis
safuZvelze Seiqmna Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO.
Sanxais TanamSromlobis organizacia), romelSic ruseTTan erTad CineTi,
yazaxeTi, yirgizeTi da uzbekeTi gawevriandnen. damkvirveblis statusi
aqvT indoeTs, pakistans, monRoleTsa da irans.
     ruseTis miswrafeba, gaxdes energogiganti, ruseTis prezidentma
putinma sanavTobo kompaniebis ~privatizaciiT~ da maTi saxelmwifo
kontrolis qveS daqvemdebarebiT daiwyo. kremlis mier kontrolirebadi
gazpromi ki dRes, Tavisi mniSvnelobiT, sagareo politikaSi sakuTari didi
ambiciebi ganaxorcielos.
     rac Seexeba ruseTis ganviTarebas zogadad, is SeiZleba daxasiaTdes,
rogorc korufciuli sabazro ekonomikis ganviTareba avtoritaruli reJimis
farglebSi. kremlisTvis samarTlebrivi saxelmwifo, demokratia, samoqalaqo
sazogadoeba, sabazro ekonomika mxolod politikuri instrumentebia da ara
TavisTavadi Rirebulebebi, romelTac TviTmyofadi ganviTarebis tendencia
gaaCnia. es TviTmyofadoba ki, pirvel rigSi politikur procesebSi
sazogadoebis Tanamonawileobis maRali xarisxiT ganisazRvreba.
       ruseTSi prezidenti putini, energousafrTxoebis mniSvnelobidan
gamomdinare, sul ufro metad amyarebs saxelmwifos poziciebs
energetikaSi. man Tavisi piradi garemocvidan daniSna xelmZRvanelebi
iseT ~energogigantebSi~, rogorebicaa ~ees-rosii~, ~gazpromi~, ~rosnefti~,
birTvuli energosawvavis kompania ~rgcl~, navTobsadenebis monopolia
~transnefteproduqti. xSirad ruseTis mTavroba sabazro meqanizmebiT, wilis
da aqciebis gamosyidvis gziTac axerxebs saxelmwifo kontrolis dawesebas.
amis mkafio magaliTia ~iukosis~ da ~saxalin 2~-is gaxmaurebuli
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                131

movlenebi gasul wels. analogiuri scenarebiT moqmedebs ruseTi dsT-s
masStabiTac.
        amis naTeli magaliTia, ruseTis moqmedeba ukrainisa da belorusiis
mimarT, rodesac putinma lukaSenkosTan SeTanxmebas ver miaRwia ori
saxelmwifos belorusiis da ruseTis gaerTianebis Sesaxeb. rac putins
miscemda saSualebas rogorc axlad Seqmnili qveynis prezidents kvlav
gaegrZelebina Tavisi prezidentobis vada, man gauormaga belorusias gazis
gadasaxadi, radganac am Tanxis gadaxda belorisiis ekonomikis moSlas
gamoiwvevda. belorusiam kontrargumentad tranzitis Tanxa mniSvnelovnad
gazarda, rac aseve miuRebeli aRmoCnda ruseTisaTvis da daiwyo gazis
gadaketva, gazis dataceba, konfliqtebi or saxelmwifos Soris. amis Semdeg
ruseTma axali moTxovna wauyena belarusis mTavrobas `beltransgazi~-s
aqciebis sakontrolo paketis miyidvis Sesaxeb.
   2007 wlis pirvelive dReebSi, belarusis mTavrobasa da s\s ~gazproms~
Soris xelSekrulebis gaformebiT, dasrulda ruseT-belorusis ~gazis omi~. am
kontraqtiT aTas kub.m bunebriv airs belarusi wels miiRebs 100 aSS
dolarad. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom gazgamanawilebeli qselis kompania
~beltransgazi~-s aqciebis sakontrolo paketi pirdapiri miyidvis formiT, anu
ukonkurentod, martSi ~gazpromma~ SeiZina. man miaRwia mizans _
baltiis zRvis fskerze rusul-evropuli gazsadenis intensiuri mSeneblobis fonze
am garigebiT ruseTma evropis bazarze monopoliuri mdgomareoba
gainaRda.
        analogiuri scenariT cdilobs ruseTi ukrainis dasjas narinjisferi
revoluciis Semdeg. ruseTis azriT ukraina unda daisajos survilisaTvis
gaerTiandes ~natoSi~. amitom ruseTi kidev erTxel Zveli scenariT
aormagebs gazis gadasaxads. ukraina zrdis tranzitis Tanxas. mcirdeba gazis
nakadi ukrainul milebSi. ukraina cxadia ver datovebda Tavis xalxs
gaTbobis gareSe, ramac gamoiwvia zamTarSi rigi evropuli saxelmwifoebis
datoveba gazis gareSe. aman kidev erTxel warmoaCina ruseTi evropisa da
sxva saxelmwifoebis winaSe rogorc arasaimedo partniori. rac Seexeba gazis
oms ruseTsa da ukrainas Soris, igi dResac grZeldeba. rameTu ruseTma
wauyena mravalmilioniani davalianeba ukrainas rasac igi dReisaTvis ar
scnobs. aRniSnuli imaze miuTiTebs, rom rusulma energogigantma dsT-s
sivrceSi gazis gamanawilebeli kompaniebis uSualod gakontroleba daisaxab
miznad. amitom saqarTveloSi energo obieqtebis privatizeba ganxilul unda
iqnes ara marto wminda fiskaluri kuTxiT, anu biujetSi mosalodneli
saprivatizebo (kapitaluri) Semosavlebis mobilizaciis, aramed geopolitikur-
evropis alternatiuli gazmomaragebis _ aspeqtSic. micedavad amisa,
samwuxarod, dRes arsebuli geopolitikuri Sexedulebebi (rogorc gavlenian
saxelisuflebo, ise saparlamento opoziciis wreebSi) erTob trivialur
daskvnamde daiyvaneba _ ra mniSvneloba aqvs, vis ekuTvnis ~magistraluri
gazsadeni~, mTavaria is, rom resursebis wyaro mainc qveynis gareTaa da
misi gadaketvis gziT politikuri zegavlena advilia.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             132

   rusuli energokompaniebis strategias, uwinares yovlisa, maTze
saxelmwifos pirdapiri Tu arapirdapiri kontroli ganapirobebs, romelic
aRniSnul samewarmeo subieqtebs rusuli geopolitikuri interesebis aqtiur
gamtareblebad gadaaqcevs. aqedan gamomdinare, ~gazpromma~
gadawyvita, gamoiyenos somxeT/saqarTvelos gazis qseli, rogorc iranuli
gazis evropaSi tranzitis sapirispiro gza. swored amiTaa gamowveuli
          ~gazpromis~ mzardi interesi Cveni magistraluri gazsadenis
privatizebaSi. sxvagvarad ver aixsneba ~gazpromis~ daintereseba maRali
simZlavris dautvirTavi (ZiriTadi _ 1200 mm, sarezervo _ 700 mm milebi
sanaxevrodac araa datvirTuli! misi saproeqto simZlavrea 18 mln.kub.m,
ssrk-s daSlis Semdeg moxmarebis Semcirebis gamo is mxolod 9,5
mln.kub.m-s atarebs weliwadSi) gazsadenis mimarT, romliTac saqarTvelo
da somxeTi rusuli an Turqmenuli gaziT maragdeba. amitomacaa, rom
~gazpromma~ mxari dauWira iranidan somxeTSi gazsadenis mSeneblobas.
ufro metic, man monawileoba miiRo gazsadenis mSeneblobis dafinansebaSi
_ ~gazpromidan~ 140 mln. dolaris kreditiT gazsadenis 120-kilometriani
somxuri monakveTi gaiyvanes. gazsadeni 2007 wlis 20 martidan ukve
funqcionirebs! amave dros, ~gazpromi~ aqtiuradaa CarTuli iranis ~samxreT
farsis~ gazis sabados aTvisebaSi. igi flobs 30-procentian wils da aSenebs
56-duimian gazsadens CrdiloeT iranis mimarTulebiT. e.i. saqarTveloze
gamavali magistraluri gazsadenis privatizebis SemTxvevaSi ~gazproms~
eqneba sakuTari (anu iranSi mopovebuli) gazi da mili (anu Cveni
~magistraluri gazsadeni~) evropaSi gazis gadasagzavnad. amasTan,
vinaidan 1998 wlis Semdeg, ~arasasoflo-sameurneo miwis privatizebis~
Sesaxeb kanonis moTxovniT, yvela saxelmwifo obieqti miwianad unda
gaiyidos, ~gazproms~ eqneba mili Tavis mimdebare miwianad. es ki ruseTs
saSualebas miscems, gazsadenis usafrTxoebis dacvis motiviT moiTxovos
garkveuli samxedro kontingentis gamoyeneba gazsadenis nebismier
wertilSi. sxvaTa Soris, 1999 wels ~gazis saerTaSoriso korporaciis~ Seqmna
da mis sawesdebo kapitalSi magistraluri gazsadenis Cadeba Tavdapirvelad
swored erToblivi rusul-qarTuli sawarmos (saxelwodebaSi ~saerTaSoriso~
swored am mizeziT gaCnda) Sesaqmnelad iyo mofiqrebuli. analogiuri
scenariT gaCnda Tavis droze rusul-qarTuli eleqtroenergetikuli sawarmo
~saqrusenergoc~. misi sawesdebo kapitali rusul mxares unda Seevso
~zestafoni-axalqalaqi~ eleqtrogadamcemi xazis mSeneblobiT, rac Semdeg
yarsis mimarTulebiT gagrZeldeboda, da saboloo daniSnulebiT axlo
aRmosavleT/ruseTis erTiani energosistemis Seqmna iyo gaTvaliswinebuli.
       SeuZlebelia daeTanxmo mosazrebas, TiTqos ~gazproms~ Cveni
gazsadeni TurqeTSi gazis tranzitisTvis sWirdeba. TurqeTis bazari
~gazproms~ isedac ukve aTvisebuli aqvs bulgareTis gavliT ~progresisa~ da
Savi zRvis fskerze gamavali ~cisferi nakadis~ milsadenebis saSualebiT.
Cveni magistraluri gazsadenis privatizebiT da gazis nakadis mimarTulebis
SecvliT ruseTi ganimtkicebs evropaSi gayvanis Semdgom, arsebuli
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              133

gazsadenebiTa (~megobroba~, ~progresis~) da iranuli gaziT mas
garantirebuli eqneba evropaze xangrZlivi goepolitikuri zemoqmedeba.
Tanac, kidev ufro ~miibams~ strategiul partniorebs _ somxeTsa da irans.
SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom evropis sabWos 2006 wlis 24 martis
gadawyvetilebaSi dafiqsirebulia: ~unda ganviTardes kaspiis regionidan
gazmomaragebis axali marSrutebi. evrokavSiris gafarToebis dros
mxedvelobaSia misaRebi energousafrTxoeba~.
amrigad, Tu saqarTvelo, Sesabamisi strategiiT, xels ar SeuSlis ucxouri
saxelmwifos mier kontrolirebad kompaniebs Cveni energoqselebis
privatizebaSi, maSin qveynis prodasavluri kursi winaaRmdegobaSi mova
mTavrobis Sida ekonomikur politikasTan. anu Tu evropaSi integracia
gvsurs, xeli unda SevuwyoT ruseTis gverdis avliT gazis alternatiuli gzebiT
tranzits.
Tavisi miznebis ganxorcielebisaTvis rusuli ~gazpromi~ azerbaijanuli gazis
SesyidviT dainteresda, Tumca mxareebi urTierTxelsayrel fasze jerjerobiT
ver SeTanxmdnen. ~gazpromisTvis~ azerbaijanuli mxaris mier
SeTavazebuli fasi miuRebeli aRmoCnda. amis Sesaxeb azerbaijanis
saxelmwifo navTobkompaniis prezidentma rovnag abdulaevma azerbaijanis
satelevizio arx ANS-Tan interviuSi ganacxada. rovnag abdulaevis
gancxadebiT, azerbaijanma ~gazproms~ 2007 wlis maisSi aTasi kub. metri
gazis 230 aSS dolarad yidva SesTavaza. Tumca rusuli mxare aTasi kub.
metri gazis Sesyidvas gacilebiT dabal fasad moiTxovda. rogorc abdulaevi
acxadebs, azerbaijani evropis gazis momaragebis saqmeSi erT-erT
mniSvnelovan pozicias ikavebs. am droisTvis azerbaijanis saxelmwifo
navTobkompania proeqt Nabucco-s monawile kompaniebTan da
qveynebTan molaparakebas awarmoebs. ~Cven momxre varT, rom gazis
eqsporti TurqeTi-saberZneTi-italiis mimarTulebiT moxdes da am proeqtis
monawile qveynebTan mudmiv kontaqtSi vimyofebiT,~ _ ganacxada
abdulaevma.azerbaijanis saxelmwifo navTobkompania 2008 wels gazis
mopovebis gazrdas 55 procentiT, daaxloebiT 8 miliard kubur metramde
gegmavs. azerbaijanis respublikas gazze sakuTari moTxovnilebis
dasakmayofileblad daaxloebiT 12-13 miliardi kuburi metri gazi sWirdeba.
azerbaijanis saxelmwifo navTobkompaniis garda, am qveyanaSi gazs
moipoveben: BP (25%), Statoil (25.5%), LUKOIL (10%), NICO (10%),
Total (10%) da TPAO (9%). TviTon                 azerbaijanis saxelmwifo
navTobkompaniis wilad mopovebuli gazis 10 procenti modis.
   im SemTxvevaSi, Tu Sah-denizze gazis mopoveba stabilurad
gagrZeldeba, am sabadodan 8.6 miliardi kuburi metri gazis mopovebas
moelian. Sah-denizis gazi azerbaijans, saqarTvelos navTobisa da gazis
korporacias da BOTAS-s (TurqeTi) miewodeba.
  iranTan SeTanxmeba ukve miRweulia _ ~gazpromi~ iranuli navTobisa da
gazis mopovebaSi, transportirebasa da gayidvaSi mniSvnelovan rols
Seasrulebs. rusuli saxelmwifo monopolisti pirvel etapze ~samxreT parsis~
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                134

da kunZul kiSze arsebuli navTobisa da gazis sabadoebis damuSavebaSi
miiRebs monawileobas. ~gazpromi~ iranSi mas Semdeg gaaqtiurda, rac
qveynis xelmZRvanelobam sabadoebze Cinuri kompaniebis daSvebis da
momavalSi gazsaden NABUCCO-sTvis gazis miwodebis Sesaxeb
gancxadebebi gaakeTa.
        sparseTis yuris SelfSi gazisa da navTobis erToblivi mopovebis
Sesaxeb ~gazpromis~ xelmZRvaneli aleqsei mileri iranis navTobis
ministrTan ukve SeTanxmda. sainformacio saagento ISNA (Teirani)
azustebs, rom erTi an ramdenime erToblivi sawarmos SeTanxmebas iranis
navTobis ministri da ~gazpromis~ xelmZRvaneli xels aprilSi an maisSi
moaweren. saagento SHANA-s informaciiT ki, SeTanxmeba samxreT da
CrdiloeT parsis da kunZul kiSze arsebuli sabadoebis erTobliv damuSavebas
exeba _ am kunZulze gazis maragi daaxloebiT 1. 37 trilion kubur metrs
utoldeba.
        garda amisa, ~gazpromi~ iranSi gazsacavis mSeneblobas apirebs da
iranis gazis nacionalur kompanias moqmedi gazsadenis diagnostikasa da
reabilitaciaSi Tanadgomasac Sehpirda. ~gazpromi~ ~samxreT parsis~
meore da mesame blokebze (sul am sabadoze 18 blokia da gazis saerTo
maragi 10 trilion kubur metrs utoldeba) 1997 wlidan, frangul TOTALELF-
TanA (40%) da malaiziur PETRONAS-Tan (30%) erTad, konsorciumis
farglebSi muSaobda. 2004 wels konsorciumma iranis navTobis nacionalur
kompanias gadasca kompleqsi, romelic or sazRvao baqans, 100 km. sigrZis
or wyalqveSa gazsadens da qalaq assalueSi arsebul Txevadi gazis qarxanas
moicavda. kompleqsis saerTo Rirebuleba 2 miliardi aSS. dolaria.
        ~gazpromi~ cdilobda, gazis eqsportze iranis xelisuflebisgan sasurveli
kvotebi mieRo. sanacvlod iranma ~gazpromisgan~ samrwvelo eqspluataciis
dawyebidan 7 wlis ganmavlobaSi 1.15 miliardi laris gadaxda moiTxova.
molaparakebebis dros Suamavali TOTAL-i iyo. aleqsei mileris viziti mas
Semdeg momzadda, rac iranis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma ganacxada, rom
irani, SesaZloa, evropul gazsaden NABUCCO-sTvis mTavari saresurso
baza gaxdes da gazis miwodebis Taobaze SveicariasTan SeTanxmebasac
moaweros xeli.
        eqspertTa azriT, ~gazpromi~ ruseTSi realur gaaqtiurebas sulac ar
apirebs. rusi eqsperti valeri nesterovi miiCnevs, rom axlo momavalSi ruseT-
iranis proeqtebze muSaoba ar ganaxldeba. ~ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom
iranSi moqmedi kompaniebis mimarT aSS saerTaSoriso sanqciebs
awesebs,~ _ acxadebs nesterovi. analitikosi miiCnevs, rom evrokavSiris
qveynebi, daZabuli politikuri mdgomareobis gamo, iranuli gazis Sesyidvaze
uars      ityvian.   Tumca       ~gazproms~      iranTan     molaparakebebi,
winaaRmdegobebis miuxedavad, mainc uRirs _ irani 28 trilion kubur
metrad Sefasebul gazis marags flobs.
        bolo 4 wlis ganmavlobaSi navTobis fasi 3-jer gaizarda da gazisa da
navTobis mopovebisa da gadamuSavebis sferoSi SesamCnevi
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               135

mdgomareobac sruliad axalma kompaniebma daikaves. am kompaniebma
energoresursebis flobisa da mopovebis agresiuli maneriT msoflios
umsxvilesi energokompaniebi – amerikuli ExxonMobil-i da Chevron-i da
evropuli BP da Royal Dutch Shell-i mniSvnelovnad Seaviwroves
  gasuli wlis miwuruls moskovs BP-s xelmZRvaneli, lordi brauni ewvia.
man ~gazproms~ Txevadi gazis sazRvargareT realizaciis ufleba sTxova.
Tumca vizitis mTavari mizani sxva iyo, braunma ~gazpromis~ mxridan
koviktinskis gazis sabadoze kontrolis mopovebis mcdelobis SeCereba scada
_ koviktinskis sabado ruseTSi BP-s mTavari aqtivia.
  bunebrivi resursebis nacionalizacias gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi
mimdinare procesisgan gansxvavebuli saxe aqvs. am etapze transnacionalur
navTobkompaniebs kapitalis dasabandeblad axali sabadoebis moZieba
sakmaod uWirT. 2000 wlidan (roca yazaxeTSi bolo 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi
yvelaze didi _ kaSaganskis sabado aRmoaCines) dRemde dRe-RameSi 1
milioni bareli navTobis momcemi sabado aRar aRmouCeniaT.
  problema is aris, rom saxelmwifo nacionalur navTobkompaniebs
sakuTari Semosavlebis reinvestirebis uflebas ar aZleven. reinvestirebisa da
dargis ganviTarebis magivrad, es saxelmwifoebi navTobisa da gazis
mopovebisa da gadamuSavebis sferodan miRebul fuls socialur
RonisZiebebze xarjaven. venesuelis prezidenti ugo Cavesi PDVSA-s
biujetis or mesameds populistur socialur programebze xarjavs. raisis
universitetis monacemebiT, 2005 wels am mizniT 7 miliardi aSS dolari
daixarja, maSin, roca 1997 wels Cavesis winamorbedi xelisufleba am
mizniT mxolod 77 milion dolars xarjavda.
  ruseTSi ~gazpromis~ Semosavlebis mxolod Zalian mcire nawili
miemarTeba moZvelebuli navTobsadenis modernizaciaze. miuxedavad
imisa, rom iranul NIOC-s samxreT iranis da msoflioSi umdidresi gazis
sabado ekuTvnis, es kompania iranSi gazis imports axdens. NIOC-i iranis
masStabiT benzinis subsidirebas axdens _ am qveyanaSi 1 litri benzinis fasi
10 amerikuli centia. samagierod, kompanias navTobisa da gazis mopovebis
gazrdis da navTobgadamamuSavebeli warmoebis gadaiaraRebis saSualeba
aRar aqvs.
  ra xdeba maSin, roca saxelmwifo ucxour investiciebs zRudavs da
nacionalur navTobkompanias uZiro yulabasaviT iyenebs? amis naTeli
magaliTia meqsikuri Pemex. misi warmoeba imdenad daeca, rom
Financial Times_ma es kompania ganviTarebadi msoflios yvelaze
gavlenian energetikul korporaciaTa Soris aRar Seiyvana.
  sabadoebis mflobelTa garda,         transnacionaluri navTobkompaniebis
konkurentebad is nacionaluri navTobkompaniebic gvevlinebian, romlebic
bunebriv resursebs eZeben. Sesabamisad, msoflio masStabiT energetikuli
usafrTxoebis problemac ufro mZafrdeba.
  jimi karterma, romelic 70-iani wlebis navTobis krizisis dros aSS-s
prezidenti iyo, erT-erT interviuSi ganacxada, rom energetikuli daucveloba
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               136

kvlav msoflios yvelaze did problemad rCeba da es problema momavalSi
ufro met krizisul situaciebs gamoiwvevs. ~ am etapze CineTisa da indoeTis
mxridan iseTi konkurenciis pirobebSi vcxovrobT, risi warmodgenac Cemi
prezidentobis dros arc SeiZleboda,~ _ ganacxada karterma.
     vaSingtonis mosalodneli reaqciis SiSiT, premierma r.t. erdoganma,
sagareo saqmeTa ministrma gulerma da gazis kompaniis ~Botas~-is
generalurma direqtorma strategiis dargSi senk palam TurqmeneT-iran-
TurqeTis 2007 wlis 20 noembris proeqtis mniSvneloba, bunebrivia, axsnes
evropis da TurqeTis gazze moTxovnis ruseTis gverdis avliT
dakmayofilebisa da evrokavSiris Turquli koridoriT energomomaragebis
diversifikaciis aucileblobiT. transkaspiur gazsadenis (TCGP) proeqtze
TurqmeneTis mxriv kaspiis statusis gamo arsebuli winaaRmdegobis
pirobebSi, rogorc gulerma aRniSna, TurqeTs surs, Turqmenul gazs iranis
saSualebiT daukavSirdes. rogorc Turqma politikosebma aRniSnes,
vaSingtoni Tavdapirvelad proeqts daupirispirdeba (16 ivliss ukve gaJRerda
aSS-s saxelmwifo departamentis warmomadgenlis Son mak-kormakis
mxriv TurqeTis kritika), Tumca Semdeg mixvdeba TurqeTis da
evrokavSiris interesebis mniSvnelobas.
     faqtobrivad, TurqeTma drouli svla gaakeTa. es svla win aRudgeba
ruseTis prezident v. putinis Zalisxmevas centraluri aziis energoresursebTan
dakavSirebiT. rogorc cnobilia, v. putinis es Zalisxmeva TavisTavSi
moicavs: Turqmenul gazze ruseTis monopoliis SenarCunebas; avstriis
CarTvas ~gazpromis~ satranzito sqemaSi; da TurqeTis gverdis amqcevi
rusul-italiuri ~samxreTis nakadis~ SeTanxmebas. pirveli berketiT ruseTi
cdilobs, transkaspiuri gazsadeniT evropis gazmomaragebis proeqtis
(TCGP) dasamarebas. meore ewinaaRmdegeba globalur evropul proeqts
Nabucco-s. mesame berketiT ki igi evropis ukanasknel alternatiul
energokoridors daxuravs, rac TurqeTs CixSi moaqcevs (bolo momentamde
TurqeTi cdilobda, ~gazpromTan~ SeTanxmebisaTvis mieRwia, raTa
TurqeTi transkaspiuri _ TCGP da Nabucco-s damakavSirebeli punqti
yofiliyo. iranTan aRniSnuli SeTanxmebis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi ki
TurqeTs rusuli gazi aRaraferSi dasWirdeba). TurqeTis iranTan gaformebuli
memorandumi droulia, vinaidan igi winaRudga TurqmeneT-yazaxeT-
ruseTis mier q. TurqmenbaSiSi 2007 wlis 12 maiss xelmoweril
SeTanxmebas. iran-TurqeTis memorandumi aseve sicocxlisunarianobas
unarCunebs Nabucco-s proeqtsac.
     igi saSualebas iZleva, azerbaijanuli gazi Nabucco-s saSualebiT
evropisken miimarTos baqo-Tbilisi-erzerumis (BTE) ~samxreTkavkasiuri~
gazsadenis gamoyenebiT. igi TurqeTs aZlevs Sanss, rom gaxdes
~gazpromis~ alternatiuli satranzito koridori, riTac evrokavSiris da aSS-s
energo-diversifikaciis sqemebSi Tavisi adgili daimkvidros.
     ramdenime dRis Semdeg, 17 ivliss pekinSi TurqmeneTis da CineTis
mTavrobebma xeli moawares grandiozul SeTanxmebas TurqmeneTis gazis
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                137

sabadoebis aTvisebasa da CineTisaTvis gazis miyidvis Sesaxeb.
xelmoweras ori qveynis prezidenti daeswro.
     CineTis erovnuli navTobkorporaciis (CNPC) da TurqmeneTis
hidrokarbonebis saxelmwifo saagentos (romelic pirdapir eqvemdebareba
prezidents) xelmZRvanelebma xeli moaweres produqciis miwodebis
kontraqts md. amudarias marjvena napirze (aRmosavleT TurqmeneTi) im
gazis sabadoebis aTvisebaze, romelic, Turqmenebis SefasebiT, 1.7 trilion
kub. metris simZlavrisaa. es Sefaseba araa damokidebuli eqspertebis mier
gakeTebuli da ar moicavs dauzverav sabadoebs am regionSi. Cinur mxares
aseve ukve xelmowerili aqvs 1.5 mlrd. dolaris kontraqtic am regionSi gazis
sabadoebis aTvisebaze, romliTac samxreT iolotanSi (TurqmeneTi samxreT-
aRmosavleTi) 2007-2010 wlebSi 12 WaburRilis amoqmedebas
iTvaliswinebs. 17 ivliss aseve saxelmwifo kompania ~Turqmengazma~ da
Cinurma CNPC-m xeli moaweres SeTanxmebas 30 wlis manZilze
yovelwliurad CineTisaTvis 30 mlrd. kub. metri gazis miwodebaze.
gazsadenis CineTis sinZianis provinciis gavliT CineTis Sida qsels
daukavSirda. am qseliT 2004 wlidan sinZiani 4000km-iani miliT
ukavSirdeba q. Sanhais. aseve dagegmilia axali 6500 km-iani milis gayvana
CineTis q. kantonamde. savaraudod, Turqmenuli gazi am ukanasknel
gazsadens daukavSirdeba. vizitis dros TurqmeneTis prezidentma g.
berdimuhamedovma ganacxada, rom uzrunvelyofs am mimarTulebiT gazis
saWiro raodenobiT miwodebas da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi gazs sxva
regionebidanac daaxmars. g. berdimuhamedovma aRniSna, rom
TurqmeneTs sakmao gazi aqvs yvela mimarTulebiT eqsportis
uzrunvelsayofad da miwodebis saWiro moculobis Sesaxeb Cinuri mxaris
daeWvebis safuZveli ar arsebobs.
     amrigad, erTis mxriv, arsebuli transevropuli gazsadenebiT, baltiis
fskerze mSenebare ~nord strimiT~ (Nord Stream), Savi zRvis fskerze
daproeqtebuli axali ~cisferi nakadi2~-iT (Blue Stream2), sul axlaxan, 12
maiss q. TurqmenbaSiSi SeTanxmebuli ~kaspiispira gazsadeniT~ (Pre-
Caspian Pipeline), Savi zRvis fskerze ~samxreTis nakadis~ (South
Stream) gayvanis mizniT rusul-italiuri konsorciumis SeqmniT, rac
gaformda 2007 wlis 23 ivniss ~gazpromi~/Eni-is SeTanxmebiT;
     meores mxriv ki, 2007 wlis 9 aprils q. dohaSi (katari) ~gaz-opekis~
tipis kartelis SeqmniT, ruseTi 2008 wlidan, centraluri aziis energoresursebis
CrdiloeTis mimarTulebis makontrolebeli xdeba.
     aqedan gamomdinare, TurqmeneT-iran-TurqeTisa da TurqmeneT-
CineTis zemoaRniSnuli SeTanxmebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ~kaspiispira
gazsadenis~ (Pre-Caspian Pipeline) CrdiloeTis anu TurqmeneT-yazaxeT-
ruseTis mimarTulebas emateba TurqmeneT-iran-TurqeTis, e. i. samxreTis
mimarTulebac. Tanac, TurqmeneTis mier ruseTisa da CineTisadmi aRebuli
grandiozuli valdebulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ~transkaspiuri gazsadenis~
uaxloes momavalSi ganxorcielebas seriozuli safrTxe daemuqra.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             138

     amitom, 2008 wlis strategiuli sagareo politikuri dokumentebis
SemuSavebisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces kaspiispira
gazsadenis (Pre-Caspian Pipeline) CrdiloeTis da samxreTis axal
proeqtebs, romlebmac transkaspiuri gazsadenis (TCGP) proeqti
aTwleulebiT SeiZleba gadaavados.
     saqrTvelos ~sagareo saqmeTa ministris 2007 wlis direqtivebSi~
energo-usafrTxoebis sakiTxebs Soris (Tavi 5, gv.15) sruliad
samarTlianadaa xazgasmuli, rom saministros umTavres amocanebs
Sorisaa~…. . . partniorebTan efeqtiani TanamSromloba trans-kaspiuri
milsadenebis sistemis strategiis Seqmnasa da mis ganxorcielebasTan
dakavSirebiT~. milsadenebis ~sistemaSi~ igulisxmeba: a) transkaspiuri
gazsadeni (TCGP). am amocanis Sesruleba niSnavs centraluri aziidan
saqarTvelos gavliT evropis ruseTisgan alternatiuli gaz-navTob-
momaragebis sqemis ganxorcielebas. amocanisa, romelic aseve
xazgasmulia evropis samezoblo politikis evrokavSir-saqarTvelos
samoqmedo gegmis me-8 prioritetSi (ENP EU/Georgia AP). 2007 wlis
zafxulSi odesa-brodi-plocki-gdanskis milsadenis proeqtis dawyebis
Sedegad navTobsadenis (TCOP) perspeqtiva ukve aSkaraa. rac Seexeba
transkaspiur gazsadens (TCGP), am mxriv mdgomareoba bundovania.
     2007 wlis 20 noembers funqcionireba daiwyo weliwadSi 11.5 mlrd.
kub. metris simZlavris gazsadenma, romliTac TurqeTisa da saberZneTis
meSveobiT saqarTveloze gamavali ~samxreTkavkasiuri gazsadeniT~
(BTE) azerbaijanuli gazi ukve evropas miewodeba. am movlenas win
uswrebda ori mniSvnelovani SeTanxmeba, romelic saqarTvelos
evrointegraciis sagareo politikuri kursis pirobebSi, aucileblad
gasaTvaliswinebelia.
     kerZod, TurqeTis energetikis da bunebrivi resursebis ministrma hilmi
gulerma da iranis navTobis ministrma kazem vaziri-hamenehma 2007 wlis
13 ivliss ankaraSi xeli moaweres memorandums urTierTgagebis Sesaxeb,
TurqmeneTidan da iranidan gazis TurqeTSi miwodebaze, SemdgomSi misi
evropaSi gadamisamarTebis mizniT. es kontraqti evropas saSualebas
miscems:
     -      gaxsnas evropis gazis alternatiuli (~meoTxe) koridori ruseTis
            gverdis avliT;
     -      gadaarCinos Nabucco-s proeqti (romelic Tavdapirvelad
            swored iranuli gazis evropisken gadasagzavnad iyo
            daproeqtebuli);
     -      pirvelad istoriaSi TurqmeneTs miscems saSualebas, kaspiis
            zRvis gadakveTis gareSe, saxmeleTo gziT daukavSirdes
            TurqmeneTs da iqidan evropas. es ki, faqtobrivad,
            transkaspiuri gazsadenis (TCGP) axali, saqarTvelosTvis
            arasasurveli alternativaa;
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               139

    -         gzas gauxsnis iranul gazs dasavleTis mimarTulebiT _
              evrokavSirs amiT saSualeba eZleva, ~gazpromisgan~
              alternatiuli momarageba miiRos;
       2010 wlisTvis, rodesac iwureba evrokavSiris ~gazpromTan~
     gaformebuli gaz-momaragebis ZiriTadi kontraqtebi, evropelebs
     eZlevaT garkveuli kontr-berketebi ruseTTan molaparakebebSi. esaa
     aSS-s politikis mizanic. magram movlenebis aseTi ganviTareba aseve
     ewinaaRmdegeba aTiode wlis winandel aSS-s mierve damtkicebuli
     iranis gazis resursebis ganviTarebis sawinaaRmdego gegmasac _
     Tumca, am SeTanxmebiT iranis gazi evropaSi rusuli gazis alternativa
     SeiZleba gaxdes, Turqma oficialurma pirebma aSS-s mxriv sanqciebis
     Tavidan aridebis mizniT swored alternatiulobis argumentiT isargebles.
           memorandumis Tanaxmad, yovelwliurad 30 mlrd. kub. metri gazi
Seva TurqeTSi iranidan da TurqmeneTidan (am ukanasknelSi iranis
teritoriis gavliT, saidanac gazi evropisaken gadaitumbeba. gazis aRniSnuli
raodenobidan 20 mlrd. kub. metri yovelwliurad miewodeba iranis
supergiganturi ~samxreT farsis~ sabadodan. savaraudod, irani saSualebas
miscems TurqeTis sanavTobo korporacias (TPAO), tenderis gareSe
monawileoba miiRos ~samxreT farsis~ blokebis e.w. ~22-e, 23-e da 24-e
fazebis~ damuSavebaSi.
           ufro metic, am SeTanxmebiT irani TurqeTis gavliT tranzitad
gaatarebs 10 mlrd.kub. metr Turqmenul gazs evropisaken. am mizniT irani
gamoiyenebs moqmed karpeCe-qurTkuis, TurqmeneTidan erTaderT
ararusuli mimarTulebis gazsadens (arsebuli milis 13 mlrd. kub. metri) an
daaproeqtebs axal gazsadens.
           Turquli mxaris gancxadebiT, iranuli da Turqmenuli gazi
erzerumTan daemateba azerbaijanuls da momavalSi SeuerTdeba Nabucco-
s evropul mils. TurqeTis gazis kompania Botas-ma gamoTqva mosazreba,
rom TurqeTis teritoriaze unda aigos axali gazsadeni, ris dasafinansebladac
gamoyenebul iqneba baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenidan miRebuli
satranzito Semosavlebi. irani mzadaa, TurqeTs gazis fasi dauklos imis
sanacvlod, rom man evropisken am axali miliT gaataros iranuli gazi. es
proeqti TurqeTs saSualebas aZlevs gaxdes ara marto gazis tranzitori,
aramed gaziT movaWre, e.w. ~habi~ qveyanac.
           zemoaRniSnuli memorandumiT, irani da TurqeTi aarseben
sagegmo jgufs, romelic angariSs yovelTviurad gamoaqveynebs ori
aspeqtiT: gazis mopovebisa da transportireba/marketingis mimarTulebiT.
           iranuli gazis TurqeTSi SesvliT moixsneba Nabucco-sTvis rusuli
gazis Sesyidvis aucilebloba. aqamde iranul da Turqmenul gazze
xelmiuwvdomoba          Nabucco-s     menejerebs    aiZulebdaT,    proeqtis
gazmomaragebis 70% ~gazpromis~ resursebSi eZebnaT. TurqmeneT-iran-
TurqeTis kontraqti globalur evropul proeqt          Nabucco-s saSualebas
miscems, ~gazpromis~ marwuxebs Tavi daaRwios.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                140

          saqme isaa, rom aSS-s mier iranuli gazis alternativad dasaxelebuli
momaragebis wyaro _ ~Sah-deniz~-2~ araa sakmarisi Nabucco-sa da
TurqeT-saberZneT-italiis gazsadenebis Sesavsebad, da Sesabamisad, ver
gaxdeba ~gazpromis~ alternativa evropis bazrebze. aseve uaxloes
momavalSi SeuZlebelia erayis qurTistansa da CrdiloeT eraySi navTobis
Tanmxlebi gazis evropisken gadatumbvac, eraySi arsebuli daZabuli
situaciis gamo.
   axali ~civi omis~ mizezi momavalSi ideologiis nacvlad navTobi da gazi
iqneba. specialistebis prognoziT 10 weliwadSi msoflioSi gazisa da
navTobis maragis naxevari ukve mopovebuli iqneba. energomatareblebis
gaZvirebis tendencia Seuqcevadi gaxdeba. SezRudulma resursebma
momavalSi mzardi moTxovnileba unda daakmayofilos. qveynebis
gadarCena da keTildReoba navTobisa da gazis maragze iqneba
damokidebuli. (2)
     dRes, msoflioSi yovelwliurad gamoyenebuli navTobis naxevari aSS-ze,
evrokavSirze da iaponiaze modis. am qveynebis momavali konkurentebi
CineTisa da indoeTis saxiT, marTalia, am etapze msoflio navTobis mxolod
10% moixmaren, magram maT mier navTobis gamoyenebis yovelwliuri
maCvenebeli 20-dan 30 procentamde izrdeba. aseTi tempebiT maTi
moTxovna 2030 wlisTvis aSS-s moTxovnas gautoldeba. aSS dRes
msoflioSi navTobis moxmarebaSi pirvel adgilzea (25% moixmars).
es maCveneblebi naTelyofs msoflioSi dapirispirebis gamwvavebas gazisa
da navTobis ukanaskneli maragis xelSi Casagdebad da misi transportirebis
gasakontroleblad. am dapirispirebis monawile mxareebi zogadad kavkasiis
regionSi da konkretulad saqarTveloSi aSS, ruseTi, evrokavSiri, TurqeTi da
irania.
        eqspertebis daskvnebis Tanaxmad, Tu ganviTarebul saxelmwifoebs
surT SeinarCunon energomatareblebis stabiluri fasebi da Tavi aaridon
deficits, maT energomomaragebis diversifikaciis gziT energousafrTxoebis
problemebi unda gadaWran, vinaidan maTi mzardi moTxovna sul ufro
metad SezRudul resursebs upirispirdeba. bunebrivi gazis TvalsazrisiT
usafrTxo momarageba niSnavs, rom calkeul qveyanas erTze meti
mimwodebeli da erTze meti satransporto saSualeba (milsadeni) unda
hqondes. es strategiuli moTxovnaa. evropis alternatiuli gazmomarageba
jerjerobiT misTvis miuwvdomeli, magram geografiulad ruseTis sabadoebze
axlos myofi, kaspiis auzis qveynebidanaa SesaZlebeli. amasTan,
geopolitikuri TvalsazrisiT gazi mkveTrad gansxvavdeba navTobisagan.
saqme isaa, rom navTobis fiuCersuli kontraqtebi metnaklebad konkurentuli
sabazro urTierTobebis pirobebSi ideba da msoflio bazrebze transportirebac
SedarebiT mcire partiebad, ZiriTadad rkinigziTa da tankerebiT xorcieldeba.
maSin, roca msoflio gazis miwodebis mxolod 10% gadaizideba specieluri
transportiT Txevad mdgomareobaSi. evropaSi gazis ZiriTadi moculobis
miwodeba ruseTidan, alJiridan da norvegiidan milsadenebiT xorcieldeba.
               xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              141

gazis aseTi satransporto specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT kontraqtebi
grZelvadiani xasiaTisaa, anu gamyidvels, e.i. ruseTis ~gazproms~ da mis
mokavSireebs, sxva eqsportiorebis simciris SemTxvevaSi, grZelvadiani
monopoliuri mdgomareoba TiTqmis garantirebuli aqvs.
       dasavleTisTvis      alternatiuli  wyaro     kaspiispira   qveynebia.
azerbaijanuli gazi Sah-denizidan ~samxreT kavkasiuri gazsadeniT~
saqarTvelos gavliT ukve TurqeTs miewodeba. igegmeba misi saberZneTSi,
xolo Semdeg italiaSi gadatumbva.
       sabednierod, saqarTvelos kaspiis qveynebTan saerTo sazRvari
gaaCnia da Sah-denizis gazi swored ~gazpromis~ alternativad mogvevlina.
saqarTvelos stabilur energomomaragebaSi ukve dasavleTis interesic
Cndeba, radganac igi ukve damakavSirebeli rgolia kaspiis energoresursebis
dasavleTisken miwodebis gzaze. kaspiis regionSi ki dazverili navTobis
maragi 21 mlrd. tonas (2.6 mlrd. ukve mopovebuli), gazis ki _ 27.5 trln.
kub. metrs (3.5 trln. mopovebuli) Seadgens. kavasiis regionis siaxlovesaa
iranic, romelic navTobis maragebiT mesame, gaziT ki _ meore adgilzea
msoflioSi.
       yovelive     zemoaRniSnulis      gamo,     saqarTveloze     gamavali
navTobproduqtebis tranzitis marSruti, romelic dasavleTis mimarTulebiT
rusuli marSrutis alternativaa, Cveni regionis usafrTxo ganviTarebis garanti
xdeba, kavkasiis ~energoderefani~ ki _ axali ~civi omis~ brZolis veli.
       ruseTi axali prezidentis pirobebSic ar Secvlis eqspansionisturi
energetikuli politikis xarjze sakuTari geopolitikuri gavlenis gazrdis kurss,
rac gamoixateba dasavleTis energomomaragebis seqtorSi monopolisturi
mdgomareobis miRwevisa da navTobdolarebis sakuTari Tanamedrove
samxedro teqnologiebis ganviTarebis sferoSi, didi masStabebiT
investirebaSi.. putinis ruseTis samomavlo strategiuli ganviTarebis 15 wliani
doqtrina, romelsac savaraudod misi memkvidre gaagrZelebs, mimarTulia,
rom ruseTma ramdenadme mainc SeZlos postsabWoTa sivrceSi rusuli
gavlenis reanimireba.



gamoyenebuli literatura:

          1.   1. l. izoria saqarTvelo da msoflio usafrTxoebis tendenciebi
               24 saaTi 5.02.2007
          2.   z.garayaniZe axali ~civi omis~ mizezi energetika iqneba
               24 saaTi 31.05.2007


                                Summary
               xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               142


 Tinatin Iashvli, Irina Iashvili
 Russia’s aggressive policy of power engineering concerning
 neighboring countries

Given article covers Russia’s new approach to the policy concerning the
use of energy carriers and economic sanctions instead of military
interference as its political weapon. Russia’s aggressive policy of power
engineering concerning neighboring countries is discussed in the article.



                                   Резюме

  Тинатин Яшвили, Ирина Яшвили
  Агрессивная экономическая политика России в отношении соседних
  стран

          В данной статье рассмотрен новый политический подход
России для укрепления своих позиций с соседними государствами.
Инструментом политической борьбы, вместо военного, выступают
экономические санкции и воздействие на энергоносители. Показана
агрессивная экономическая политика России в отношении соседних
стран.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               143


                              Tamar sreseli

                    sasamarTlo reforma da misi roli



   saqarTvelos samarTlebrivi istoria ar aris droSi metad gavrcobili procesi.
miuxedavad amisa, impulsebi, romlebic modis Cveni sazogadoebidan
samarTlebrivi reformebis sakiTxSi, gamoirCeva Tavisi radikaluri
demokratizmiT. ilustraciisaTvis imis gaxsenebac kmara, rom pirvelma
qarTulma saxelmwifom 1918-1921 wlebSi urTules pirobebSi moaxerxa
maSindel msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelaze demokratiuli konstituciis miReba.
   Cven, Tumca axali saxelmwifo, magram axali saxelmwifo institutebis
Camoyalibebis procesi jer kvlav aqtiurad mimdinareobs. saqarTvelos axalma
konstituciam      Camoayaliba sruliad axali zednaSeni       parlamentisa da
prezidentis institutebi. magram imisaTvis, rom am ori institutebis neba
TiToeul moqalaqamde davides, da ara rogorc amas xSirad adgili aqvs, darCes
mxolod saxelmwifos aparatis zeda eSelonebSi, konstitucia             Seicavs
samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis detalur da vadaSi sakmaod
SemWidroebul programas. am programis Zireuli elementia sasamarTlo da
misi reformirebuli sistema. konstituciam aRiara uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi,
rogorc yvelaze didi da waruvali Rirebulebebis prioriteti _ maTi dacvis
garantiad ki reformade arsebuli sasamarTlo sistema ver gamodgeboda.
   rac Seexeba pirveli, sasamarTlo xelisuflebis damoukidebloba       rac am
institutis politikur avtonomias gulisxmobs.sasamarTlo            civilizebul,
demokratiul saxelmwifoebSi ganixileba rogorc damoukidebeli saxelmwifo
organo, sakuTari struqturiTa da kompetenciiT da ara rogorc dargobriv-
samTavrobo dawesebuleba, romelic imyofeba aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis an
parlamentis daqvemdebarebaSi. aRniSnuli            principi aris ara marto
samarTlebrivi, aramed politikuri mniSvnelobis.
    sasamarTlos      damoukideblobis    meore     mniSvnelovani     aspeqtia
mosamarTlis individualuri damoukidebloba. es umTavresad wminda
samarTlebrivi principia da imas gulisxmobs, rom             marTlmsajulebis
ganxorcielebis kanoniT dadgenil proceduraSi araTu politikur xelisuflebas,
aramed TviT sasamarTlos Tanamdebobis pirebsac ki (Tu kanoniT ar aris
gaTvaliswinebuli) ara aqvT Carevis ufleba. mosamarTle SesaZloa daisajos,
Tanamdebobidan ganTavisufldes an dapatimrebuli iqnas Tu saamiso safuZveli
arsebobs, magram konkretuli saqmis ganxilvisas masze zemoqmedebis
aranairi saSualeba ar unda arsebobdes.
     sasamarTlo reformis pirveli etapis ganxorcielebisas SemuSavebuli iqna
sasamarTlos damoukideblobis Semdegi ZiriTadi garantiebi:
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              144

     pirveli, administraciuli damoukidebloba, rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom
sasamarTlo gamovida iusticiis saministros daqvemdebarebidan da misi
formireba gamocdebisa da konkursis wesiT xdeba.
     meore, procesualuri damoukidebloba. gauqmebulia sasamarTlos mimarT
prokuraturis kontroli, da Tu warsulSi sasamarTlo moiazreboda Sinagan
saqmeTa da prokuraturis organoebis danamatad, amJamad igi Tavad
moeqca procesualuri aqtivobis centrSi.
     mesame, teritoriuli damoukidebloba, rac CvenTvis aqamde ucxo modeli
iyo. im mizniT, rom sasamarTlo sabolood gaTavisufldes          zewolisagan,
iqneba sasamarTloebis gansxvavebuli teritoriuli sistema.         reformam,
upirveles yovlisa, sasamarTloebis zneobrivi gajansaReba daisaxa miznad. aq
gadamwyveti roli sazogadoebas ekuTvnis. saxelmwifo (parlamenti,
ombudsmeni..) da arasamTavrobo (Tavisufali presa, politikuri partiebi...)
institutebis aqtiuri mxardaWeriT SeiZleba Camoyalibdes sasamarTlos
sistemis civilizebuli saxe. am TvalsazrisiT garkveuli mniSvneloba aqvs
sazogadoebrivi yuradRebis centrSi myofi reformis calkeuli procesebis
miukerZoeblad Catarebas.
     da bolos, reformis mizans marTlmsajulebis procesiuli donis xarisxobrivi
amaRleba warmoadgenda. am mizniT Catarda sakvalifikacio         xarisxobrivi
gamocdebi, romliTac Semowmda momavali mosamarTleebis TiTqmis mTeli
sakanonmdeblo masalis codnis done. axali adamianebiT dakompleqtda.
sazogadoebis garkveuli nawili moiTxovda mosamarTlis Tanamdebobis
arCeviTobis dawesebas, magram es idea uaryofili iqna, radgan mosamarTlis
profesionalizmis umTavresi maCvenebeli codnaa, rasac yvelaze ukeT swored
sakvalifikacio gamocdebi da konkursi Seafasebda. amave dros
gaTvaliswinebuli iyo isic, rom arCeuli mosamarTle iZulebuli iqneboda
angariSi gaewia Tavisi amomrCevlbisaTvis, rac mniSvnelovnad SezRudavda
mis damoukideblobas. ar SeiZleba mosamarTle iyos memarjvene an
memarcxene, mosamarTle unda iyos kanonis utyvi morCili da ara kanonis
mmarTveli.
      da bolos, daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sasamarTlo      reforma
Tavad drois moTxovnaa. dRes demokratiuli sazogadoebis umTavresi
miswrafeba samarTlebrivi saxelmwifo da kanonis uzenaesobaa. axali
sasamarTlo sistema axal moTxovnebs gvkarnaxobs.“samarTali unda
aRsruldes, Tundac moispos samyaro”, ambobdnen Zveli romaelebi.
saxelmwifos demokratiulobisa da kanonis uzenaesobis yvelaze efeqturi da
prioritetuli garantia, SesaZloa damoukidebeli da miukerZoebeli sasamarTlo
sistemis Camoyalibeba iyos, vinaidan parlamentis mier marTlmsajulebis
gansaxorcieleblad miRebuli kanonebi faratina qaRaldad rCeba manam,
sanam ar moxdeba maTi saTanado implementacia, sanam am kanonebs
mosamarTle ar gamoiyenebs da maT sicocxles ar SesZens, sanam qveyanaSi
konstituciisa da sxva normatiuli aqtebis uzenaesoba sasa-marTlo praqtikiT ar
damkvidrdeba.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              145

 saqarTvelos 1995 wlis 24 agvistos konstituciam, 1997 wlis 13 ivnisis
“saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb” da 1999 wlis 12 maisis “saqarTvelos
uzenaesi sasamarTlos Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos organulma kanonebma myari
samarTlebrivi     safuZveli    Seuqmnes     saqarTveloSi     damoukidebeli
marTlmsajulebis ganmaxorcielebeli sasamarTlo xelisuflebis mSeneblobas.
 sasamarTlos xelisuflebis ganxorcielebis marTlmsajulebis forma xorcieldeba
samoqalaqo, administraciuli da sisxlis samarTalwarmoebaTa meSveobiT
saerTo sasamarTloebis mier yovel adamians ufleba aqvs uflebaTa da
TavisuflebaTa dasacavad, piradad an warmomadgenloebis meSveobiT,
pirdapir mimarTos sasamarTlos; sasamarTlos aqti agreTve, Tavisi
uflebamosilebis gansaxorcie-leblad sasamarTlos moTxovna da gankarguleba
savaldebuloa saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze yvela fizikuri Tu iuridiuli piris,
saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organosaTvis.
  sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gauqmeba, Secvla an SeCereba SeuZlia
mxolod sasamarTlos (kanoniT gansazRvruli wesiT), xolo sasamarTlo
gadawyvetilebis     Seusrulebloba    iwvevs    kanoniT     gaTvaliswinebul
pasuxismgeblobas; marTlmsajuleba xorcieldeba kanonisa da sasamarTlos
winaSe saqmeSi monawile yvela piris Tanasworobis safuZvelze da
samarTalwarmoeba ki xorcieldeba mxareTa Tanasworobisa da SejibrebiTobis
safuZvelze.
  sasamarTloSi yvela saqme ganixileba Ria sxdomaze. daxurul sxdomaze
saqmis     ganxilva    dasaSvebia    mxolod    kanoniT     gaTvaliswinebul
SemTxvevebSi, sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba yvela SemTxvevaSi cxaddeba
saqveynod;
  mosamarTle Tavis saqmianobaSi damoukidebelia, emorCileba mxolod
saqarTvelos konstitucias, saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebs, SeTanxmebebsa da
kanons.
   raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTloebi pirveli instanciis sasamarTloebs
miekuTvneba, sadac yvela saqme ganixileba erTpirovnulad mosamarTlis
mier, kanoniT dadgenili wesiT. raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTloebi Sedgeba
aranakleb ori mosamarTlisagan. aRniSnuli sasamarTloebis gansjad saqmeebs
gansazRvravs saproceso kanonmdebloba.
  saqarTvelos saolqo da avtonomiuri respublikebis umaRlesi sasamarTloebi
saapelacio instanciis sasamarTloebis axalma kanondeblobam adamianis
uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dacvis garantiaTa gansamtkiceblad, srulyofili
marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis uzrunvelsayofad, sasamarTlo sistemebis
Tanamedrove standartebis Sesabamisad daamkvidra saqmeTa ganxilvis
saapelacio procedura. saapelacio sasamarTloebis uflebamosilebebs
axorcieleben saolqo (Tbilisisa da quTaisis) da afxazeTisa da aWaris
avtonomiuri respublikebis umaRlesi sasamarTloebi, romlebic saapelacio
wesiT ganixilaven saCivrebs raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTloebis
gadawyvetilebebze.      amave     sasamarTloebebSi,    garda    saapelacio
samarTalwarmoebisa, saproceso kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT xdeba
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             146

saqmeTa pirveli instanciiT ganxilva; agreTve, gadawyvetilebebis miReba
saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTalis saproceso kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebul
sxva sakiTxebze.
   sasamarTlo reformis gasatareblad, winadadebebis SemuSavebis,
mosamarTleTa Tanamdebobaze dasaniSni kandidaturebis SerCevis,
wardginebis, mosamarTleTa Tanamdebobidan ganTavisuflebis, sakvalifikacio
gamocdebis organizebis da kanoniT dadgenili sxva amocanebis Sesrulebis
mizniT Seiqmna 12 wevriani saqarTvelos prezidentis saTaTbiro organo-
saqarTvelos iusticiis sabWo.
   sasamarTlo reformis ganxorcielebis pirvel etapze ZiriTadi yuradReba
daeTmo      sasamarTlo     xelisuflebis struqturul   Camoyalibebasa      da
marTlmsajulebis koreqtulad ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro damxmare
qvestruqturul organoTa Seqmnas. samarTlebrivi reformis momdevno etapze
saWiroa meti yuradReba daeTmos sasamarTloTa organizaciul marTvasa da
administrirebas.
    sasamarTlos efeqtiani funqcionirebisaTvis aucilebelia iseTi pirobebis
Seqmna, romelic saSualebas miscems sasamarTlos SeunarCunos
miukerZoebloba da Seuvaloba raTa ganamtkicos damoukidebloba.
zemoaRniSnuli problemis gadawyvetis erT-erTi winapiroba aris is, rom
mosamarTleebma unda miiRon maTTvis Sesabamisi xelfasi, romelic maT
SesaZleblobas miscems SeinarCunon Tavisi da ojaxis wevrebis cxovrebis
saTanado socialuri standarti.
saerTo sasamarTloebis administraciisa da organizaciuli marTvis sferoebSi
cvilebebis Setanis Semdeg, aranakleb mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs sisxlis
samarTlisa da samoqalaqo samarTlis saqmiswarmoebisa da saproceso
kanonmdeblobis gadasinjvasa da koreqtirebas. sayuradReboa is faqti, rom
moxdes saproceso kodeqsis imdagvari koreqtireba, romelic miznad daisaxavs
ara mxolod sistemis efeqturobis gazrdas, aramed adamianis uflebaTa dacvis
myari garantiebis Seqmnas saerTaSoriso standartebis, gansakuTrebiT
evrosabWos rekomendaciebisa da saqarTvelos mier ratificirebuli saerTaSoriso
xelSekrulebebis Sesabamisad.
mniSvnelovania is faqti rom yovelTvis gvaxsovdes, rom saqarTvelos sisxlis
samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi mosamarTleebidan specifiurad iTxovs
marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis procesSi saqarTvelos mier ratificirebuli
saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebis gamoyenebas, SemTxvevebi garda Tu
saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi da SeTanxmebebi ewinaaRmdegeba saqarTvelos
konstitucias.
 ramdenadac sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi pirdapir adgens, rom
saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebi da xelSekrulebebi (Tu isini konstitucias ar
ewinaaRmdegeba, rac SemTxvevaSi ar xdeba) upiratesi iuridiuli ZaliT
sargebloben kodeqsTan mimarTebaSi, mosamarTleebi ar unda SeizRudon
kodeqsSi arsebuli xarvezebiT maT uflebamosilebebTan dakavSirebiT da
uSualod unda         gamoiyenon saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi. rasakvirvelia
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                 147

sasurvelia agreTve,     romQqarTuli kodeqsi gadaisinjos saerTaSoriso
xelSekrulebebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanis TvalsazrisiT.
   arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs imis aRniSvnas, rom Tu sasamarTloebi ar
daicaven adamianis uflebebs, maSin sxva aravin ar daicavs.
  saxelmwifoSi reformis (maT Soris sasamarTlo reformis) warmateba
sazogadoebis    moTxovnebidan      da    ukeTesisaken      ltolvis surviliT
ganisazRvreba. biZgi Tavad mosaxleobidan unda modiodes, raTa yvelam –
politikosebma, mewarmeebma, mosamarTleebma da mTelma mosaxleobam
mTlianobaSi unda Seignon TavianTi erTsulovani aucilebloba da gaaZlieron
piradi pasuxismgebloba qveynis winaSe.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

    1.   saqarTvelos organuli kanoni saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb.
    2.   saqarTvelos      organuli     kanoni   saqarTvelos     uzenaesi
         sasamarTlos Sesaxeb.
    3.   sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi.
    4.   debuleba raionuli (saqalaqo), saolqo,afxazeTisa da aWaris
         avtonimouri respublikebis umaRlis sasamarTloebSi organizaciuli
         muSaobisa da saqmiswarmoebis wesis Sesaxeb.
    5.   saqarTvelos kanoni saerTo samarTloebSi organizaciuli muSaobisa
         da saqmiswarmoebis wesis Sesaxeb debuleba.

                                 Summary
Tamar Sreseli
Judicial reform and its role

          Court reform is one of the essential demand of our reality. Today
the main goal of Democratic society is to form the state regulated by the law
and to recognize the supreme power of the law. New court has to meet new
new requirements.
          “Justice should be fulfilled even if the universe parishes”, ancient
Romans say.
          The most effective guarantee of state democracy and law
suprimacy may be the independent and impartial court system. The law
passed by parliament is only the sheet of paper unless it is implemented by
judges and unless the suprimany of constitution and other statutory acts are
put into practice.

                                 Резюме
Тамар Сресели
Судебная реформа и ее роль
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                148

        Судебная реформа является насущным требованием
сегодняшнего дня. В настоящее время главнейшим стремлением
демократического общества является создание правового государства
и верховенство закона. Новая судебная система диктует новые
требования. «Cправедливость должна восторжествовать, если даже
погибнет мир» - провозгласили еще древние римляне. Самой
эффективной    и     приоритетной     гарантией   государственной
демократичности и верховенства закона может быть формирование
независимой и непредвзятой судебной системы, потому что принятые
парламентом для осуществления правосудия законы остаются простой
бумагой до того, пока не будет внедрена соответствующая
имплементация, пока судья не будет применять эти законы и не
«оживит» их, до тех пор, пока в стране верховенство Конституции и
других нормативных актов не подтвердится судебной практикой.


                           Teona qaTamaZe
              kulturuli memkvidreobis sakiTxi saqarTvelos
                  (1918-1921) demokratiul respublikaSi



         XX saukunis dasawyisSi arsebuli mZime socialur-ekonomikuri
mdgomareba mkveTrad aisaxa saqarTvelos mosaxleobis yofierebaze. didi
wnexis qveS iyo qarTuli kultura, gansakuTrebiT erovnul saganmanaTleblo
dawesebulebebi. Mmravalsaukunovan da TviTmyofad kulturaSi
rusifikatorebi xedavdnen qarTveli xalxis erovnuli moZraobis ZiriTad
sazrdos da mizanmimarTulad awarmoebdnen kulturuli memkvidreobis
daTrgunvis politikas. ganaTlebis sruli rusifikacia da skolebidan qarTuli enis
gamodevna am politikis Semadgeneli nawili iyo. QqarTuli enis Seviwroeba
xorcieldeboda rogorc saero, ise sasuliero saswavleblebSi. ganaTlebis
sferoze rusifikatorTa farTo Semotevam saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi
mosaxleobis didi aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia. samegreloSi, aWaraSi, imereTSi
da a.S. saprotesto gamosvlebsac hqonda adgili. bevrgan moswavleebi uars
ambobdnen sagnebis rusulad Seswavlaze da tovebdnen skolebs.
moTxovnileba erovnul skolebze kidev ufro izredeboda.
         1918 wlis 26 maiss erovnulma sabWom aRadgina saqarTvelos
saxelmwifoebrivi damoukidebloba da daiwyo erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi
mSeneblobis      procesi.   mniSvnelovan        movlenas      warmoadgenda
damoukidebeli saqarTvelos saxelmwifo simbolikis (droSa, gerbi, himni)
SemuSaveba. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis droSa da gerbi
SemuSavebul iqna iakob nikolaZis da ioseb Sarlemanis mier ivane
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                             149

javaxiSvilis konsultaciiT. 1918 wlis seqtemberSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo
droSad damtkicda samferovani (Svindisferi, Savi, TeTri) droSa, xolo
saxelmwifo gerbad TeTri giorgi Svidi mnaTobiT. saxelmwifo himnis statusi
SeiZina kote focxveraSvilis “didebam”. erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi
mSeneblobis procesSi, miuxedavad saTanado saxsrebis simcirisa, didi
yuradReba eqceoda ganaTlebis, mecnierebis da kulturis ganviTarebas. am
periodSi mniSvnelovani iyo qveynis umaRlesi sakanonmdeblo organos
mier miRebuli zogierTi kanoni da dadgenileba, romlebic zemoT CamoTvlil
sferoebs exeboda. 1918 wlis 3 seqtembers miRebul iqna kanoni qarTuli
universitetis saxelmwifo universitetad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb, 1918 wlis
6 seqtembers _ “ganaTlebis” sazogadoebis – Tamar mefis saxelobis –
qalTa saostato seminariis mTavrobis gamgeblobaSi gadacemis Sesaxeb,
1918 wlis 13 seqtembers _ samaswavleblo institutis da seminariebis
gaerovnebis Sesaxeb, 1918 wlis 1 oqtombers _ saqarTvelos saxelmwifo
enis Sesaxeb, 1918 wlis 26 noembers _ saRvTo sjulis swavlebis
gauqmebis Sesaxeb, 1919 wlis 1 agvistos _ kavkasiis muzeumis
gauqmebisa da mis sanacvlod saqarTvelos muzeumis daarsebis
Sesaxeb, 1920 wlis 30 marts _ saqarTvelos erovnuli samxatvro galereis
daarsebis Sesaxeb, 1920 wlis 23 aprils _           respublikis centraluri
samecniero arqivis daarsebis Sesaxeb da agreTve 1920 wlis 28 maiss _
saistorio, saarqeologio, samxatvro da sxva sakulturo nivTebis
saqarTvelos respublikidan gatanis akrZalvis Sesaxeb.
         1918 wlis 26 maiss saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamocxadebam
SesaZlebeli gaxada ganaTlebis sferoSi farTomasStabiani RonisZiebebis
ganxorcieleba. 1920 wlidan SemoRebul iqna samsafexuriani swavleba,
romlis Semdegac moswavles ufleba hqonda swavla gaegrZelebina umaRles
saswavlebelSi. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis arsebobis periodSi,
mkveTrad imata rogorc pirveldawyebiTi skolebis ricxvma, aseve
moswavleTaA raodenobamac. SemuSavda pirveldawyebiTi saxalxo
skolebis     droebiTi        programebi,   didi     yuradReba     eqceoda
saxelmZRvaneloebis Seqmnasa da gamocemis sakiTxsa. iakob
gogebaSvilis “dedaenis” garda skolebSi didi popularobiT sargeblobda
Semdegi saxelmZRvaneloebi: ioseb ocxelis “qrestomaTia”, dimitri uznaZis
“Zveli saberZneTi”, simon qvarianis “saqarTvelos istoria” da sxv.
         XX saukunis dasawyisSi sagrZnoblad izRudeboda erovnuli
mecnierebis ganviTareba. xelisuflebis mxridan Seqmnili barierebis
miuxedavad, qveyanaSi mimdinare sazogadoebriv-politikuri procesebi,
gansakuTrebiT erovnuli moZraobis aRmavloba, stimuls aZlevda erovnuli
mecnierebis, kerZod mecnierebis humanitaruli dargebis ganviTarebas. es
procesi qarTuli eris sulieri moTxovniTac iyo ganpirobebuli.
         saqarTveloSi mecnierebis aRorZinebis Tvisebrivad axali etapi
iwyeba Tbilisis universitetis daarsebis dRidan. 1918 wlis 3 oqtombers
miRebuli kanonis Tanaxmad qarTuli universiteti gamocxadda saxelmwifo
              xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                  150

universitetad da daerqva “Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti”. kanonis
miRebis dResve damtkicda Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis droebiTi
ZiriTadi debuleba, roelSic Camoyalibebuli iyo, rom Tbilisis universiteti
samecniero-saswavlo sferos, sauniversiteto marTva-gamgeobisa da Sinauri
meurneobis mxriT sruliad avtonomiuria da yvela am dargis saqmeebs
TviTon ganagebs. universitetis mTavar organoTa moqmedebis
meTvalyureoba saqarTvelos respublikis saxalxo ganaTlebis saministros
kompetenciaSi Sedioda. saxelmwifos yovelwliurad xarjT-aRricxvaSi
Sehqonda gansazRvruli odenobis Tanxa universitetis Sesanaxad. xarjT-
aRricxvas adgenda univrsitetis profesorTaA sabWo da gamgeoba da
romelic wlis damdegamde waredgineboda saxalxo ganaTlebis ministrs
gansaxilvelad da dasamtkiceblad. Semdgom amisa, universitetis gamgeobas
gamohqonda fuli da universitetis yovel xarjs istumrebda.
          Tbilisis universiteti sruli universitetis statusiT arsebobda da
moicavda sibrZnis-metyvelebis, anu filosofiur fakultets, romelSic
safilosofoso, saistorio da sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa dargebi Sedioda,
rogorc dasavleTis, ise aRmosavleTisa da samxreT-CrdiloeT qveynebisa da
erebis Sesaxeb; samaTematiko-sabunebismetyvelo fakultets; samarTlis
mecnierebis anu iuridiul fakultets da samkurnalo fakultets. qarTuli
mecnierebis ganviTarebisTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda erovnul-
samecniero terminologiis SemuSavebas. 1919 wels ivane javaxiSvili
dainiSna “saswavlo komitetis” Tavmjdomared, romelmac cnobili
mecnierebebiT daakompleqta Semdegi dargobrivi komisiebi: sazogado
istoriis, saqarTvelos istoriis, qarTuli enisa da literaturis, ucxo enebisa da
literaturis, maTematikis, fizika-qimiis, biologiuri da higienis, filosofiuri da
specialuri teqnikuri dargebis komisiebi. profesorebi, kerZo docentebi,
mecnier-xelmZRvanelebi, laborantebi, asistentebi da leqtorebi leqciebs
qarTulad kiTxulobdnen, qarTuladve warmoebda saqmiTi varjiSobani.
          Tbilisis universitetSi mxolod erTi samecniero xarisxi iyo doqtoris
anu      moZRvarT-moZRvrobisa,         romelic     uTanabrdeboda       ruseTis
universitetebis magistris xarisxs, xolo dasavleT evropis doqtoris xarisxi
moZRvarT-moZRvrobis samecniero xarisxs udrida. universitetSi
profesoroba da kerZo docentoba mxolod im mecniers SeeZlo, romelsac
miniWebuli hqonda Tbilisis universitetis moZRvarT-moZRvrobis
samecniero xarisxi, an ucxoeTis erT-erT universitetis samagistro an
sadoqtoro xarisxi, magram diplomi da disertacia saTanado fakultetis mier
ganxiluli da mowonebuli unda yofiliyo.
          Tbilisis universitets da calke profesorTa sabWos ufleba hqonda
gareSed mosuli gamoecada da mecnierebis winaSe gansakuTrebuli Rvawlis
gamo, gamoucdelad da udisertaciod, pativiscemis niSnad, pirisaTvis
mieniWebina doqtorobis xarisxi. xolo rac Seexeba studentebs, SeiZleboda
yofiliyo orive sqesis warmomadgeneli, romelTac saSualo skola unda
hqonoda damTavrebuli, da agreTve iyvnen orive sqesis msmenelebi.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                151

studentebs da msmenelebs leqciebis mosmenisaTvis universitetis
sasargeblod, yovel semestrSi, fuli unda gadaexada, romlis raodenobas
universitetis profesorTa sabWo gansazRvravda. leqciebis mosmenis,
muSaobis da gamocdebis Cabarebis Semdeg, studentebi da msmenelebi
survilisaebr     iRebdnen       Sesabamis     mowmobebs,     xolo     niWier
kursdamTavrebulebs, Sesabamisi fakultetis profesorTa sabWo datovebda
samecniero        kvleva-ZiebaSi        dasawinaureblad    da      Semdgom
profesorobisaTbis mosamzadeblad. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitets hqonda
sakuTari droSa da beWedi.
          1918 qlis 6 seqtembers saqarTvelos erovnulma sabWom miiRo
saqarTvelos respublikis kanoni, romlis Tanaxmad “ganaTlebis”
sazogadoebis Tamar mefis saxelobis qalTa saostato seminaria gamocxadda
saxelmwifo skolad da mTeli saskolo mowyobilobiT, biblioTekiT da
muzeumiT gadavida mTavrobis gamgeblobaSi. xolo amave wlis 13
seqtembers miRebuli kanonis safuZvelze gauqmda Tbilisis institutis da
goris seminariis awindeli erovnuli ganyofilebebi da gamocxadda Tbilisis
saostato instituti, goris, xonis da soxumis seminariebi qarTul saxelmwifo
skolebad, da oTxive skolas mieca krediti saxelmwifo xazinidan maszed
darTuli xarjTaRricxvis Tanaxmad.
          saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenidan oTxi Tvis Semdeg 1918
wlis 1 iqtombers, respublikaSi miRebul iqna kanoni saxelmwifo enis
Sesaxeb. es funqcia qarTul enas mieniWa. xelisuflebam daiwyo mTeli rigi
RnisZiebaTa gatareba, raTa qarTul enas oficialurad SeeZina saxelmwifo
enis statusi. misi upirvelesi nabiji iyo saqmis warmoebis rusulidan qarTulze
dagayvana. sxvadasxva struqturebSi, dawesebulebebSi Seiqmna qarTuli
enis Semswavleli specialuri programebi, ufaso kursebi, radgan qarTuli enis
armcodneebs ar gaWirvebodaT muSaoba qarTul enaze. am wamowyebas
TavisTavad hyavda rogorc momxreebi, aseve mowinaRmdegeebi,
saqarTvelos mTavroba ar SeuSinda winaaRmdegobebs da praqtikulad
daiwyo siZneleebis gadalaxva. didi iyo survili imisa, rom damoukidebel
saxelmwifos enac Tavisi hqonoda da saqmis warmoeba da ganaTleba
mSobliur, qarTul enaze moewyo. 1919 wlis 1 ianvridan qarTulad saqmis
warmoebasa da saqmis ganxilvaze gadavida quTaisis olqis sasamarTlo,
xolo 8 Tebervlis mTavrobis dadgenilebiT 1 martidan igive unda
ganxorcielebuliyo        Tbilisis     olqis    sasamarTloSi.     dadgenileba
araqarTvelebisaTvis SesaZleblad Tvlida rusuli enis gamoyenebasac.
saqarTvelos erovnul sabWoSi yvelanairi saqmis warmoeba da kamaTi
qarTul enaze unda yofiliyo, Tumca erovnul umciresobaTa
warmomadgenlebs, vinc qarTuli ena ar icoda, SeeZloT sityva
warmoeTqvaT dedaeniT. qarTuli enis dafuZnebis procesi SedarebiT
swrafad xorcieldeboda TiTqmis mTel saqarTveloSi. gamonakliss Tbilisi
warmoadgenda, sadac kvlav rusuli ena warmoebda.
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              152

         1919 wlis 14 ianvars miRebul iqna kanoni adgilobriv
TviTmmarTvelobaTa organoebSi qarTuli enis xmarebis Sesaxeb. am
kanonis mixedviT msjeloba, saqmis warmoeba da miwer-mowera qalqis da
erobis TviTmmarTvelobaSi qarTulad unda warmoebuliyo, xolo sityvis
warmoTqma da gancxadebis Setana TviTmmarTvelobis organoebSi
daSvebuli iyo sxva adgilobriv enazec. Tu romelime TviTmmarTvelobis
farglebSi mcxovreb respublikis moqalaqeTa naxevarze metisaTvis
salaparalo enad mxolod romelime araqarTuli adgilobrivi ena iyo, maSin
dadgenilebiT qarTul enasTan erTad am enis gamoyenebac SeiZleboda. es
kanoni ar vrceldeboda soxumis da soWis olqebze da ZalaSi Sevida
parlamentis mier miRebis dRidan.
         garkveuli gamococxleba daetyo qarTuli enis dafuZnebis process
1920 wlidan, Tumca demokratiuli respublikis arsebobis wlebSi sasurveli
Sedegi bolomde mainc ver gamoiRo. 1921 wlis ianvarSi, xelisuflebam
aRiara, rom maT mier wamowyebuli RonisZieba naxevradac ver
ganxorcielda. saqmis warmoeba bevrgan kvlav rusul enaze xdeboda da
salaparako enadac rusuli gamoiyeneboda. respublikis qalaqebSi ki kvlav
rusulenovani warwerebi sWarbobda.
         mecnierebis Semdgom ganviTarebisTvis udavod did movlenas
warmoadgenda kavkasiis muzeumis gardaqmna saqarTvelos muzeumad da
saqarTvelos centraluri samecniero arqivis daarseba.
         qarTveli xalxis mavalsaukuneobrivi istoriis, erovnuli ekonomikisa
da kulturis asaxvis dargSi didi muSaoba gaswia saqarTvelos s.n. janaSias
saxelobis saxelmwifo muzeumma. misi winamorbedi iyo ruseTis
geografiuli sazogadoebis “kavkasiis muzeumi”, romelic 1865 wels daarsda.
swored saqarTvelos damoukideblobis miRebis Semdeg 1919 wlis 1 agvistos
saqarTvelos respublikis mTavrobam miiRo kanoni, romlis safuZvelze
gauqmda q. TbilisSi arsebuli kavkasiis muzeumi da mis bazaze daarsda
saqarTvelos muzeumi, romelsac gadaeca kavkasiis muzeumis yoveli uZravi
da moZravi qoneba da saqme. muzeums ufleba hqonda: 1. ubaJod
gamoewera da mieRo ucxoeTidan wignebi, koleqciebi, xelsawyoebi,
laboratoriis masala da samecniero saWiroebis yovelgvari nivTi; 2.
saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi mieRo da gaegzavna ufasod fostiT samecniero
saWiroebis yovelgvari masala, woniT araumetes erTi fuTisa. rac ZalaSi
Sevida damfuZnebeli krebis mier miRebis dRidan. saqarTvelos muzeumis
mizans warmoadgenda xeli Seewyo saqarTvelos mecnierulad Seswavlas,
amisaTvis muzeumma Tavi mouyara, moawesriga, Seinaxa da mecnierulad
daamuSava yoveli masala da koleqcia, yoveli kuturuli memkvidreobis
daniSnulebis nivTi, rac ki saqarTvelos da mis mezobel qveynebis fizikur
bunebas, eTnografias da istoria-arqeologias Seexeboda. muzeumTan
arsebobda wignTsacavi sadac Segrovda umTavresad saqarTvelos da mis
mosazRvre qveynebis Sesaxeb Txzulebani. mas gaaCnda sakuTari perioduli
gamocemani. mravali didmniSvnelovani kulturuli da mecnieruli ganZiT
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                              153

Seivso muzeumis fondebi. respublikis biujetidan yovelwliurad
mniSvnelovani Tanxa iyo gamoyofili axali samuzeumo eqsponantebis
Sesaqmnelad, romelic ganaTlebis saministros gankargulebiT ixarjeboda.
muzeumis saxsars agreTve Seadgenda specialuri Tanxa, romelic iyo:
muzeumSi Sesasvleli gadasaxadi, Semowirulobani, gamocemaTa da
koleqciebis dublikatebis gayidviT aRebuli Semosavali. aqedan Semosuli
Tanxa ixarjeboda moqmedebis gaZlierebis, sameurneo saWiroebaTa
dakmayofilebasa da samecniero miznebisaTvis, sazogado wesiT direqtoris
gankargulebiT, saxalxo ganaTlebis ministrisagan nebarTvis miRebis
Semdeg. muzeums hqonda saxelmwifo gerbiani sakuTari beWedi gerbis
irgvliv Semdgari warweriT “saqarTvelos muzeumi”.
          qarTuli kulturis da xelovnebis ganviTarebis saqmeSi
mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana saqarTvelos erovnuli samxatvro galeream,
romelic 1920 wlis martSi miRebuli kanonis safuZvelze Seiqmna. samxatvro
galerea ganaTlebis saministros daqvemdebarebaSi Sedioda da finansdeboda
saxelmwifo xazinidan. samxatvro galereis mizans warmoadgenda:
Seegrovebina da daecva mxatvrobisa da qandakebis nawarmoebebi,
umTavresad qarTulisa da saqarTvelos mosazRvre xalxTa xelovnebisa
rogorc Zvelisa, ise axlisa. galereasTan arsebobda wignTsacavi, sadac
grovdeboda Txzulebani xelovnebis Sesaxeb, agreTve naxatebis,
graviurebis, reproduqciebis koleqciebi da samxatvro Jurnalebi. galereis
Semosavals, rogorc ukve aRvniSne, nawilobriv Seadgenda saxelmwifo
xazinidan saxalxo ganaTlebis saministros gankargulebaSi gadadebuli
gansazRvruli Tanxa da agreTve specialuri Tanxa, romelic grovdeboda
muzeumSi Sesasvleli gadasaxadiT, SemowirulobaniT, koleqciaTa
dublikatebis gayidviT aRebuli SemosavaliT da romelic sazogado wesiT
ixarjeboda ganaTlebis saministros nebarTvis miRebis Semdeg. galereas
hqonda saxelmwifo gerbiani beWedi gerbis irgvliv Semdegi warweriT:
`saqarTvelos erovnuli samxatvro galerea”.
          qarTuli kulturuli memkvidreobis SenarCunebisa da Semdgomi
ganviTarebisTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda 1920 wlis 28 maiss miRebul
dekrets, romelic krZalavda saqarTvelodan xelovnebis nimuSebis da sxva
sakulturo nivTebis gatanas, amgvar nivTebs Seadgenen: yovelgvari
saeklesio nivTi da samkauli, xati, jvari, WurWeli, qsovilebi, xelTnawerebi
da Zveli nabeWdi wignebi, suraTebi da sxva mxatvruli nawarmoebebi.
samecniero-kvleviTi muSaobis organizebis TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovani iyo
1920 wlis aprilSi miRebuli kanoni saqarTvelos centraluri samecniero
arqivis daarsebis Sesaxeb. kanonis miRebis Semdeg daiwyo saqarTvelos
istoriis SeswavlisaTvis aucilebeli masalebis Tavmoyra da damuSaveba.

       saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgena ganuzomlad didi
mniSvnelobis movlena iyo eris cxovrebaSi. am periodSi gansakuTrebuli
aRmavloba ganicada swored erovnulma kuturam. drois mcire monakveTSi,
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                               154

mZime      ekonomikuri       pirobebis    miuxedavad,     mtruli   ZalebiT
garSemortymulma saqarTvelom bevri ram axali da mniSvnelovani Seqmna.
erovnuli kulturis gaRrmavebasa da xelSewyobaSi didi damsaxureba
miuZRvoda sasuliero pirebs, kerZod saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqebs:
kirion II da leonids. isini aramarto sasuliero moRvaweni, aramed qarTuli
kulturis, mecnierebis TvalsaCino warmomadgenlebi iyvnen. saqarTvelos
kaTolikos-patriarqis, kirion II damsaxurebiT didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda
saistorio wyaroebis, saarqivo masalebis Segrovebas. man didi wvlili Seitana
`qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis” siZveleTa
muzeumis istoriuli sabuTebiT gamdidrebis saqmeSi. mitovebuli eklesia-
monastrebis nestiani senakebidan, saojaxo koleqciebidan mopovebul
masalebs yovelwliurad uangarod swiravda am muzeums. 68 xelnaweri
gadasca saeklesio muzeums. man eqvTime TayaiSvilTan, Tedo
JordaniasTan, mose janaSvilTan da zaqaria WiWinaZesTan erTad didi
wvlili Seitana qarTvel siZveleTa gadarCenis saqmeSi. misi udidesi
RvawliT araerT eklesia-monasters Cautarda restavracia, gamorCeuli iyo
alaverdis, SuamTis, qvaTaxevis, ruisis, sveticxovlis eklesiebis SekeTeba,
didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda qarTuli enis, dedaenis Seswavlas da qarTveli
momavali TaobisTvis Senaxvas da gadacemas niSnad qarTuli kulturisa,
zneobisa da Cvevisa. am periodSi xelisuflebam eklesiasTan mimarTebaSi
dauSva Secdomebi. saqarTvelos marTlmadidebel eklesiasa da saero
xelisuflebas Soris garkveuli gaugebrobebi warmoiSva erovnuli sabWos
mier 1918 wlis 26 noembris kanonis miRebis Semdeg, romelic
iTvaliswinebda yoveli tipisa da safexuris saxazino da kerZouflebian skolaSi
saRvTo sjulis swavlebis da saRvTo sjulis maswavleblis Tanamdebobis
gauqmebas; xsenebul skolebSi kreditis daxurvas, romelic gaxsnili iyo
saRvTo sjulis jamagirisaTvis. es gadawyvetileba iyo saqarTvelos
demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobis aTeisturi mimarTulebis aSkara
gamoxatuleba. xelisufleba marto am kanoniT ar Semoifargla. misive
gadawyvetilebiT saxalxo ganaTlebis saministros gadaeca yofili sasuliero
saswavleblebis qoneba-nagebobebi da iqidan gamoZevebul iqna sasuliero
pirebi, rac ukanono qmedeba iyo xelisuflebis mxridan. mTavrobam
specialuri dekretiT eklesiebs, monastrebs CamoarTva miwebi, venaxebi,
saTibebi, tyeebi, wisqvilebi, e.i. arsebobis saxsari mouspo maT. am
movleniT gancvifrebuli iyo sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi leonidi
(1918-1921). masac aranaklebi Rvawli miuZRvoda im drois saqarTvelos
eklesiis da qarTuli kulturis winaSe msgavsad kirion II. leonidi iZulebuli
gaxda weriliT miemarTa saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobis
Tavmjdomaris, noe JordaniasTvis. man aRwera Seqmnili viTareba da
Tanxmoba ganacxada, samarTlianad gayriliyo eklesia saxelmwifosgan.
uwmindes leonids miaCnda, rom Tu mTavroba civilizebuli formiT,
eklesiisagan gancalkevebas dauWerda mxars, maSin unda SeesyidaT misi
uZrav-moZravi qoneba da a.S. misi uwmindesobis werils konkretuli
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                155

Sedegebi ar mohyolia, amitom 1919 wlis 15 maiss uwmindesi da unetaresi
patriarqi leonidi Sexvda mTavrobis Tavmjdomares, sadac dawvrilebiT
gaaanalizes saqarTvelos eklesiis irgvliv Seqmnili mdgomareoba. noe
Jordaniam eklesiis meTaurs daxmareba aRuTqva, rom uaxloes momavalSi
mTavroba miiRebda gadawyvetilebas monastrebisaTvis kerZo mesakuTris
normiT miRebuli miwebis datovebis Sesaxeb, magram samwuxarod saqme
win ar wasula. erTi Tvis Semdeg uwmindesma kvlav gaugzavna werili n.
Jordanias, romelSic kvlav aRwerili iyo eklesia-monastrebSi Seqmnili
mdgomareoba, berebis gausaZlisi pirobebi, `zogni SimSiliT ixocebian,
zogni garbian monastrebidan, amis gamo monastrebis mdgomareoba sul
ufro da ufro savalalo xdeba, da saqarTvelos saamayo istoriuli naSTebi sul
upatronod datovebuli xdebian”. Semdgom amisa, damfuZnebeli komisiis
safinanso-sabiujeto komisiam prezidiumis saxeliT gagzavna mimarTva,
romelic aRniSnavda, rom Sinagan saqmeTa saministros mier warmodgenili
kanonproeqtis Tanaxmad samRvdeloebis, sakaTedro taZrebis, sakaTolikoso
dawesebulebaTa SenaxvisaTvis 1918 wlis pirvel ianvramde daifareboda
gaweuli xarjebi. kanonproeqti komisiam miiRo, magram realuri daxmareba
eklesias ar miuRia. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobam
eklesias faqtiurad undobloba gamoucxada da religiis Sesaxeb miRebuli
kanoniT igi gauTanabra saqarTvelos moqmed sxvadasxva konfesiebs,
`xelisuflebis ZiriTadi mizani iyo saqarTvelos eklesiis izolacia saxelmwifo
politikisagan, radgan man kargad uwyoda eklesiis didi istoriuli avtoriteti
qarTvel mosaxleobaSi, romlis ZiriTadi nawili eklesiasTan erTad,
saxelmwifoSi gatarebuli reformebis winaaRmdeg SeiZleba gamosuliyo”. im
dros, rodesac saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriv damoukideblobas safrTxe
Seeqmna, 1921 wlis 22 Tebervals sakaTolikoso sabWos weriliT mimarTa
uwmindesma leonidma, ris Sedegadac unda emsjelaT Semdeg sakiTxebze:
1. sad da rogor iqneboda daculi omisagan mosalodnel saSiSroebisagan
soflebisa da qalaqis eklesiebis ganZeuloba da siwminde? 2. sad iqneboda
daculi sakaTolikoso sabWos qoneba da arqivi? 3. rogor Secvliliyo eklesiis
marTva-gamgeobis wesebi am SiSianobis Jams? da a.S. saqarTvelos
eklesiisaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqonda Tbilisis sakiTxs da
gansakuTrebiT mTavrobis garkveul gadawyvetilebebs. sakaTolikoso
sabWom miiRo dadgenileba saeklesio ganZeulobis, Zvirfasi xatebis Tbilisis
eklesia-monastrebidan gatanisa da quTaisSi evakuaciis Sesaxeb da
mTavrobisagan iTxova specialuri dacvis gamoyofa maTi usafrTxoebis
mizniT. 24 Tebervals uwmindesma da unetaresma leonidma datova Tbilisi
da gaemgzavra quTaisSi. rodesac mTavrobam miiRo gadawyvetileba
emigraciaSi wasvlis Taobaze da amave dros saqarTvelos erovnuli
siwmindeebis, ganZis waRebis Sesaxeb, es Tavzardamcemi faqti iyo
patriarqisTvis. mas usiamovno saubari hqonda JordaniasTan, magram
uSedegod. 17 marts saqarTvelos mTavroba baTumis portidan gaemgzavra
ganZeulobiT datvirTuli. saqarTvelos patriarqi 13 aprils dabrunda TbilisSi...
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                156

mas aRarc damoukidebeli saxelmwifo daxvda da aRarc saeklesio
siwmindeebi, patriarqi TiTqos ucxo qalaqSi dabrunda. aseTi gamxdariyo
qarTvelTa dedaqalaqi...
         amrigad, saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg,
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublkis umaRlesma sakanonmdeblo da
aRmasrulebelma       xelisuflebam      sworad      gansazRvra    erovnul-
saxelmwifoebrivi mSeneblobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi ganaTlebis,
mecnierebis sferoSi da drois simciris miuxedavad, mniSvnelovani
warmatebebi moipova. Tumca iyo arasworad gadadgmuli nabijebic,
romelnic mkveTrad aisaxeboda kulturis ganviTarebaze. gaurkveveli iyo Tu
ratom ewinaaRmdegeboda mTavroba sulieri da materialuri kulturis unikalur
nimuSebis dacvas da SenarCunebas, momavali TaobebisaTvis rac yvelaze
Zvirfasi iyo, nawilobriv is ufasurdeboda... da mainc, “vinc saTanadod ver
Seignebs Tavis mSobliur siZveleebs da siyvaruliT ar moufrTxildeba Tavis
winaprebis kulturul memkvidreobas, is maTi araRirseuli memkvidrea,
SemTxveviTi rgolia cocxal arsebaTaA jaWvSi, cudi megzuria, mSobliuri
siZvelis codnis gareSe SeuZlebelia Cawvde warsuls, gaigo awmyo da
Segnebulad imuSao momavali didi nacionalur-kulturuli saqmisaTvis”.



gamoyenebuli literatura:

    1.   saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli
              1918-1921ww. Tbilisi, 1990
    2.   saqarTvelos istoria, XX s. saxelmZRvanelo istoriis fakultetis
              studentebisaTvis. redaqtori, prof. v. guruli, Tbilisi, 2003.
    3.   sergo vardosaniZe _ saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria 1917-1952ww.

    4.   amiran nikoleiSvili _ saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis kultura,
             sadoqtoro disertacia (xelnaweri). Tbilisi, 1999



                                Summary

Teona Katamadze
Issue of Cultural Heritage in Georgian Democratic Republic (1918-
1921)

         The issue concerns the important the role of Culture in Democratic
Republic of Georgia in 1918-1921 years. In that period the policy of
depressing Georgian centuries-old cultural heritage was implemented,
             xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                157

mainly, by the russifiers. Despite this fact, Georgia, surrounded by hostile
environment, created a lot of new and important things. The process of
building Georgian Government was marked by development of the spheres
of education, science and culture. Some bills and decisions adopted and
made by the National Council point to this fact. The article covers these
important bills and decisions.




                                РЕЗЮМЕ

Теона Катамадзе
Вопрос культурного наследия в демократической республике
Грузия (1918-1921)


        Данный вопрос касается того, насколько знаительной была
роль культуры в 1918-1921 гг. в демократической республике Грузия.
В тот период целенаправленно проводилась политика угнетения
многовекового культурного наследия, в основном, со стороны
русификаторов. Несмотря на это, окруженная вражескими силами
Грузия создала много нового и значительного. В процессе
строительства государственности Грузии большой подъем испытали
сферы образования, науки и культуры, о чем говорят принятые
национальным советом некоторые законы и постановления, которые в
последующем представят предмет моего обсуждения.
CONTENTS



International conference PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
TRANSFORMATION IN THE SOUTH CAUCASUS------------------5

Giorgi Bagaturia, Sofiko Cxadadze
Strategic planning of state politics – Bismarck ---------------------------11

Lali Gvasalia
Return to heaven ---------------------------------------------------------------29

Bela Goderzdishvili, Maia Danelia
Regional Policy in the Context of Federalism --------------------------- 39

Tariel Kikvadze, Tamar Bridze
The methods of selecting the optimal portfolio -------------------------- 48

Genadi Iashvili
Strengths and Weaknesses of Small and Medium Enterprises.
Their role in country’s economical development ------------------------ 55

Rusudan Tabukashviki
The female language hypothesis --------------------------------------------- 64

David Taktakishvili
On the problem of different view pionts ---------------------------------- 71

Temur Todua, Mariam Natsvlishvili
Administer and Management in the system of Public
Administration ------------------------------------------------------------------ 79
Temur Todua , Ciala Gagnidze
Political leader’s part in public administrative system ------------------ 89

Sergo Lominadze
Social-Philosophical aspects of PR-activities------------------------------- 99

Maia Chkheidze
The Problem of Constructing Logical Arguments------------------------108

Maia Chkheidze
The Problem of Effective Verbal Communication-----------------------116
               xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                        159

Student's pages

Mariam Geliashvili, Maia Geliashvili
Historical roots of education in Georgia-----------------------------------127

Dachi Taktakishvili
Highbrow Speculation on Mother-and-children Relationship----- --134

Gvanca Gogishvili
Rhetorical art--------------------------------------------------------------------144

Mariam Lomidze
Management and protection of water resources of Georgia-----------158

Tinatin Iashvli, Irina Iashvili
Russia’s aggressive policy of power engineering concerning
neighboring countries----------------------------------------------------------160

Tamar Sreseli
Judicial reform and its role----------------------------------------------------176

Teona Katamadze
Issue of Cultural Heritage in Georgian
Democratic Republic (1918-1921)--------------------------------------------183
               xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                      160



СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Международная конференция : Трансформация
государственного управления на Южном Кавказе-------------------- 5

Георгий Багатурия, Софико Цхададзе
Стратегическое планирование государственной
политики – Бисмарк -----------------------------------------------------------11

Лали Гвасалиа
Вернѐмся к тихой обители!-------------------------------------------------- 29

Белла Годердзишвили, Майя Данелия
Региональная политика в условиях федерализма----------------- 39

Тариел Киквадзе, Тамар Беридзе
Формирование оптимального портфеля при помощи методов
математического програмирования-------------------------------------- 48

Геннадий Яшвили
Преимущества и недостатки малых и средних предприятий.
Их роль в экономическом развитии страны--------------------------- 55

Русудан Табукашвили
Развивтие гипотез женского языка--------------------------------------- 64

Давид Тактакишвили
Рассуждения о мировоззренческих проблемах --------------------- 71

Темур Тодуа, Мариам Нацвлишвили
Администрирование и Менеджмент в системе
государственного управления --------------------------------------------79

Темур Тодуа, Циала Гагнидзе
Роль политического лидера в системе государственного
управления ----------------------------------------------------------------------89

Серго Ломинадзе
Социаоьно-философские аспекты PR- деятельности ---------------99
               xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                     161


Майа Чхеидзе
Проблема конструирования логических арнументов ---------------108

Майа Чхеидзе
Проблема эффективной вербальной коммуникации -------------- 112

Студенческие страницы

Мариам Гелиашвили, Майя Гелиашвили
Исторические корни образования в Грузии----------------------------116

Дачи Тактакишвили
Гласные раздумья о родительском феномене ----------------------- 127

Гванца Гогишвили
У истоков ораторского искуства ----------------------------------------- 134

Мариам Ломидзе
Управление и охрана водными ресурсами Грузии -------------- 144

Тинатин Яшвили, Ирина Яшвили
Агрессивная экономическая политика России в отношении
соседних стран ---------------------------------------------------------------- 158

Тамар Сресели
Судебная реформа и ее роль ------------------------------------------------176

Теона Катамадзе
Вопрос культурного наследия в демократической республике
Грузии (1918-1921) ------------------------------------------------------------183
avtorebi

giorgi baRaTuria - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis asocirebuli
profesori
ciala gagniZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis magistranti
lali gvasalia - i.WavWavaZis sax. universitetis sruli profesori
mariam geliaSvili
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis magistranti
maia geliaSvili
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis magistranti
gvanca gogiSvili
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis magistranti
bela goderZiSvili
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis, humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis
TanamSromeli.
maia danelia
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis, humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis
mowveuli specialisti,
rusudan TabukaSvili - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sruli profesori
daviT TaqTaqiSvili - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis asocirebuli
profesori
daCi TaqTaqiSvili
Tbilisi vano sarajiSvilis saxelmwifo konservatoriis klaviSiani sakravebis
fakultetis magistranti
TinaTin iaSvili,
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis doqtoranti
irina iaSvili
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis magistranti
tariel kikvaZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sruli profesori
sergo lominaZe - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis asocirebuli profesori

mariam lomiZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis magistranti
Tamar sreseli
               xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                         163

saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis magistranti
sofiko cxadaZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis magistranti
Teona qaTamaZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis,
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis magistranti
maia CxeiZe - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sruli profesori




Jurnalis redkolegia

    nana avaliani –         saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministros sagangebo davalebaTa
    elCi, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori
    meufe abraami (garmelia) -dasavleT evropis mitropoliti
               xelisufleba da sazogadoeba                                       164

evgeni baraTaSvili - - saqarTvelos teqnikuri
universitetis profesori
giorgi baRaTuria - saqarTvelos teqnikuri      universitetis
profesori
oTar baRaTuria - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis
ufrosi maswavlebeli
   vaxtang guruli – Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori
   SoTa doRonaZe - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis            saxelmwifo marTvis
   mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli, profesori
   genadi iaSvili - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis profesori
   Teimur Todua - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis profesori
   roin metreveli - akademikosi
   qeTi qoqraSvili - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis                administraciis
   xelmZRvaneli, profesori
   oTar qoCoraZe - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis profesori
   rusudan quTaTelaZe – saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis              humanitarul-
   socialuri fakultetis dekani, profesori
   maia CxeiZe -           saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis ucxouri enebisa da
   komunikaciebis departamentis xelmZRvaneli, profesori

				
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