saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani _4 _37__ 2008 ART SCIENCE STUDIES

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saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani _4 _37__ 2008 ART SCIENCE STUDIES Powered By Docstoc
					SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos
          universiteti


    Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film
              University




saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani
          #4 (37), 2008




     ART SCIENCE STUDIES
         #4 (37), 2008




        gamomcemloba `kentavri~
            Tbilisi _ 2008



                                       1
UDC(uak)     7(051.2)
                                                                                                                  Sinaarsi
             s-364

                                                                 Teatrmcodneoba
       SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti            maka vasaZe
                                                                 robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis .....................10
        saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #4 (37), 2008
                                                                 qoreografia
                                                                 nele hertlingi
saredaqcio sabWo           krebulisaTvis mowodebuli masala       baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze
vasil kiknaZe              uzrunvelyofili unda iyos              cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze ......................................19
nato gengiuri              Sesabamisi samecniero aparatiT. Tan
lela oCiauri               unda axldes monacemebi avtoris        kultura da politika
                           samecniero kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb
                                                                 stiv osteni
literaturuli               qarTul da inglisur enebze, agreTve    kulturis roli evropis gaerTianebis procesSi ...........................................37
redaqtori                  naSromis inglisurenovani reziume.

mariam iaSvili
                                                                 xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa
                           krebulis stamburi gamocema            fakultetis samecniero konferenciis
garekanis dizaini          egzavneba sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso     masalebi
levan dadiani              kvleviT centrebs.
                                                                 Teatrmcodneoba
dakabadoneba                                                     Tamar bokuCava
ekaterine                  naSromebi mogvawodeT da               Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis Seqspiris
oqropiriZe                 cnobebisaTvis mogvmarTeT:             `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~ ............................................................................................43
                           0102, Tbilisi, daviT aRmaSeneblis     merab gegia
                           gamziri #40, SoTa rusTavelis          religia da Teatri ............................................................................................................50
koreqtura                  Teatrisa da kinos universiteti,       maia goSaZe
                           II korpusi.                           pandoras yuTis fskerze ...................................................................................................59
manana goSaZe
                           tel/faqsi: +995 (32) 936 408          mixeil kalandariSvili
gamomcemlobis              mob: +995 (95) 305 060                modernistuli eqsperimenti tiflisSi ....................................................................63
xelmZRvaneli                                                     maia kiknaZe
                               +995 (55) 218 292
                                                                 Tojinebisa da Crdilebis warmodgenebi indoneziaSi .....................................69
maka vasaZe                E-mail: kentavri@tafu.edu.ge          guliko mamulaSvili
                           Web: www.tafu.edu.ge                  `Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi ........................................................74
                                                                 nino maWavariani
                                                                 evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis TeatrSi .........................86


2                                                                                                                                                                                              3
gubaz megreliZe                                                                                                                                qeTevan trapaiZe
uSangi CxeiZis ucnobi mogoneba                                                                                                                 qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi gadaRebuli filmebi ...........................245
`kotes rusTavelis Teatridan wasvla~ .............................................................94                                            Teo xatiaSvili
manana turiaSvili                                                                                                                              `survilis miuwvdomeli obieqti~
aTasi saxis adamiani ..........................................................................................................101             lakaniseuli interpretaciebi luis bunuelis SemoqmedebaSi ..................254
Tamar quTaTelaZe                                                                                                                               qeTevan janeliZe
Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi ..................................................................................115                           Semotanili produqcia da qarTuli sinamdvile `importuli animacia~
lamara RonRaZe                                                                                                                                 gmirebi, ideologia, morali ...........................................................................................261
reJisori, dro, speqtakli .....................................................................................................124
giorgi cqitiSvili
„kaci viyav, adamiani...~ ...............................................................................................................135   xelovnebaTmcodneoba
guliko javaSvili                                                                                                                               irine abesaZe
msaxiobis erTi roli .............................................................................................................143           firosmanologiis, rogorc axali saxelovnebaTmcodneo
                                                                                                                                               mimarTulebis Camoyalibebis perspeqtivebi .............................................................267
                                                                                                                                               nato gengiuri
kinomcodneoba                                                                                                                                  arqiteqturis simbolika ..................................................................................................277
irina demetraZe                                                                                                                                qeTevan kinwuraSvili
sublimirebuli rasizmi .........................................................................................................148             interteqstualuri TamaSi da `narativis intriga~ giorgi
nana doliZe                                                                                                                                    aleqsi-mesxiSvilis scenografiul namuSevrebSi ...............................................284
arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis politika ................................155
lia kalandariSvili
qalis saxe samocdaaTiani wlebis inglisur kinoSi .........................................163                                                   kulturologia
irina kuWuxiZe                                                                                                                                 revaz balanCivaZe
kinematografis konturebi axali teqnologiebis epoqaSi ..........................173                                                             anTropologiuri pedagogika rogorc ganaTlebis mecniereba ................290
maia levaniZe                                                                                                                                  qeTevan elaSvili
qarTuli telesivrce da reklamis Tavisebureba ................................................181                                                erotizmis diapazoni qarTul sityvaSi ....................................................................300
manana lekboraSvili                                                                                                                            rusudan mircxulava
media reprezentaciebi da maTi Seswavlis aqtualoba .....................................187                                                     gardasaxvis fsiqologiuri SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb ........................................305
dinara maRlakeliZe
XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi ........................................................192
nino mxeiZe                                                                                                                                    mediologia
deskri pcia Tu eqsplikacia ...........................................................................................200                      giorgi CarTolani
eTer okujava                                                                                                                                   kultura televiziis sainformacio programebSi ..........................................313
`ganaxlebis~ xana qarTul kinoSi ............................................................................205                                saavtoro monacemebi ................................................................................................................322
lela oCiauri
socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde ................................................211
oliko JRenti
`feqsebi~ da 20-iani wlebis QqarTuli kinoavangardi ..................................229




4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   5
THEATRE STUDIES                                                                                                   MANANA TURIASHVILI
                                                                                                                  Thousand Kinds Of People
MAKA VASADZE                                                                                                      Mikhael Chekhov ..........................................................................................333
Formation Of Robert Sturua’s Theatrical Language                                                                  TAMAR KUTATELADZE
(Interpretation of Georgian Classical Literature a la Robert Sturua) .............324                             Theatre’s Function And Its Valuable
                                                                                                                  (By example of the Kote Marjanishvili’s “Uriel Akosta” restore
CHOREOGRAPHY                                                                                                      by Sophiko Chiaureli) ...................................................................................334
                                                                                                                  LAMARA GONGADZE
NELE HERTLING                                                                                                     Producer , Time, Per
History Of Ballet And Dance                                                                                       (Lily Ioselyani ‘S First Play) .........................................................................335
History And Present Of Dance As An Artform .............................................325                       GIORGI TSKITISHVILI
                                                                                                                  I Was A Human, Man... ..................................................................................335
CULTURE AND POLITICS                                                                                              GULIKO DJAVASHVILI
                                                                                                                  Actor’s One Role
STEVE AUSTEN AND KAROLINA NOWACKI                                                                                 (In Givi Berikashvili’s Play “Berikaoba” (Georgian Carnaval)
The Role Of Culture In The European Unification Process ..........................326                             By M. Eliozishvili)...................................................................................... 336

ART AND SOCIAL SCIENCE FACULTY                                                                                    FILM STUDIES

THEATRE STUDIES                                                                                                   IRA DEMETRADZE
                                                                                                                  Sublimated Racism
TAMAR BOKUCHAVA                                                                                                   (The Caucasus Ethos Myth In Post Soviet Cinematography) .......................337
For The Aspects Of Night, Dream And Comic In Shakespeare’s                                                        NANA DOLIDZE
“A Midsummer Night’s Dream” ..................................................................328                 Elections And Georgian Tv Channels Politics .............................................338
MERAB GEGIA                                                                                                       LIA KALANDARISHVILI
Religion And Theatre ....................................................................................328      The Women’s Face In English Film
MAIA GOSHADZE                                                                                                     Industry In 70 Years .......................................................................................338
At The Bottom Of Pandora’s Box .................................................................329               IRINA KUTSUKHIDZE
MIKHAIL KALANDARISHVILI                                                                                           The Outlines Of Cinematograph In The Period Of New Technologies .........339
The Modernistic Experiment In Tiflisi .........................................................329                MAIA LEVANIDZE
MAIA KIKNADZE                                                                                                     Georgian Tv Space And Advertising Peculiarities ......................................339
Puppet And Shade Performances In Indonesia .............................................330                       MANANA LEKBORASHVILI
GULIKO MAMULASHVILI                                                                                               media representations and studding activeness .............................................340
“Th ‘Asies” In Persian Scientific Literature .................................................331                 DIANA MAGLAKELIDZE
NINO MACHAVARIANI                                                                                                 Image Liberation –North-European Modern
Eugene Swartz’s “Dragon” In The                                                                                   Cinema Avant-Garde 95 ................................................................................341
Rustaveli Theatre ..........................................................................................331   NINO MKHEIDZE
GUBAZ MEGRELIDZE                                                                                                  Description If Explication .............................................................................342
Ushangi Chkheidze’s Unknown Reminder ...................................................332                       ETER OKUDJAVA
                                                                                                                  60th Years – Period Of Cinematography Renovate .......................................342

6                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7
LELA OCHIAURI
From Socialiste Realism To Post-Modernism ..............................................343                      Teatrmcodneoba
OLGIKO ZGENTI
Georgian Leading Film And “Fexsis” – Parallels And Intersection ..............344
KETEVAN TRAPAIDZE
Abroad Directed Movies Of Georgian Ditectors ..........................................344
TEO KHATIASHVILI
“Inaccessible Object Of The Will”
Lakan’s Interpretation In The Luis Bunueli ...................................................345
KETEVAN JANELIDZE
Animated Films ..........................................................................................345

ART STUDIES

IRINE ABESADZE
The Prospects Of Founding The Phenomenology As New
Direction Of Art History ...............................................................................346
NATO GENGIURI,
Symbolism Of Architecture
(Christian Georgia) ......................................................................................347
KETEVAN KINTSURASHVILI
The Theatre Of Gogi Aleksi-Meskhishvili ...................................................348

CULTURE

REVAZ BALANCHIVADZE
Anthropological Pedagogic As The Science Of Education ...........................349
KETEVAN ELASHVILI
The Range Of Eroticism In Georgian Literature ........................................350
RUSUDAN MIRTSKULAVA
On Psychological Possibilities Of Transformation
And Stage Acting ..........................................................................................351

MEDIA STUDIES

GEORGE CHARTOLANI
Culture In Television Information Programs ..............................................352




8                                                                                                                                 9
                                                   maka vasaZe    siRrmidan modioda Sav samosSi gaxveuli qali da nergis qveS
                                                                  emxoboda. Ees iyo saqarTvelos dedofali _ Tamari. saorkestro
 robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis                          ormodan scenaze nel-nela amoemarTeboda soleimani da miwaze
                 sakiTxisaTvis                                    garTxmul Tamar dedofals medidurad gadaabijebda. misi
    (qarTuli klasikis sturuaseuli interpretacia)                  mosasxami gadaacocdeboda Tamaris sxeuls, sudaras gadaaclida
                                                                  da saqarTvelos dedofali - zeinabad, soleimanis meuRled
                     (gagrZeleba, dasawyisi ix. wina nomerSi)     gadaiqceoda mowiTalo ferebSi gadawyvetili samosiT. soleimani
                                                                  ki, gzas agrZelebda da maRali kibiT adioda gabzaruli
    robert sturuam, 1974 wels, qarTuli Teatris aRdgenis           wminda giorgis karedis win dadgmul taxtze. saerTod
125 wlisTavs miuZRvna aleqsandre sumbaTaSvil-iuJinis piesis       speqtaklSi, ferTa simbolikas, mniSvnelovani dramturgiuli
`Ralatis~ dadgma da misi ganxorcielebisas metad gabeduli          funqcia mieniWa. magaliTad, Tuki dasawyisSi zeinabsa da oTar-
gza airCia. cnobilia, rom `Ralatis~ scenuri cxovreba sakmao       begs sisxlisferi samosi ecvaT, rogorc soleimanis msaxurebs,
dros moicavs. Iigi mravaljer daudgamT qarTul TeatrebSi.           speqtaklis dasrulebisas, sisxlisferi, mooqrosferoTi
ar darCenila saqarTvelos arcerTi profesiuli, Tu moyvarulTa        icvleboda, rac albaT maT ganaxlebul sulier mdgomareobaze
dasi, rom ar esinja am nawarmoebis dadgma. Aamitom, sazogadoeba   mianiSnebda. `Ralts~ robert sturuam zogadsakacobrio masStabi
didi interesiT eloda, Tu rogor saxes miiRebda piesa iseTi         SesZina da globlaurad warmoaCina dampyroblisa da dapyrobilis
reJisoris xelSi, rogoric sturuaa, vinaidan is princi pulad        urTierTobani, maTi fsiqologia da cxovrebis cvalebadobis
uaryofda gatkepnili gzebiT siaruls, cdilobda viwro,               gardauvaloba.
konkretuli epoqis farglebSi moqceuli movlenebi ganevrco               `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~ robert sturuam da Temur
da erovnuli tipaJisTvis ufro farTo, zogadsakacobrio elferi        CxeiZem erTmaneTs SeuTavses fsiqologiuri wvdomis, gardasaxvis
mieniWebina. robert sturuam amjeradac uari Tqva wlebis            princi pebi _ brextiseuli `gansxvisebis efeqts~. am xerxis
ganmavlobaSi damkvidrebuli `Ralatis~ dadgmis tradiciaze           gamoyenebiT, distancia msaxiobebsa da moTxrobis gmirebs Soris,
(iseve, rogorc `samaniSvilis dedinacvalis~ da `yvaryvares~        xan mcirdeboda da xan, kvlav izrdeboda. amgvari mignebiT,
dadgmisas), piesa zedmiwevniT Seiswavla da Tanadroulobis          zustad iqna daWerili da gadmocemuli daviT kldiaSvilis
Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, gaacocxla warsulis patriotuli         moTxrobebis `suli~, romlis saSualebiTac msaxiobebi TavianTi
epizodebi. `es ar gaxlavT speqtakli, romelSic reJisori            gmirebis cxovrebas kidec ganicdidnen da amave dros,
SeumCnevlad `mokvdeba aqtiorSi~. `Ralati~ reJisoruli              Semfaseblebadac gvevlinebodnen. reJisorebma da msaxiobebma
speqtaklia. upirveles yovlisa, mas aqvs Tavisi saTqmeli,          miaRwies xasaiTebisa da movlenebis arsis groteskul gadmocemas.
literaturuli saSualeba da ara mizani am saTqmelis                 maTdami damokidebulebis warmoCenas. amas garda, meTodi, romelic
gamosaxatavad. es saTqmeli gaxlavT mZafri inteleqtualuri          gamoiyenes reJisorebma, speqtaklis dasawyisidanve aZlevda maT
damokidebuleba warsulis Tu awmyos mniSvnelovani movlenebis        saSualebas Tavisuflad gadasuliyvnen moTxrobis realuri
mimarT. es sakuTari damokidebulebaa, romelic Cvenad unda          situaciebidan pirobiTsa da stilizebul xerxebze. esec xazs
aqcios speqtaklis meSveobiT~.1                                    usvamda reJisorebis damokidebulebas ama Tu im movlenisadmi
    reJisorma speqtakli Semzaravi simbolikiT daiwyo. darbazSi     _ gadasvlas ironiidan da iumoridan, naRvelisa da tragizmis
ismoda sparsul sakravTa xmebi, avanscenaze Canda nergi, romelic   situaciebze. magaliTisTvis moviyvanT platonis wasvlis scenas
cxovrebis xis, anu maradiulobis simbolos gamoxatavda. scenis


10                                                                                                                            11
maka vasaZe                                                                       robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis


`sacole-dedinacvlis~ saZebnelad. moTxrobis mixedviT, gzis           Tavis dabla daxriT xels arTmevdnen, TiTqos usityvo
naxevarze mets, platoni fexiT midis da `cxens~, am gasacodavebul    solidarobas ucxadebdnen da imave dros, usamZimrebdnen kidec.
sulier arsebas ukan moaTrevs. es epizodi moTxrobaSi aRsavsea        yvelafers agvirgvinebda TiTqmis tragikuli finali. giorgi
iumoriTa da naRveliT. reJisorebma SemogvTavazes uCeulo              gegeWkori TandaTan `Sordeboda~ Tavis platons, da kvlav
sanaxaoba: wnelisagan gakeTebuli raRac fitulis cxeni. igi           wigns iRebda xelSi. igi samuzeumo eqsponatis ukanasknel
sabralod da sacodavad gamoiyureboda. erTi SexedviT SeiZleba         gverds furclavda da iwyebda kiTxvas Tavisi gmiris ara
ver mimxvdariyavi, rom es cxenia. magram uceb, platonis _           gakicxvis, aramed TanagrZnobis intonaciiT. giorgi gegeWkori
giorgi gegeWkoris mier erTi maTraxis aqneva, cxenze mjdomis         auwyebda mayurebels, Tu ramdeni mwuxareba da usiamovneba xvda
moZraoba... da mayurebelis winaSe realuri sinamdvilis iluzia        wilad samaniSvilebis ojaxs. bavSvis gaCenam sixarulis nacvlad,
iqmneboda. mayurebels sjeroda, rom platoni marTlac Tavis            saxlSi ubedureba Semoitana. es aris adamianTa cxovrebis
daCaCanakebul cxens miaTrevda. aseve pirobiT xerxSi iyo             tragikuli Seusabamoba. magram ram moitana aseTi Seusabamoba.
gadawyvetili platonisa da kiriles (ramaz CxikvaZe)                  ra Tqma unda epoqam. epoqam, romelmac adamianSi adamianuri
gamgzavrebis scena. giorgi gegeWkori da ramaz CxikvaZe iRebdnen     suli mokla. es, marTlac satireli da sasaciloa. da, rusTavelis
Cveulebriv skamebs, `gadaajdebodnen~, xelebs skamis zurgs           Teatris speqtaklic xom tragi-komedia iyo. ai, ras wers am
CasWidebdnen, cxenze mjdomi kaciviT moZraobdnen, xmiT cxenis        speqtaklis Sesaxeb v. ivanovi: `Своеобразие спектакля в том,
floqvebis xmas gamoscemdnen da mayureblis wianSe kvlav              что драматический сюжет омертвления человеческой души
iSleboda realuri da amave dros, iumoriT savse sanaxaoba.            воплащён в комической фабуле, в ряде острокомических жанровых
anda, bekinasa da elenes tradiciuli wes-CveulebiT dadgmuli          сцен, Герой “МА  ЧЕХИ” во власти эгоистической разобщённости,
qorwinebis scena, romelic reJisuram ironiis sagnad aqcia. am        но внешне они само внимание и предупредительность.”2
scenis finali gadawyvetili iyo Zveli fotosuraTis pozaSi,                speqtaklis sevdanarevi iumori, naRvliani kilo sicilTan
sadac ojaxis wevrebs kmayofilebiT aRsavse saxeebi aqvT.             erTad, mayureblis gulistkivilsac iwvevda. iwvevda agreTve
marTlacda TiTqos, yvelaferi kargad damTavrda. platoni da            TanagrZnobas im adamianebis mimarT, romlebic scenaze idgnen
bekina kmayofilebi iyvnen TavianTi bediT. bekinam aisrula           da TiTqos Sengan (mayureblisgan) xsnas elodnen.
colis SerTvis survili, platonma ki, uSvilo, ornaqmarevi                 rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSneT, robert sturuas reJisoriuli
dedinacvali `iSovna~. mas aRar hqonda SiSi mamulze moziaris         azrovneba miiswrafis ATanamedrove brextiseuliATeatris
dabadebisa, magram cxovreba umowyalo aRmoCnda. elene                princi pebis Seqmnisaken qarTul nacionalur kulturasTan
dafexmZimda. bekina TiTqos damnaSavedac grZnobda Svilis winaSe      sinTezSi. amis magalTia speqtakl `yvaryvares~ Seqmna. sityva
Tavs, magram amave dros, eamayeboda kidec, rom am asakSi colis      `Seqmna~ me SemTxveviT ar mixmaria, radganac `yvaryvare~ robert
dafexmZimeba SesZlo da platonis winadadebas _ elenem muceli         sturuas usazRvro reJisoruli fantaziis nayofia. misma dadgmam
moiSaloso, aRSfoTebulma upasuxa: `RvTis Casaxuli kaci               Zalian saintereso rezultati mogvca. saintereso Tundac
movkla?~                                                            imitom, rom warmodgenam didi kamaTi gamoiwvia ara marto
    Semdgom, bavSvis dabadebis scenac pirobiTad iyo gadawyvetili.   Teatris kritikosTa Soris, aramedATeatris moyvaruli da
speqtaklis yvela monawile scenaze imyofeboda, maT Soris -           TeatrSi mosiarule mTeli sazogadoeba aalaparaka. zogni
elenec. ismoda Tofis gavardnis xma. aristo qvaSaviZe amcnobda       mTlianad uaryofdnen polikarpe kakabaZis sturuaseul
bekinas biWi SegeZinao. platonis natvra gogo mainc daibadoso,       interpretacias, zognic piriqiT, didad uWerdnen mxars.
ar asrulda. xalxi modioda bekinasTan da elenesTan mosalocad.


12                                                                                                                                  13
maka vasaZe                                                                     robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis

mowinaaRmdegeni sxva mizezebTan erTad, robert sturuas             mogvagonebs, gardatexils groteskulad, Sebrunebulad, ironiuli
speqtakls uaryofdnen imis gamo, rom maTi azriT, ar SeiZleboda     paradoqsalurobiT~.4
globalur masStabebSi warmodgeniliyo polikarpe kakabaZis               me ki, Cems mier moyvanil nodar gurabaniZis citatas
wmindad qarTuli piesa. magram aq Cndeba erTi uneburi kiTxva:      davumatebdi, rom reJisoris mier yvaryvares warmoCena aseTi
Tu polikarpe kakabaZis nawarmoebTa problematika aseTi viwro       saxiT, pirvelsave scenaSi xazs usvamda da amave dros, mayurebels
wriT, mxolod da mxolod `erovnuli niadagiT~ ifargleba,             ATavidanve amcnobda yvaryvares araCveulebriv niWs situaciis
maSin ratom aris igi klasikosi, msoflio masStabis dramaturgi?     Sefasebisa. yvaryvarem igrZno, rom swored es momenti, rodesac
magram saqme aq sxvagvaradaa. robert sturuas yvaryvaresaTvis      xalxs, masas Tavgza aqvs abneuli da goneba dakarguli, SeeZlo
`qarTuli niadagi~ ar gamouclia, reJisorma ubralod polikarpe       gamoeyenebina Tavisi gandidebis mizniT. es, xom yvela im uniWo
kakabaZis siRrmeebSi arsebuli `yvaryvarizmis~ zogadsakacobrio     adamianis Tvisebaa, romelsac ATavisTavad araferi Rirebulis
idea wina planze wamoswia da es idea speqtaklSi Taviseburi        Seqmna ar ZaluZs, magram raRac niRabs moirgebs da ase
formiT gadmogvca. Cems azrs imis Sesaxeb, rom robert sturuas      niRabamofarebuli warmoaCens Tavis Tavs. `rac Seexeba niRabs,
sareJisoro ena, xerxebi qarTul niadags eyrdnoba cnobili           amaze ki vityvi _ Zveli berZnebi xSirad mimarTavdnen amgvar
rusi Jurnalistis mixeil Svidkois sityvebic adasturebs:            Teatralur niRabs. miuxedavad imisa, rom amgvari niRabi msaxiobs
`CemTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovania is, rom sturua aris qarTveli      xels uSlis srulad gamoxatos personaJis sulieri moZraobani,
reJisori, romelic gamoxatavs Tavisi xalxis tkivils, vnebaTa       am speqtaklSi igi mainc mniSvnelovan komponentad mimaCnia _
SeWirvebas, imeds. rasac ar unda dgamdes _ brextsa Tu Seqspirs,   yvaryvare ar gvevlineba Tavisi namdvili saxiT, mas udidesi
romlebmac mas msoflio saxeli mouxveWes, sturua CemTvis            niRabi aqvs afarebuli cxovrebaSi, igi mudam SeniRbulia~ 5 _
aris ilia WavWavaZisa da niko firosmanaSvilis, daviT              igonebs ramaz CxikvaZe.
kldiaSvilisa da polikarpe kakabaZis Tanamemamule~.3                   yvaryvarem `qristes~ niRabi aifara xalxis mosanusxad. ai,
    rogorc zeviT aRvniSneT, `yvaryvareSi~ moxetiale dasi          rogor xsnis amas Tavad reJisori robert sturua: `me gavavle
iwyebda warmodgenis Cvenebas. prologis damTavrebis Semdeg,        paraleli qristes cxovrebasTan, radgan Tavisi droisaTvis
qvemexebisa Tu tyviamfrqvevTa kakanis fonze, scenaze Semorboda    igi warmomidgeba keTilis, progresulis sawyisad. am paralelis
Tavzardacemuli brbo da miwas erTxmoda. maT Soris iyo              meoxeobiT vaCvene egreTwodebuli `antiqriste~, romelic Tavis
SeSinebuli, saxegafiTrebuli, jariskacis formaSi gamowyobili       saqmianobas sikeTis saxeliT iwyebs - qadagebs imas, rac
ltolvili, romelic erTi Tvalis gadavlebis Semdgom, isev            xalxisaTvis saWiro da misaRebia~.6
ukan garboda, raTa mcire xnis Semdeg maT mesiis saxiT                 imisaTvis, rom es paraleli qristesa da antiqristes Soris
gamocxadeboda. `gaTeTrebuli saxe gahqvavebia, niRbad hqcevia,     mayureblisaTvis ufro naTeli da gasagebi yofiliyo, robert
usicocxlo, vnebamiukarebelia. SemosvlisTanave sazeimo,            sturuam ramaz CxikvaZis _ yvaryvares pirvel gamoCenas `qristes~
tragikuli toniT mimarTavs SiSisagan gondakargul xalxs:            saxiT musikalur fonad daudo qarTuli qoralis xmebi `Sobai,
`sul ase unda iwanwaloT, uTaurebo? Tqveni kacad gaxdoma ar        Seni qristeo~. reJisoris es SesaniSnavi migneba, marTlac rom
iqna da ar moxerxda!~ diax, es yvaryvares sityvebia, romliTac     savsebiT naTelia - qveyanaSi rwmenas urwmunoeba Secvlis,
(polikarpe kakabaZis piesaSi) igi mimarTavs Tavis sacodav         adamianTa idealebs _ gaqroba, gadagvarebis saSiSroeba moelis.
ATanasoflelebs _ yayutasa da quCaras. aqedan iwyeba yvaryvares        reJisors speqtakli gadawyvetili hqonda rogorc
sakvirveli metamorfoza, da misi svla cxovrebis sxvadsxva          sakarnavalo farsi, xolo aseT JanrSi yovelgvari pirobiTobaa
`rkalSi~, romelic Tavis TanmimdevrobiT macxovris cxovrebas        dasaSvebi. amitomac sruliad gamarTlda ramaz CxikvaZis


14                                                                                                                                15
maka vasaZe                                                                       robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis

yvaryvares saxis warmoCena tiranis globalur aspeqtebSi.               uvcleli rCeboda agreTve misi saxis gayinuli gamometyveleba,
yvaryvare _ triumfatori, xakisfer kostiumSi gamowyobili            romlis miRma adamianis namdvili grZnobebis amokiTxva
interventi generali, bonapartizmis Tvisebebis matarebeli.          SeuZlebeli iyo.
    rogorc davinaxeT, speqtaklis dasawyisSi yvaryvare
mxsneladaa Seracxuli, Tavgzaabneulma brbom `Tavkaci iSovna~.                                            (gagrZeleba Semdeg nomerSi).
sul araraobas erCivna yvaryvare yoloda winamZRolad.
ndobaaRWurvili yvaryvare xelSi iRebda gvirgvins da Tavze
idgamda. swored am detalSi vlindeboda yvaryvares gegmis
mizani _ gandideba. xalxi, `sazogadoeba~ jer ver xvdeboda Tu
ras sCadioda yvaryvare, magram rodesac mixvda, mainc masTan
darCa, mainc misi miznebis da `ideebis~ gamtarebeli da
aRmsrulebeli aRmoCnda.
    robert sturua amxelda ara marto yvaryvares, aramed iseT
sazogadoebsac, romelic uSvebs da itans yvaryvares arsebobas.
albaT, swored amitom, reJisorma dagvanaxa yvaryvares
metamorfoza, misi niRbis sxvadasxvagvari imitaciebi. da es,
sxva reJisorul mignebebTan erTad, yvaryvares kostiumebis
cvalebadobaSi gamoxata. jariskacis ubralo formas cvlida
qristes wamosasxami, Semdeg SemTxveviT icvamda yayutasa da
quCaras mier gaZarculi Turqi jariskacis formas, romelic
Ziudoistis formas mogvagonebda. pirveli moqmedebis bolos,
qarTul CoxaSi warmogvidgeboda, Semdeg, momwvano samxedro
formiTa da rkinis muzaradiT _ generali interventi,
Zalauflebis zenitSi yofnis dros - `inteligenturad Cacmuli~,
xolo bolos, rodesac Seityobda mis mazraSi revoluciuri
armiis Semosvlis ambavs _ SiSvldeboda.
    am kostiumebis cvalebadobisas, yovelTvis ucvleli rCeboda
erT-erTi detali _ ramaz CxikvaZis yvaryvare yovelTvis
fexSiSveli iyo. TiTqos reJisori da msaxiobi, am StrixiT,           1. SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatris muzeumis masalebidan,
xazs usvamdnen im garemoebas, rom yvaryvare Sinagani bunebiT       g.xuxaSvili;
mudam nacrismqeqav mawanwalad darCeba. ai, ras ambobs am detalis   2. «Дружба народов» 1977 г. №6, В. Иванов «Человек в обществе мир в
Sesaxeb TavadAmsaxiobi ramaz CxikvaZe: `es fexSiSveloba me,        человеке. Размышления о театре имени Руставели»;
                                                                   3. SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatris muzeumis masalebidan, m.Svidkoi;
rogorc msaxiobs, Sinaganad mexmareba ufro cxadad warmovidgino
                                                                   4. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~ 1974 w. #7 n. gurabaniZe `yvaryvare~;
mawanwala yvaryvares natura. yvaryvares frakic acvia, magram       5. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~ 1974 w. #7 `dialogi yvaryvareze~;
me ar vkargav personaJis `bosiakur~ sawyiss. igi naZiralaa da      6. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~ 1974 w. #7 `dialogi yvaryvareze~;
wmindanad, xalxisaTvis wamebul kacad gvaCvenebs Tavs.~7            7. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~ 1974 w. #7 `dialogi yvaryvareze~.


16                                                                                                                                   17
              baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze
qoreografia    cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da
                                awmyoze

                  cekva aris xelovnebis erT-erTi uZvelesi forma. zogierT
              religiaSi is samyaros Seqmnas uswrebs win. qristianul
              tradiciaSi ki cekva didi xnis manZilze idevneboda.
                  cekvam, rogorc TviTmyofadma xelovnebis formam,
              damsaxurebuli aRiareba mxolod dRes moipova da gauTanasworda
              xelovnebis danarCen formebs. operaSi igi baletis formiT
              vlindeba da erT-erT umniSvnelovanes komponents warmoadgens.
              rogorc Tanamedrove cekva igi ZiriTadad `Tavisufal jgufebSi~
              arsebobs da damokidebulia ama Tu im warmodgenis formatze.
                  asea Tu ise cekva, romelic SesaZloa yvelaze adamianuri
              xelovnebis formaa mTeli istoriis manZilze, yvelaze mWidrod
              iyo gadajaWvuli, SemosazRvruli, gamoyenebuli da gamoxatuli
              sazogadoebriv da politikur cvlilebebSi. Tanamedrove cekvis
              istoria germaniaSi amis naTeli magaliTia. swored amaze minda
              visaubro mokled da Sevecado, naTeli gavxado es kavSiri
              RirSesaniSnav SemoqmedTa magaliTze.

              `yoveli adamiani mocekvavea”
              rudolf fon labani 1920

                  am winadadebiT gamoxatavs labani meoce saukunis dasawyisSi
              axal cnebasa da damokidebulebas sxeulisadmi. mecxramete
              saukunis dasasruls industriis progresulma ganviTarebam da
              axalma teqnologiebma masiurad Secvala samuSao pirobebi.
              Zvel socialur struqturebs funqcia daekargaT, uamravi adamiani
              iZulebuli gaxda qalaqSi gadmosuliyo sacxovreblad, ramac
              Tan identurobis SegrZnebis dakargva da sisuste moitana.
              cxovrebis wes-Cveulebebi boboqari kritikis qarcecxlSi moyva
              – ocneba axal cxovrebaze, axal identurobaze. moxda
              mosazrebebisa da Sexedulebebis gadafaseba. aseTia suraTi
              uSualod pirveli msoflio omis win.
                  axalgazrda Taoba protests gamoTqvamda azrovnebisa da
              cxovrebis simwiris, Cacmulobasa da moZraobaze dawesebuli
              mkacri SezRudvebis winaaRmdeg. isini tradiciuli moqcevis
18                                                                        19
                                                                                             baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze
nele hertlingi                                                                          cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

normebisgan gaTavisuflebas cdilobdnen. maT aRmoaCines – `buneba~.   mari vigmanic. labani gaxda Tanamedrove germanuli cekvis
romlis Sedegad warmoiSva axali mimdinareoba saxelad                 Semqmneli da mniSvnelovani Teoretikosi. cekva misTvis arsebobis
`moxetiale Citi~. es iyo Tavisuflebis sruliad axali SegrZneba.      Semadgeneli nawili iyo – yvelaferi imisaTvis iyo Seqmnili,
aqedan gamomdinare ganviTarda sxeulis Tavisuflebac. individma       rom momxdariyo `TviTgamoxatva~. labans swamda axali da
sakuTari Tavi aRmoaCina. `personaluri gamoxatuleba~ iyo axali       sufTa sazogadoebis daarsebis SesaZleblobisa cekvis meSveobiT.
devizi, romelic moicavda xelovnebis sxvadasxva formebs da           labanis moZraobis TeoriaSi sxeuli mis irgvliv arsebuli
romelsac v. kandinski misdevda saxviT xelovnebaSi. zigmund          sivrcis centrad warmogvidgeba. igi interpretirebda cekvas,
froidma safuZveli daudo fsiqoanalizs, xolo nicSes filosofia         rogorc xelovnebis damoukidebel formas, romelsac sakuTari
axal religiad iqca. nicSem mocekvavisgan axali kerpi Seqmna:        wesebi gaaCnia.
`me mxolod erTaderTi RmerTi SemiZlia viwamo, is, romelic                Tanamedrove cekvis novatorad 1877 wels amerikaSi
cekvavs~. amiT igi mxars uWerda sxeulisa da moZraobis axal          dabadebuli da 1899 wlidan evropaSi moRvawe aisidora dunkani
kulturas da warmoSobil eqspresionistul cekvas.                      gvevlineba. man Tavidanve uaryo baleti da ganaviTara sakuTari
    erT-erTi sakvanZo termini gaxldaT `ritmi~. igi yofierebis       cekvis stili. 1904 wels berlinSi cekvis skola-internati
safuZvels gamoxatavda. cekvam da tanvarjiSma adamianisa da          daarsa, romelic bavSvebs gansakuTrebul ganaTlebas aZlevda.
bunebis dakarguli erTianobisaken mimavali gza gaxsna. Jak           misTvis cekva qalis emansi paciasTan iyo kavSirSi. motivacias
dalkrozma, Sceicarielma kompozitorma da musikis pedagogma,          efeqti ki ar warmoadgenda, aramed procesi, rogorc aseTi. igi
dabadebulma venaSi 1865 wels, ganaviTara ritmul-musikaluri          sakuTari xelovnebiT pirveli msoflio omamdeli Taobis
aRzrdis axali meTodi. imisaTvis rom sakuTari mowafeebisaTvis        ganwyobas gamoxatavda, romelic im dros saxviT xelovnebaSi
musikis ukeTesi gageba eswavlebina, igi iyenebda sakuTar `ritmul    arsebuli ideebisa da, kerZod, eqspresionizmis axlobeli iyo.
tanvarjiSs~. igi cdilobda, musikis dineba pirdapir sxeulis          igi sakuTari profesiis yvela finansur aspeqts uaryofda.
moZraobaSi gadaetana. drezdenis Soriaxlos helerauSi volf            turneebs, kontraqtebs da msgavs sakiTxebs aRiqvamda rogorc
dornTan erTad man daarsa axali centri musikisa da ritmisaTvis.      sakuTari WeSmariti misiidan gadaxras. `Tanamedrove cekva~
aq man Tavi mouyara mowafeTa did raodenobas. misi drois             dunkanma warmatebuli gaxada. igi miRebuli iqna, rogorc
RirSesaniSnav warmomadgenlebTan erTad weliwadSi erTxel              xelovnebis nairsaxeoba. mas mravlad hyavda mimdevrebad qali
igi awyobda festivals gasaocari dadgmebiT. mogvianebiT es           mocekvaveebi – maT Soris yvelaze gansakuTrebulni - debi
dadgmebi sakvanZo gaxda saerTaSoriso Teatris istoriaSi. am          vizentalebi.
skolam warmoSva uamravi iseTi mniSvnelovani mocekvave da                pirveli msoflio omis dasasrulma mZime droeba moitana.
qoreografi rogorebic iyvnen: mari vigmani, hania holmsi da          es Tanabrad Seexo xelovnebasac. cekvas uxdeboda rTul
miriam raubergi, mogvianebiT mari ramberti, romelic Semdgom         realobaSi arseboba. mravali Semoqmedi Seecada piradi grZnobebis
inglisuri Tanamedrove sabaleto dasis Tanadamaarsebeli gaxda.        gamoxatvas da realobaze reagirebas. cekvas amisaTvis mravali
    meoce saukunis dasawyisSi Sveicariis monte veritaSi             forma da saxelwodeba gaaCnda – gamomsaxvelobiTi cekva,
warmoiSva pacifizmis, anarqizmis, antrofosofiisa da                 Tavisufali cekva, Tanamedrove mxatvruli cekva – yvelaferi
fsiqoanalizis axali centri, sadac uamravi Semoqmedi, moazrovne,     dasaSvebi iyo. drezdenma isev SeiZina mniSvneloba. aq mari
medikosi da `mecnieri~ Seikriba TanacxovrebisaTvis. es              vigmanma `eqspresionistuli cekva~ SeimuSava. eqspresionistuli
sazogadoeba aseve gaxda axali sacekvao mimdinareobis mimdevarTa     cekva pirvelad damoukideblad Seiqmna, mcire oTaxebSi, magram
mizidulobis centric. rudolf fon labanma 1913 wels daarsa            warmatebam am individualuri cekvis formas male Teatris
moZraobis xelovnebis sazafxulo skola. mowafeTa Soris iyo            karebic gauRo. aq man baletis gverdiT daimkvidra adgili.
20                                                                                                                                 21
                                                                                         baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze
nele hertlingi                                                                      cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

    eqspresionistuli cekvis saTaveebTan idgnen rudolf fon           arsebobda politikurad angaJirebuli cekvac _ iseTi,
labani da mari vigmani. Tavisi pirveli germanuli turne mari     rogorsac qmnida magaliTad hans vaiti. man 1930 wels berlinSi
vigmanma 1919 wels Caatara. misi skola drezdenSi gadaiqca       `wiTel mocekvaveTa~ dasi daarsa. igi wvrilburJuaziis
germanuli eqspresionistuli cekvis centrad. aqedan moyolebuli    winaaRmdeg angaJirebul dass warmoadgenda, romelSic valeska
cekvas saTaveSi Caudgnen gret paluka, herald kroicbergi,        gerti gamodioda. igi iyo axali dinamiuri cekvis radikaluri
hania holmi da kidev mravali sxva.                              magaliTi; gamosaxavda yoveldRiur cxovrebiseul problemebs
    1924 wels axalma ekonomikurma stabilurobam da wesrigma      da iyo pirveli mocekvave qali, romelic kabares stils
Tavisi gavlena moaxdines xelovnebis dargebzec. safuZveli        miuaxlovda.
Caeyara cnebas `axali obieqturoba~, ramac anarekli hpova            politikuri suraTi dRiTidRe mZimdeboda. uamravi adamiani
cekvaSic. axla saubari aRar iyo mxolod da mxolod individis      darCa umuSevari. quCurma dapirispirebebma faSistebsa da
`gamoxatvaze~. mniSvneloba SeiZina teqnikurma SesaZleblobebma   komunistebs Soris, arastabilurma politikurma sistemebma,
da qoreografiulma princi pebma. amis sailustraciod gamodgeba    meryevma mTavrobam da antidemokratiulma tendenciebma kidev
oskar Slemeri, romelmac jer kidev 1916 wels ganaviTara          ufro daamZimes saerTo foni. miuxedavad amisa, 1933 wlamde
sakuTari `triaduli baletis~ pirveli monaxazi da Semdgom         cekva Tavisi gziT ganagrZobda ganviTarebas. mari vigmans, gret
1925 wels igi bauhausSi warmoadgina. axali principi – formis,   palukas, valeska gertsa da sxvebs jer kidev hyavdaT TavianTi
ferisa da sivrcis damokidebuleba moZrav sxeulTan                mayurebeli. regularulma e. w. `mocekvaveTa kongresebma~
daupirispirda mari vigmanis fsiqologiur gamoxatulebas.          Caatares Tanamedrove cekvis warmomadgenelTaTvis pirveli
SlemerisaTvis mTavari moZraoba sivrceSi gaxldaT.                forumi. labanis skolam, romelic 1922 wlidan funqcionirebda
    Tanamedrove cekvis gavlena, zogadad, imdenad gaZlierda,     hamburgSi da sadac k. iosi da albreht kunsti swavlobdnen
rom klasikurma baletmac ki ganicada saxecvlileba. mas           safuZveli Cauyara muSaobas moZrav adamianTa gundebTan, romelic
sWirdeboda axali gzebi, imisaTvis rom SezRuduli, moZvelebuli    xSirad wamyvani qoreografebis improvizaciaze iyo agebuli.
rutinidan gaTavisuflebuliyo. eqspresionistuli cekva gaxda       am formam didi gamoxmaureba hpova germaniaSi. moZravi jgufebi
tradiciuli baletisaTvis erTgvari katalizatori. mocekvaveebi     warmoiqmna mraval adgilas. politikurma partiebma da
da qo reo gr afebi, ro mlebi c l aba nis a da vig manis         dajgufebebma gamoiyenes es mimdinareoba, rogorc gamoxatvis
skoladamTavrebulni iyvnen TeatrSi dafuZndnen. pirveli iyo       Sesaferisi da gavleniani forma TavianTi RonisZiebebisa da
kurt iosi, romelic 1924 wlidan 1930 wlamde berlinis             demonstraciebis gasaformeblad. am mimdinareobam Tavisi
operisa da baletis TeatrSi moRvaweobda. mas mohyva mravali      gamoxatva 1936 wels berlinis olimpiadaze gamarTul masobriv
sxva, Tumca TiTqmis verc erTi dasi TeatrSi ver gaxda bolomde    RonisZiebebSi hpova.
`Tanamedrove~.                                                      mraval qoreografsa Tu mocekvaves swamda, rom maTi xelovneba
    kurt ioss swamda formebisa da wesebis saWiroebis – misi     sruliad apolitikuri iyo da momaval faSizmTan araferi
naSromebi misive drois interpretaciebia da maT araferi aqvT     akavSirebda. magram cekva – rogorc yvela sxva xelovnebis
saerTo fsiqologiur, individualur gamomsaxvelobasTan. misTvis    forma – ostaturad iqna gamoyenebuli mTavrobis mier. mravali
politikur gancxadebebsac ar hqonda didi mniSvneloba. misTvis    mocekvave, romelic Tavis namuSevars warmoadgenda ver xvdeboda
zogadad `adaminauris~ gamosaxva iyo mniSvnelovani. igi          vis emsaxureboda. is vinc ar jdeboda mTavrobis mier dadgenil
safuZvlad labanis formalur enas iyenebda. misma dadgmam         standartebSi ganwiruli iyo izolaciisaTvis. sacekvao cxovreba
`mwvane magida~ gaxada is da misi dasi msoflioSi cnobili. es    germaniaSi destruqturizebuli gaxda. berlinis 1936 wlis
erTaderTi dadgmaa im droidan, romelic exlac xSirad idgmeba.     olimpiadis Semdeg cekvis skolebs, qoreografebsa da dasebs
22                                                                                                                             23
                                                                                            baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze
nele hertlingi                                                                         cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

axali wesebi da struqturebi dauweses. mravali xelovani             magaliTze baletis skolad gadakeTda. man bolos da bolos
iZulebuli gaxda emigraciaSi wasuliyo. Tumca, bevrs movlenebis      germaniis demokratiul respublikaSi im droisaTvis did
aseTi ganviTareba ar gauTvaliswinebia. isini gaerTiandnen          kompromiss miaRwia: klasikuri baleti da eqspresionistuli
organizaciebsa da struqturebSi, romlebic maT mxars uWerdnen.       cekva erTmaneTis gverdigverd iswavleboda. am skolis
Tavidan vigmansa da labansac aseve gulubryvilod swamdaT            moswavleTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli gaxda klasikuri baletis
TavianTi damoukideblobis. Tumc 1937 wels labanma dakarga           zedmiwevniT siRrmiseuli codna iseve, rogorc maTi SemoqmedebiTi
yvela funqcia da moqmedebis Tavisufleba. mari vigmanma, romelsac   unarebis ganviTareba aratradiciul cekvaSi. 1989 wlidan dRemde
aseve swamda, rom germaniaSi moRvaweobis gagrZelebas SeZlebda      skola sTavazobs Tavis mowafeebs Tanamedrove ganaTlebas. gret
1935 wels dakarga yvelanairi finansuri mxardaWera. misma           paluka 1993 wels gardaicvala.
rwmenam _ piradi da individualuri pasuxismgeblobisa _                   omis dasasrulTan da faSizmis damarcxebasTan erTad cekvas
SeuZlebeli gaxada faSistebTan muSaoba. mas jer kidev gaaCnda       axali xana daudga. faSistebis dafinansebis wyalobiT germanuli
sakuTari skola drezdenSi, sadac is axal solo dadgmebze             eqspresionistuli cekva im droisaTvis cudi saxeliTa da
muSaobda da sul ufro da ufro axdenda sakuTar Tavze                 reputaciiT sargeblobda. mravali emigrirebuli Semoqmedi
koncentrirebas. Tumca 1942 wels man Tavi daaneba muSaobas          daviwyebas mieca. axladgaxsnil saopero TeatrebSi mniSvnelovani
da skola datova. yvela TavTavianTi gziT wavida. herald             sabaleto dasebi cdilobdnen im Tanamedrove repertuaris
kroicbergi Tavis dadgmebs omis dasasrulamde warmoadgenda.          SemuSavebasa da warmodgenas, romelic faSistebis mier warsulSi
gret paluka Tavidan Zalzed dafasebuli iyo faSistebis mxridan,      akrZaluli iyo. es repertuari moicavda stravinskis, bartoks,
Tavi si     optimisturi        s tilisa      da     dinamiuri      verner egks, boris blaSers, volfgang fortners, h. v. hences da
sicocxlisunarioanobis gamo, magram 1936 wels isic gadaiqca         a. S. berlinSi jer germaniis saxelmwifo operaSi, xolo Semdgom
problemad – damoukidebeli, individualuri da Zalzed mWidrod         germanul operaSi moRvaweoba daiwyo qoreografma tatiana
gadabmuli bauhausis warmomadgenlebTan. igi iZulebuli gaxda         gsovskim. t. gsovksi aisidora dunkanis mowafe da heleraus
skola daetovebina, magram mas mainc gamosdioda SemdgomSi           skoladamTavrebuli gaxldaT. 1924 wels igi ruseTidan
SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba.                                             berlinSi gadasaxlda, rogorc emigranti da mis meuRlesTan
    `cekvaze muSaoba – es aris Tematuri masalis ganviTareba        viqtorTan erTad 1928 wels, amave qalaqSi, sabaleto skola
musikasTan mimarTebaSi. amis Sedegad warmoiqnmneba ormagi          daaarsa. igi muSaobda boris blaSerTan erTad. es TanamSromloba
erTianoba – es CemTvis axali cekvaa~. klasikuri cekvis yvela       axal dadgmebSi gadaizarda, romlebsac solo mocekvave herd
pirobiTobisagan Tavisufali paluka cdilobda emociuri                reinholmi RirSesaniSnav movlenebad aqcevda. t. gsovskim
gamomsaxvelobisaTvis moZraobis xarisxis misadagebas. mas ar        angaJireba gaukeTa jer sruliad axalgazrda gerhard booners,
surda yofiliyo graciozuli baletis mocekvave. mas surda             romelic mTeli weli operis sabaleto dasSi cekvavda, sanam
adamianuri emociebis gamoxatva. igi ar yveboda amiT konkretuli     qoreografad daiwyebda moRvaweobas.
adamianis istorias – is mxolod da mxolod grZnobebsa da                  omis dasrulebisTanave pedagogoba mari vigmanmac daiwyo.
ganwyobilebebs gamoxatavda.                                        jer 1948 wels laifcgSi, xolo 1950 wlidan gardacvalebamde
    omis dasrulebisTanave palukam kvlav daiwyo drezdenSi           studiaSi _ dasavleT berlinSi. vigmanma, romelic labanis
pedagogoba. pirvelad TviTdafinansebaze kerZo darbazebSi. 1949      skoladamTavrebuli iyo didi xnis win uaryo tradicia, romlis
wels palukas skola zaqsebis mTavrobam oficialurad aRiara           mixedviTac musikas Tan mosdevs moZraoba. man daiwyo musikis
da Tavis mmarTvelobis qveS moaqcia. ormocdaaTian wlebSi            gareSe cekva. Semdeg dasartyami instrumenti misi mTavri
palukas protestis miuxedavad es skola sabWoTa kavSiris             partniori gaxda – siCumesTan mudmiv cvalebadobaSi. misi
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                                                                                           baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze
nele hertlingi                                                                        cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

karieris dasrulebis Semdeg, igi jgufur dadgmebs uwevda           warmoadgenda. miuxedavad amisa yvelgan klasikuri baleti
qoreografias. aseTi gaxldaT karl orfis `karmina burana~.         mefobda. dora hoieri Tavis Tavs erTaderT radikalur
misma 1957 wlis stravinskis `wminda gazafxulis” inscenirebam     mocekvaved da qoreografad Tvlida. `Cems kolegebs me amis
germanul operaSi didi gamoxmaureba hpova. miuxedavad amisa,      gamo vZulvar~! `omis Semdgomi germaniis yvela mocekvavis
mari vigmanmac ver SeZlo germanuli eqspresionistuli              gverdiT dora hoieri warmogvidgeba yvelaze Zlier pirovnebad.
cekvisaTvis didi mniSvnelobis miniWeba.                          misi xelovneba Tanamedrovea – xelovnuri paTosisa da snobizmis
    mari vigmanis `msxverplSewirvaSi~ mTavar rolSi berlinis      gareSe. igi sakuTari cekviT amtkicebs, rom cxovrebiseul formebs
germanul operaSi, gamoCnda dora hoieri. igi iTvleba yvelaze      sazRvrebi gaaCniaT, magram energias ara. dora hoieri aris
mniSvnelovan solo mocekvaved ocdaaTiani, samociani wlebis        evropuli masStabis pirovneba da es sxva xelovnebis formebSi
germaniaSi. kritikosebi mis xelovnebas pikasosa da kandinskis    Zalzed iSviaTad gvxvdeba~. miuxedavad amisa, miuxedavad
adareben. im martivi mizezis gamo, rom cekvis xelovneba ise ar   warmatebuli turneebisa argentinasa da braziliaSi misi mZime
iyo yuradRebiT ganebivrebuli, rogorc saxviTi xelovneba, es       da arastabiluri cxovreba naklebad Siecvala. dora hoieri
Sedareba sajarod TvalsaCino ar iyo. dora hoiermac sakuTari       ambobs: `mayurebels surs bedniereba da sicili. Cemi cekva ki
SemoqmedebiTi gza tanvarjiSis skolidan daiwyo. 1930 wels         mwuxarebas gamoxatavs. me ar var im mdgomareobaSi rom
igi gret palukasTan Seecada muSaobas, magram am droisaTvis       `bedniereba~ vicekvo. ratom unda davaZalo adamianebs gaxdnen
igi ukve sakuTari dadgmebiT iyo dainteresebuli. `ratom           Cemi mimdevrebi. me vwyvet muSaobas~. sakuTar dadgmebSi man mari
vcekvav? – imitom rom me Cemi sxeuliT, moZraobiT SemiZlia        vigmans didi xnis win gauswro. energia da Tanamedroveoba masTan
raime gamovxato. moZraoba, rogorc saSualeba, rogorc masala       mudmivad igrZnoba da es xdis mas ase Zliers. man sxeuli axal
imisaTvis rom idea, procesi TvalsaCino gaxado~. igi yovelTvis    formebad aqcia – sxeuli misTvis formirebis instrumentia.
SemoqmedebiTi procesiT iyo dainteresebuli. amis Sedegad mas          1962 wels dora hoieri muSaobas iwyebs did ciklze
mudmivad hqonda finansuri problemebi. Tumca is yovelTvis         spinozas mixedviT, saxelad - `afeqtors humanos~. pativmoyvareoba,
poulobda gamosavals. zogjer igi mari vigmanis studiaSi an        qedmaRloba, sixarbe, siZulvili, siyvaruli. es misi erTaderTi
mis dasSi muSaobda. misma mzardma popularobam mas uamravi        namuSevaria, romelic firze iqna gadatanili. SemdegSi igi
mowveva moutana mTeli msofliodan. miuxedavad amisa, samuSao      gavlenian namuSevrad iqca, romelic SemdgomSi Seiswavla da
pirobebi misTvis germaniaSi katastrofuli gaxldaT.                gadaakeTa palukas mowafe anila sigertma da vigmanis mowafe
    omis dasrulebisTanave dora hoiersac imedi gauCnda, rom       suzan liuhem.
drezdenSi gaagrZelebda moRvaweobas. mas swamda, rom SeZlebda         sasowarkveTilma dora hoierma 1967 wels TviTmkvlelobiT
axali sazogadoebisa da axali cekvis Seqmnas emigraciidan         daasrula sicocxle.
dabrunebul moRvaweebTan erTad. Tumca germaniis demokratiuli          suzan linke Tanamedrove cekvaSi omisSemdgomi periodis
respublikisaTvis igi zedmetad `personaluri~, Zalzed              Taobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi figuraa. mis SemoqmedebiT
individualuri aRmoCnda. amis Sedegad igi dasavleT germaniaSi     gzaze Tavisi kvali datova bavSvobaSi gadatanilma rTulma
gadavida. aqac samuSao pirobebi iseTi SemoqmedisaTvis, rogorc    avadmyofobam, romlis Sedegad mas smena da metyveleba
dora hoieri iyo araxelsayreli aRmoCnda: naklebi mayurebeli,      sagrZnoblad dauqveiTda. mis cnobierebas mZime daRi daasva
naklebi sivrce, mwiri interesi.                                  fsiqiatriul klinikaSi gatarebulma drom. maswavlebelTa da
    dora hoieri ibrZoda – werda, rom yvelas Tavisi movaleoba     megobarTa mxardaWeriT man gamosavali hpova moZraobasa da
Seesrulebina. mis movaleobas mari vigmanis xelovnebis            cekvaSi. didi saxaruliT mivida igi berlinSi mdebare mari
ganviTareba, cekvis xelovnebis mis fesvebTan daaxloeba           vigmanis skolaSi. aq man moZraoba iswavla, romelic sxeuls
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nele hertlingi                                                                        cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

sivrcesTan akavSirebs da iswavla is, rom teqnikis miuxedavad       sagans qalis socialuri pozicia warmoadgenda. 1991 wlidan
cekvaSi mTavari mainc is aris, rac mocekvavis Sinagani arsebidan   suzanisaTvis, rogorc jgufuri dadgmebis qoreografisaTvis,
gamomdinareobs. es aris sxeulis, sulisa da gonebis erTianoba       axali epoqa daiwyo. 1994-1997 wlebSi igi berlinis cekvis
– mcireoden moZraobaSic ki. swored es iswavla mari vigmanisgan     Teatrs xelmZRvanelobda, qmnida erTobliv namuSevrebs mis
suzan linkem. 19 wlisam man dora hoieri ixila, romelic             partnior ditrihTan erTad da muSaobda sxva dasebis magaliTad
misTvis momavalSi samagaliTo gaxda.                                niu iorkis, parizis operisa da niderlandebis cekvis Teatris
    vigmanis skolaSi sami wlis swavlis mere, suzan linke           dasis qoreografad. 1997 wlidan man mTels msoflioSi
mixvda, rom misi teqnikuri SesaZleblobebi ar iyo sakmarisi         damoukideblad daiwyo muSaoba da pedagogoba.
da igi esenSi folkvangSuleSi gadavida, sadac jer kidev                 1998 wels suzan linke muSaobda qoreografad folkvangSules
aswavlida kurt iosi Tavis qaliSvilTan ana markardTan erTad.        droindel kolega rainhild hofmanTan duetze `jvris Tavze~,
    kurt iosma germania 1933 wels datova. mas ar surda             romelic hebelis TeatrSi daidga. es warmoadgens garkveul
Tavisi ebraeli kolegebi mietovebina. igi samxreT inglisis          qoreografiul dapirispirebas istoriasa da cekvis aqtiur
qalaq dartingtonSi gadavida, sadac man Tavisi yofili               pozicias Soris – cekvis mkacr `mamamTavrebze~ labansa da
maswavlebeli labani dapatiJa. man sigurd seedesTan erTad           iosze. igi warmoaCens saerTo fesvebs, magram aseve Zireul
folkvangSuleSi gamomuSavebuli koncefcia inglisSi Camoitana         esTetikur gansxvavebebs. hofmani, rogorc struqturuli
da 1949 wlamde iq muSaobda. mis uamrav mowafeTa Soris arian        sivrculi daZabuloba da saxiereba, xolo linke, rogorc zustad
pina bauSi da rainhild hofmani. kurt iosi, romelic ormocdaaT       modulirebuli energiis dineba.
weliwadze meti qoreografad da pedagogad muSaobda germanuli             suzan linkeze damatebiT unda iTqvas, rom man dora hoieris
Tanamedrove cekvis umniSvnelovanes figurad iTvleba. cneba          `afeqtos humanos~-is premieridan 25 wlis Semdeg moaxdina am
`cekvis Teatri~ labanis SemuSavebulia. Tumc iosma es cneba         qmnilebis gadakeTeba. es iyo qmnileba, romelmac masze didi
gadaasxvafera. samocdaaTian wlebSi ukan dabrunebulma emigrantma    gavlena moaxdina. mas surda amiT dora hoieris, rogorc
Seqmna gza cekvis Teatris ganviTarebisaTvis. iosi iyo pirveli      Tanamedrove cekvis mniSvnelovani memkvidris gaxseneba. 1993
qoreografTagani, romelic sakuTari dadgmebisaTvis socialur          wels man analogiurad gaixsena iseTi mniSvnelovani germaneli
da politikur Temebs irCevda. `cekva adamianuri yofis               qoreografi, rogoric iyo gerhard booneri da misi qmnileba
gamomxatvelia, adamianis SemoqmedebiTi bunebis manifestaciaa~.     `dialogi g. b. -sTan~.
    rodesac suzan linke folkvangSuleSi mivida, iq ukve                 magram modiT davubrundeT rainhild hofmans, romelic 1965
folkvangis sacekvao studias pina bauSi xelmZRvanelobda.            wels folkvangSuleSi kurt iosis mowafe gaxldaT. 1970
misgan Seiswavla linkem grZnobisa da formis koordinacia.           wels bremenSi igi gawevrianda ansamblSi mocekvave iohanis
man aseve iswavla, rom yvelaze mniSvnelovani sizustea. aq          saxeliT. rogorc folksvangSules sacekvao studiis
suzan linke Tavisi Sinagani samyarodan gamomdinare muSaobas        xelmZRvanelma (suzan linkesTan erTad) man 1974 wels daiwyo
Seudga. man daiwyo iseTi piraduli Temebis damuSaveba, rogorebic    sakuTari dadgmebis ganxorcieleba. 1978 wels igi bremenis
misTvis sakuTari avadmyofoba, dardi da SiSi gaxldaT. teqnikuri     cekvis Teatris xelmZRvaneli (gerhard boemerTad erTad) gaxda.
ostatoba aucilebelia, magram igi TviTmizani ar unda gaxdes         paralelurad igi xelmZRvanelobda sakuTar dass. 1980 wels
– igi sulier da mentalur ganzomilebaSi unda gadavides.             suzan linke oTxi dadgmiT mii patiJes berlinis Teatralur
suzan linkes qmnilebebi xangrZlivi samuSao procesis Sedegia.       Sexvedraze. 1986 wels igi sakuTari ansambliT bohumis TeatrSi
    misma solo programebma saqveynod popularuli gaxada, magram     samuSaod gaemgzavra – ise, rogorc mogvianebiT saSa valci da
igi aseve qmnida uamrav jgufur dadgmas. misTvis interesis          tomas ostermaieri berlinis `SaubiuneSi~. 1996 wlidan igi
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                                                                                          baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze
nele hertlingi                                                                       cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

kvlav Tavisufali Semoqmedia, muSaobs rogorc qoreografi da        ganzomilebiani, agebuli ~kostiumebze~, romlebic moZraobaSi
dgams ZiriTadad operebs.                                         moyavT mocekvaveebs. proeqtis warmatebisa da gastrolebis
    rainhild hofmanma cekvidan gamomdinare ganaviTara sakuTari   Semdeg, booneri kvlav dakavda Slemeris gamocdilebebiT
stili. es stili folkvangSules tradiciidan momdinareobs           bauhausSi. pirvel rigSi es aisaxa mis solo warmodgenebSi
da upirispirdeba pina bauSisas, romelic Tavis qmnilebebSi        `momwifebuli cekva~ da `joxebiT cekva~. misi adreuli solo
Zlier Teatralur elementebs rTavs. Tumc rainhild hofmanic         cekvebi warmoadgens tradiciuli germanuli Teatraluri
isev da isev solo qmnilebebs ubrundeba – rogorc poziciis         struqturis winaaRmdeg galaSqrebas. es xels uSlida mas
ganmsazRvrel wertils. mas didi aRiareba moutana 1977 wlis        Teatris farglebSi emuSava da sakuTari esTetika ganeviTarebina.
dadgmam saxelad _ `solo taxtTan~. `me yovelTvis mindoda          mas ramdenime weli mkacrad hqonda gadawyvetili jer
Cemi grZnobebis cekviT gamoxatva. sxeulis enas verafriT          StutgartSi, Semdgom rainhild hofmanTan erTad, bremenSi
Caanacvleb.…sxeulis enas SeuZlia mudmivad ganviTardes            Tanamedrove cekvisaTvis rogorc xelovnebis formisaTvis
yoveldRiuri enidan~.                                             Tanabari aRiareba rom moetana, magram mzardi problemebis
    linke-hofmanis Taobas ekuTvnis gerhard booneric, romelic     gamo mas es ar gamouvida. amisaTvis jer Zalzed adre iyo.
                                                                 sakuTari dasis Senaxva booners ar SeeZlo, amitomac igi
radikalur gzas daadga da cekvisaTvis axali ganzomilebebi
                                                                 iZulebuli gaxda qoreografad emuSava.
gaxsna. booneric, romelmac 18 wlidan sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi
                                                                     amis Sedegad boonerma TandaTan daiwyo sazogadoebaSi
gza tanvarjiSis skolidan daiwyo, mari vigmanis mowafe gaxldaT.
                                                                 mocekvavis poziciisa da sakuTari ukve daberebuli sxeulisadmi
paralelurad igi dakavebuli iyo sakuTari teqnikis srulyofiT.
                                                                 damokidebulebis axal yaidaze interpretacia. umniSvnelovanesi
1960 wels tatiana gsovskim mas jer frankfurtSi, xolo Semdeg
                                                                 qmnileba, romelic am interpretaciis Sedegad warmoiSva aris
rogorc solo Semsrulebels berlinis germanul operaSi gauwia        sami xedva saxelad `oqros kveTa~. 1 da me-2-e mxatvrebTan
rekomendacia. gsovski – ruseTis sabaleto skolis eqspresionisti   erTad TanamSromlobaSi da i. s. baxis (kargad temperirebul
qoreografi miizida booneris inidividualurma gamomsaxvelobiTma    klaviri) musikaze Seqmnili, xolo me-3-e imave mxatvrebTan da
Zalam. booneri misi avangarduli Teatraluri dasis mniSvnelovani   kompozitor roland prenglesTan erTad Seqmnili JReradobis
wevri gaxda. Teatraluri dasi STagonebis wyarod literaturasa      moZraobaze reagirebis mcdeloba. `oqros kveTa~ booneris yvela
da musikas iyenebda. 1971 wels kompozitor gerhard humelTan       SemoqmedebiTi ideis erTobliobis Sedegia. arcerT germanel
erTad SemuSavebulma qmnilebam `beatrisas vnebani~ booneri        qoreografs ise radikalurad ar gauazrebia sxeulis, rogorc
saqveynod cnobili gaxda. gasaocarma warmatebam Tan moitana       instrumentis, sivrcis da scenaze martod arsebobis koncefcia,
dadgmebi milanSi (laskala), marselSi, miunhenSi, diuseldorfSi,   rogorc es gerhard boonerma gaiazra.
darmStadSi da bremenSi. qoreografia iyenebda Tanamedrove             rogorc g. boonerma moaxdina Slemeris qmnilebebis gadakeTeba
baletis umniSvnelovanes masalas iseve rogorc imdroindel          da sxva kuTxiT dagvanaxa `gadakeTebis~ sakiTxi, aseve miudga
saWirboroto socialur da politikur Tematikas.                     booneris axalgazrda kolega da megobari katalonieli
    oskar Slemeris qmnilebis intensiuri Seswavlis Semdeg,        qoreografi da mocekvave CeSi booneris sikvdilis Semdeg mis
romelmac bauhausSi axali, gamomsaxvelobiTi cekvis sapirispiro    dadgmas `oqros kveTa~. man moaxdina qmnilebis 1 da me-2-e
stili Seqmna, boonerma oskar Slemeris `triaduli baletis~         nawilis gadakeTba da SeZlo farTo mayureblisaTvis am qmnilebis
gadakeTebis grandiozuli proeqti wamoiwyo. igi daukavSirda        TviTmyofadobis Cveneba.
kompozitor ioahim hespers da mTeli qmnileba Caifiqra rogorc          verc gerhard boonerma da verc suzan linkem ver moikides
yvelafer aqamde gakeTebulisa da gaazrebulis erToblioba.          germanul TeatrSi fexi da ver monaxes myari, stabiluri adgili
`triaduli baleti~ aris seria kargad organizebuli, mraval-

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                                                                                          baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze
nele hertlingi                                                                       cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

TavianTi xelovnebis – cekvis xelovnebis ganviTarebisaTvis.       misi qmnilebebi Sinagani logikis mixedviT arian agebulni da
germanul Teatralur sistemaSi cekva isev baletis formiT           ara erTi raime ambavis irgvliv. `igi ufro imiTaa dainteresebuli,
iyo warmodgenili da ar gaaCnda, rogorc damoukidebel              Tu ra amoZravebT adamianebs, vidre imiT, Tu rogor moZraoben
xelovnebis formas, aranairi kulturul-politikuri zurgi,           isini~. 1996 wlidan S.p.s. `pina bauSis cekvis Teatri~
adekvaturi mayurebeli an sponsorebi. orive: boonerica da         damoukideblad funqcionirebs.
linkec, iZulebulni iyvnen ZiriTadad solo dadgmebze                   dResdReobiT pina bauSi iTvleba yvelaze RirSesaniSnav
gaekeTebinaT aqcenti an mudmivad dadgmebis SesaZleblobebis       cocxal qoreografad. aRuniSnavi ar unda darCes iohanes kresniki,
damTrgunvel da meryev ZebnaSi yofiliyvnen. xelovnebis akademia   romelsac Zalzed gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia. rogorc
im drois erT-erT xelze CamosaTvlel dawesebulebaTagani            mocekvavem, man jer berlinSi, xolo Semdeg 1960-68 wlebSi
gaxldaT, romelmac am axal xelovanT xeli gaumarTa.                kiolnSi, daiwyo qoreografoba. 1968-78 wlebSi igi jer bremenSi,
    sxvanairad gaxldaT pina bauSis saqme. man ganaTleba          xolo 1979-88 wlebSi kurt hiubneris angaJirebiT haidelbergis
folkvangSuleSi kurt iosTan miiRo. 1960 wels igi DAAD-            cekvis Teatris xelmZRvaneli xdeba. 1989 wlidan igi kvlav
is sti pendiiT gaemgzavra niu iorkSi cnobil juliardis            bremenSia, sadac igi 1990 wels `ulrike mainhofs~ da 1992
skolaSi, sadac xose limoni da enton tiudori aswavlidnen.         wels `frida kalos~ dgams. 1994/95 wlebSi igi berlinis
paralelurad igi sxvadasxva dasSi muSaobda, magaliTad,            folksbiuneSi muSaobs, xolo 2003/2004 wlebSi Tavis ansamblTan
metropoliten operis sabaleto dasSi. 1962 wels igi ukan           erTad bonis TeatrSi miemgzavreba. mas Semdeg igi damoukideblad
esenSi dabrunda, rogorc solisti axlad daarsebul baletSi.         muSaobs sxvadasxva adgilebSi.
1968 wels man Tavisi pirveli qmnileba dadga. 1969-1973               kresniki dainteresebuli iyo samociani wlebis radikaluri
wlebSi igi folksvang studias xelmZRvanelobda, sadac misma        TamaSiT da aseTi ti pis Ria formebis sacekvao moedanze
qmnilebebma swrafi aRiareba moutanes. 1972 wels SesTavazes       gadmotaniT. igi pina bauSTan erTad 1967 wels warmoSobili
vupertalis saopero baletis xelmZRvaneloba, romelic man           `cekvis Teatris~ uxucesi warmomadgenelia. igi `cekvis Teatrs~
erTi pirobiT miiRo - SesaZlebloba eqneboda folkvangSules         Tavdapirvelad `qoreografiul Teatrs~ uwodebda. kresniki
mocekvaveebi moeyvana. am sabaleto dasidan daibada vupertalis    Tavisi xelovnebiT mudmiv dapirispirebaSi iyo kapitalizmisa
cekvis Teatri, romelmac pina bauSi samomavlod cnobili gaxada.    da korumpirebuli socializmis ganviTarebasTan. misi `sxeulebi~
man SeZlo, omisSemdgom germaniaSi SorsmWvreteli samxatvro        warmoadgenen politikuri da ekonomikuri sisastikis proeqciebs.
xelmZRvanelebis daxmarebiT Tanamedrove cekvisaTvis axali         `me yovelTvis im adamianebis biografiebi ufro mainteresebda,
sulis Caberva, misi axali SinaarsiT datvriTva da misTvis         romlebic sazogadoebasTan dapirispirebaSi iyvnen... yoveli Cemi
dakarguli aRiarebis dabruneba.                                   saRamo, amave dros, premieracaa. yoveli biografia asaxavs im
    miuxedavad amisa, pina bauSis radikaluri qmnilebebi          politikur struqturas, romelSic am adamianebs ucxovriaT,
mayurebelSi jer Soks iwvevda; mis mier bartokis operis           gatanjulan da gardacvlilan. me mainteresebs is Zala, romelic
`hercog blaubartis cixesimagris~ dadgmis dasasruls               am adamianebs gaaCndaT da am Zalis scenaze mayureblisaTvis
mayurebelma aRelvebulma datova Teatri. es wlebis ganmavlobaSi    gardaqmna.~ kurt iosis Semdeg kresnikTan cekvam yvelaze Zlieri
meordeboda. aTi weli dasWirda pina bauSs imisaTvis, rom          politikuri sarCuli SeiZina. sxeuli mis SemoqmedebaSi
TeatrSi Tavisi gaetana. miuxedavad imisa, rom misi qmnilebebi    instrumentad iqca. aseT radikalizmSi kresniki SeiZleba iTqvas
bevrs umadloda Tanamedrove cekvas, bauSma male ganaviTara        erTaderTia germaniaSi. mis qmnilebebs am radikalizmis miuxedavad
sakuTari stili – kolaJebi, suraTebi realurisa da irealuris       TavianTi mniSvneloba ar daukargavT.
zRvarze – mravali paraleluri moqmedebebiTa da gameorebebiT.
32                                                                                                                              33
                                                                                              baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze
nle hertlingi                                                                            cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

    omis Semdgom germaniaSi, rogorc yvelgan aseve berlinSic             maT Soris yvelaze cnobilia saSa valci. jer amsterdamSi,
baleti saopero saxlebSi swrafad ganviTarda. pirvelad                Semdgom ki niu iorkSi swavlis Semdeg, igi Camovida ukan evropaSi
saxelmwifo operasa da komikur operaSi Semdeg, tatiana gsovskis      da 1993 wels berlinSi sakuTari dasi saxelad `saSa valci da
germanul operaSi gadanacvlebiT axali era daiwyo. valter             stumrebi~ daarsa. mis partniorTan, iohen sandigTan erTad, 1996
felsenStainis komikur operaSi, romelsac misma realisturma           wlis Sua xanebSi man SeZlo, berlinSi dacarielebuli darbazebi
dadgmebma saerTaSoriso aRiareba moutana, SeeZlo tom Silings         daekavebina da iq mokle xanSi mimzideveli, Tanamedrove, dinamiuri
Tavisi sakuTari sabaleto ena da esTetika ganeviTarebina. es iyo     programis Seqmna jer `travelonis trilogiiT~, romelic man
aseve is adgili, sadac palukas yofilma mowafem anila ziigertma,     gastrolebze waiRo da Semdgom `kosmonavtebis xeivaniT~,
rogorc solo mocekvavem da qoreografma, misi Zalzed                  `cvailand 97-iT~ da mravali sxva dadgmiT, romlebzec moTxovna
individualuri da Seudarebeli sacekvao enisaTvis sivrce da           dResac ar klebulobs.
mayurebeli SeiZina. anila ziigertic germanuli Tanamedrove cekvis        rodesac 1999 wels iurgen SiThelma axalgazrda reJisori
tradiciis pirmSo gaxldaT. isic, rogorc solo Semsrulebeli,           tomas ostermaieri germanuli Teatridan `Saubiunes~ samxatvro
dora hoieris zegavlenas ganicdida. suzan linkes msgavsad manac      xelmZRvanelad mii patiJa saSa valcma igi daarwmuna imaSi, rom
moaxdina `afeqtos humanos~ sakuTar yaidaze gadakeTeba.              samxatvro xelmZRvanelis movaleobani nawilobriv masac
    rTuli da mudam mocekvaveTa TviTeqspluataciaze                   dakisreboda. es iyo struqtura, romlis analogic rainhild
damyarebuli cekvis ganviTareba biZgs aZlevs axalgazrda jgufs,       hofmanma bohumis TeatrSi ukve gamoscada – TamaSi da cekva,
amerikel Jaklin karlisa da diter haiTkampis TaosnobiT sxva          rogorc Tanasworni, erTamneTis gverdigverd unda yofiliyo
angaJirebul mocekvaveebTan erTad, berlinSi cekvis fabrika           warmodgenili. saSa valcisaTvis es gamowveva iyo. berlinis
daarson. Ria mxardaWeris gareSe, TviTdafinansebaze myof             mcire darbazebidan Saubiunes didi scenaze. man aq ramdenime
fabrikaSi iqmneba axali dadgmebi da grovdeba didi gamocdileba.      Zalzed warmatebuli dadgma ganaxorciela magaliTad `sxeuli~,
cekvis fabrikam, romelic dResac arsebobs cekvis centrisa da         `S~, `aravin~ da a. S. es qmnilebebi bevrgan iqna naCvenebi, magram
skolis saxeliT berlini TandaTanobiT mocekvaveTa da                  cekvis msaxiobobasTan SeTavsebam aqac kraxi ganicada. Teatrisa
qoreografTaTvis mTeli msofliodan mizidulobis wertilad               da cekvis samuSao pirobebi Zalzed gansxvavebulia da Teatri
aqcia. Seiqmna mravali axali adgili, iniciativa, festivali,         mainc dominant elementad rCeba, romelic cekvas sakuTar wesebs
saganmanaTeleblo SemoTavazeba.                                      karnaxobs. valcma da sandigma am mdgomareobidan Tamami
    samociani wlebis dasasrulidan mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs        gamosavali ipoves da maRali riskis miuxedavad, Zvel musikalur
dasavleT berlinis xelovnebis akademia, romelic yovelwliuri          ansamblTan erTad, ostbanhofze axal adgils saxelad
festivaliT P.M.T.T. berlinelebs saSualebas aZlevs gaecnon           `radialsistema~ Cauyares safuZveli. maT Cven mxolod warmateba
Tanamedrove qoreografiisa da cekvis ganviTarebas –                  SegviZlia vusurvoT.
gansakuTrebiT ki aSS-Si. 1988 wlidan es funqcia SeiTavsa                amasobaSi cekvam da misma potencialma qveynis masStabiT
hebelis Teatrma festivaliT `cekva agvistoSi~. ase myardeboda        aRiareba moipova. axalma pirobebma, moTxovnebma da gansakuTrebiT
saerTaSoriso kontaqtebi da kavSirebi, rac berlinis sacekvao         `germaniis cekvis gegmam~ dagvanaxa, rom cekvam, rogorc
asparezze sakuTar gavlenas axdenda. ase SeeZloT xelovanT            damoukidebelma xelovnebis formam, bolos da bolos moi pova
berlinSi fexis mokideba, xangrZlivad muSaoba da dasebis             damsaxurebuli aRiareba.
daarseba. magaliTad, ase Camoyalibdnen rubalo, konstance makrosi,
tomas selemeni da mravali sxva, romlebic axla ukve arc erT                                                   Targmani: Tamar lolua
saerTaSoriso cekvis festivals ar akldebian.
34                                                                                                                                  35
kultura da politika                                                      stiv osteni

                           kulturis roli evropis gaerTianebis
                                      procesSi


                          `neba miboZeT gavimeoro: evropa ar aris damyarebuli mxolod
                      bazarze, igi aseve emyareba Rirebulebebsa da kulturas. neba
                      miboZeT erTi piradi SeniSvnac gavakeTo: RirebulebaTa ierarqiaSi,
                      kulturuli Rirebulebebi ekonomikurze maRla dgas. Tu
                      ekonomika Cveni cxovrebisaTvis saWiroebas warmoadgens, kultura
                      is elementia, romlisTvisac saerTod Rirs cxovreba.
                          evrokavSiri Tavisi istoriis im etapzea, rodesac misi
                      kulturuli ganzomileba aRar SeiZleba darCes yuradRebis
                      miRma.~
                          am sityvebiT mimarTa presasa da auditorias hose manuel
                      barozom, evrokomisiis prezidentma 2004 wlis dekemberSi
                      berlinis pirvel konferenciaze `evropis sulisTvis~.
                          mas Semdeg, evrokomisiam mravali iniciativis saSualebiT
                      popularizacia gaukeTa ideas, rom evropeloba, rogorc aseTi,
                      SeiZleba ganviTardes mxolod kulturuli qmedebis Sedegad.
                      es idea TavisTavad ar aris axali.
                          adreul wlebSi, moqalaqeobis sakiTxi, rogorc adamianis
                      uflebaTa danergvis produqti ori politikuri blokis, e. w.
                      dasavlurisa da socialisturi arenis (sabWoTa kavSiris
                      CaTvliT), TanamSromlobis avangardSi idga. es sabolood
                      gadaizarda helsinkis xelSekrulebebSi da safuZveli Cauyara
                      konferencias usafrTxoebasa da TanamSromlobaze evropaSi
                      (CSCE). es ganviTareba – cnobili dResdReobiT, rogorc helsinkis
                      procesi, Seferxda omis Semdgom periodSi. mis aRdgenas
                      garkveuli dro dasWirda: evropul usafrTxoebaze konferenciis
                      idea sabWoTa xelmZRvanelobam ormocdaaTian wlebSi wamoayena.
                          1960-ian wlebamde Crdilo atlantikuri bloki (NATO)
                      uars acxadebda Semdgom molaparakebebze. nato iTxovda iseTi
                      humanitaruli sakiTxebis wamoWras rogorebicaa magaliTad:
                      adamianebisa da informaciis Tavisufali dineba aRmosavleT
                      blokSi. im dros adamianis ufelebebi zogadad ar iyo
36                                                                                 37
stiv osteni                                                                             kulturis roli evropis gaerTianebis procesSi

prioritetuli. maTi roli uSualod procesis mimdinareobasTan        araformaluri Sekrebis farglebSi, saxelad mweralTa
erTad 1973 wlis Semdeg izrdeba.                                  araformaluri simpoziumi, bWobdnen msgavs Temebze mowveul
    lurj wignSi, romelic 1973 wlis ivlisis helsinkis             inteleqtualebTan erTad. rasakvirvelia am or Sekrebas mohyva
konsultaciebis daskvniT rekomendacias warmoadgens, miTiTebuli    ideaTa mravlismomtani gacvla. sabolood grasi iZulebuli
iyo sami ZiriTadi sakiTxis: usafrTxoebis, ekonomikisa da         gaxda uari eTqva sakuTar SemoTavazebaze, romelic a.S.S.-sa da
humanitarul e. w. `kalaTebSi~ organizeba.                        rumineTis mier dadebulma vetom dabloka.
    helsinkis daskvniTi aqtis `kalaTebis~ Tanasworuflebianobam       aman, yvela procesSi Cabmul xelovansa da politikoss
kultura politikuri barierebis gadalaxvis saSualebad              uCvena, rom ideaTa gacvla erTi saqmea, xolo praqtikuli da
warmoadgina. kulturas nel-nela mieca saSualeba Camosuliyo        novatoruli SemoTavazebebis danergva ki meore. miuxedavad
ideologiuri platformidan da ufro praqtikuli mcneba               aseTi gamocdilebisa, xelovanebs ar SeuwyvetiaT swrafva TavianTi
gamxdariyo. aman saSualeba misca mzard samoqalaqo moZraobas      miznebisaken. maT ubralod am procesidan politikosebi
ganemtkicebina samoqalaqo da adamianis uflebebi uSualod          gamoTiSes.
politikur procesSi CareviT da misi aRmavali miRwevebis               ase Caeyara safuZveli mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom xelovanebs,
mxardaWeriT.                                                     inteleqtualebsa da kulturis dawesebulebebs, politikuri
    xelovanebma da inteleqtualebma miiRes es daskvniTi aqti,     klasis Tanxmobis gareSec ki, SeuZliaT mravali ramis gakeTeba
rogorc maTi samoqalaqo, adamianisa da kulturuli uflebebis        samoqalaqo sazogadoebis gaZlierebisaTvis.
garantia da sazom erTeulad, am garantirebul uflebebTan               erT-erTi pirveli mcdeloba, am mosazrebis ganmtkicebisa,
mimarTebaSi, TavianTi imdroindeli mdgomareoba aiRes. aqedan      iyo 1987 wels amsterdamSi gamarTuli evropel xelovanTa
gamomdinare Semdogomi procesi ganisazRvra swored am uflebebis    forumi: `amsterdami, rogorc evropis kulturuli centri,
politikuri da moqalaqeobrivi ganmtkicebiT.                       momaval ideaTa xorcSesxmisaTvis~ farglebSi.
    sul ufro didi mniSvneloba SeiZina orma aspeqtma: pirveli,        giunter grasma miiRo miwveva mTeli evropidan mowveul
mtkice moqalaqeobrivi rwmenis saWiroeba da meore, kulturis       xelovanebTan da inteleqtualebTan erTad, raTa kidev erTxel,
mniSvneloba mSvidobiani gaerTianebisaTvis, romelic ara marto     ganexilaT misi budapeStis SeTavazeba, oRond amjerad
individebsa da qveynebs aaxloebs, aramed am daaxloebis gziT      politikosebis gareSe. es movlena, SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rogorc
yvelaze optimalur Sedegebs aRwevs.                               umniSvnelovanesi platforma msofliosaTvis kulturuli
    1985 wels konferenciam usafrTxoebasa da TanamSromlobaze      samyaros xmis misawvdenad. am platformas daerqva `guliveri~.
evropaSi, budapeStSi kulturuli forumi Caatara, romelic           igi warmoadgenda pirvel mcdelobas Camoyalibebuliyo evropuli,
gansazRvruli iyo imisaTivs, rom swori mimarTulebebi mieca        arasamTavrobo, araformaluri da damoukidebeli samuSao jgufi,
mesame `kalaTis~ ZalisxmevisaTvis da gamoenaxa evropel xalxTa    rogorc platforma, individualur evropel xelovanTa da
Soris kontaqtebisa da gacvlis gasaumjobesebeli gzebi. es         inteleqtualTa Soris, evropuli kulturis samomavlo
forumi gaxda umniSvnelovanesi etapi kulturis mniSvnelobis        sakiTxebze ideaTa gacvlisaTvis.
warmoCenisa politikur sferoSi.                                       wlebis ganmavlobaSi, `guliveri~ uzarmazar kulturul
    oficialur forumze, germaniis federaciuli respublikis         qselSi integrirebiT nel-nela gadaiqca saerTaSoriso
delegaciis spikerma, giunter grasma warmoadgina sakuTari         TanamSromlobis, gacvlisa da mobilobis progresul saSualebad.
mosazreba pan-evropuli kulturuli fondis daarsebisa raTa          es qseli erTmaneTs akavSirebs aramarto `guliveris~ wevrebs,
`adamianTa gonebaSi arsebuli sazRvrebis gaxsna~ momxdariyo.      aramed akavSirebs maT amsterdamTan, rogorc `feliqs meritis
paralelurad, misi kolegebi adgilobriv ludxanaSi                  fondis~ mudmivi saqmianobis adgilTan (1988 wlidan).
38                                                                                                                              39
stiv osteni

    am arasamTavrobo organizaciam gauswro `gulivers~, romelic
nela Seerwya iseTi maStabebis fonds, romelsac dasawyisSi veravin
ver warmoidgenda: namdvil evropul samoqalaqo sazogadoebas.
    uaxlesi mcdeloba helsinkis ideebis danergvisa aris
samoqalaqo iniciativa saxelad `evropis sulisaTvis~, romelmac
2004 wels daiwyo moRvaweoba. amjerad iniciatvia
politikosisagan, germaniis federaciuli respublikis yofili
prezidentis rihard fon vaiczekerisgan, wamovida.
    `evropis sulisaTvis~ iniciatorebis gansazRvrebiT:               xelovnebisa da socialur
evropuli procesi, igive kulturuli procesia. moqalaqeobis
cneba unda iyos wamyvani. im mware realobidan gamomdinare, rom
evrokavSiri ver gaxda warmatebuli gaerTianebis procesSi              mecnierebaTa fakultetis
moqalaqeobisa da kulturis, rogorc ZiriTadi elementis
popularizaciiT, isini iRwvian (helsinkis daskvniTi aqtis
suliskveTebi T) daakavSiron aRmaval i kulturuli                       samecniero konferenciis
mimdinareobebi politikuri taqtikis ganmsazRvrel daRmaval
procesebTan.
    `feliqs meritis fondis~ mxardaWeriTa da misi saxalxo
                                                                                  masalebi
qselis daxmarebiT, `evropis sulisaTvis~ iniciativas saSualeba
mieca xma miewvdina evropelTa axalgazrda TaobebisaTvis.
    mxolod ramdenime weliwadSi, inteleqtualebi, kulturis                       18 - 19 ivnisi 2008 weli
muSakebi, mecnierebi, xelovanebi, moswavleebi da studentebi,
iseve, rogorc adgilobrivi da saerTaSoriso politikosebi
gaerTiandnen berlinis procesSi, imisaTvis rom stimuli miscen
momaval axalgazrda evropelebs TavianT xelSi aiRon Cveni
momavlis sadaveebi. amave dros isini propagandas uweven ideas,
romlis Tanaxmad, samoqalaqo sazogadoebam unda Camoayalibos
da zegavlena moaxdinos politikuri strategiis SemuSavebaze,         saorganizacio jgufi:
imisaTvis rom evropa wevr saxelmwifoTa kavSiridan gardaiqmnas
wevr saxelmwifoTa da moqalaqeTa kavSirad. evropis moqalaqeTa,      sruli profesorebi - levan xeTaguri, vasil kiknaZe,
kulturul organizaciaTa da xelovanTa sakuTrebaSi gadacema           nato gengiuri.
kvlav unda iqces wamyvan prioritetad.                              asocirebuli profesorebi - lamara RonRaZe, giorgi
                                                                   CarTolani, nino mxeiZe, rusudan mircxulava
                             amsterdami, 2008 wlis dekemberi.

                                        Targmani: Tamar lolua


40                                                                                                                      41
Teatrmcodneoba                                                 Tamar bokuCava,
                                                      asocirebuli profesori

                  Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis
                     Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~

                      Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~, piesaSi, romelic
                 antikuri da Sua saukuneebis miTologiisa da literaturis
                 TemaTa da motivTa ucnaur sinTezs gvTavazobs, mTvarisa da
                 Ramis Tematikasa da simbolikas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba.
                 originalSi piesas `Sua zafxulis sizmari hqvia~. nawarmoebis
                 saTauri mis ZiriTad teqstTan mimarTebaSi erTgvari gzamkvlevisa
                 da gasaRebis mniSvnelobas iZens. erTi SexedviT, saTauri
                 moqmedebis droze migvaniSnebs. Sua zafxuli zodiaqaluri
                 wris kirCxibis monakveTs Seesabameba. kirCxibis zodiaqos
                 mmarTveli planeta mTvarea. iTvleba, rom Seqspirs ocdaoTxi
                 ivnisis Rame hqonda mxedvelobaSi, romelic mraval qveyanaSi
                 saswaulTa Ramed iTvleba da ivanes Ramed iwodeba. MTumca,
                 nawarmoebis teqstis Tanaxmad, Tezevsisa da ipolitas saqorwilo
                 dResaswauli maisis dasawyisSi, kerZod, pirvel maiss ewyoba.
                 pirveli maisis dResaswauli dRis zeimi iyo da, Sesabamisad,
                 dRisiT imarTeboda. ratom dasWirda dramaturgs moqmdebis
                 ormagi drois Semotana? ra aris es _ Secdoma Tu uzustoba?
                 Tumca, vfiqrob, Seqspirma es ganzrax gaakeTa da amiT drois
                 cnebis orgvari gageba SemogvTavaza.
                     paul tilixi erTmaneTs drois or cnebas upirispirebs,
                 qronossa da qaiross. qronosi istoriuli, linearuli droa,
                 movlenaTa Tanmimdevrobis adgili. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qronosi
                 neitraluri, TavisTavadi, distanciuri droa. sxvagvaria qairosi,
                 sazrisiani, mniSvnelobis matarebeli dro, xdomilebaTa momenti,
                 romelic Tavis TavSi viTarebis ganmsazRvrel, mis maregulirebel
                 Zalas Seicavs. swored aseTi dro udgebaT moqmedebis gmirebs,
                 dro, romelic kalendarul droze dominirebs da mas damatebiT
                 sazriss aniWebs. es magiuri droa, saswaulTa Rame. misi dadgoma
                 samyaros ZalTa farul kanonzomierebas eqvemdebareba. swored
                 amitom sWirdeba Seqspirs moqmedebasTan mTvaris simbolikis
                 dakavSireba, saxecvalebadi planetisa, romlis fazebi drois
42                                                                           43
                                                                                              Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis
Tamar bokuCava                                                                                       Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~


msvlelobas gansakuTrebuli sazrisiT datvirTul mniSvnelobas          niSnulad gardaiqmneba.Pqorwineba erTgvari zavia, kavSiri,
aniWebs da romelsac adamianTa miTologiur cnobierebaSi              romelic or opoziciur mnaTobs Soris ideba.
mravalnairi mniSvneloba da rwmena-warmodgena ukavSirdeba.              Tezevsis teqstidan SevityobT, rom i polita man brZoliTa
mTvares iseTi cnebebi Seesabameba, rogorebicaa qali, wyali,        da muqariT daimorCila, axla ki surs, rom yofili mtroba
nayofiereba, sikvdili, Rame, aracnobieri fsiqika da a. S. amave    mxiaruli qorwiliT daasrulos. ukve piesis dasawyisSive gvaqvs
dros, is cikluri procesebis, ganaxlebisa da maradiuli              mtroba-siyvarulis urTierTmonacvleobis Tema, romelic
dabrunebis simboloa. mTvare, Tavisi SuqiT ar anaTebs, is mzis      mogvianebiT elenesa da demetriusis wyvilsa da SeyvarebulTa
naTels ireklavs. egvi ptelma qurumebma mnaTobi rwmenis             Ramis Tavgadasavlebis peri petiebSi iCens Tavs. urTierTobebis
simbolod airCies, romelic mzis naTelis msgavsad, gamocxadebul      Tvisobrivi cvlileba, naxtomi, sikvdilis Temis siyvarulisa
WeSmaritebebs ireklavs. rogorc msoflio zRva, mTvare mzis           da ganaxlebis motiviT Secvla kvlavac mTvaris gamaerTianebeli
gamanayofierebel principebsac Seicavs, romlebsac eTerSi ganfens.   simbolikis SuqSia gaxveuli. mTvare piesaSi 28-jer aris naxsenebi
mzesa da mTvares Soris arsebuli kavSiri piesaSi umniSnelovanes     da gmirTa yvela jgufs Tu piesis yvela movlenas
rols TamaSobs da damatebiT, maT Soris erotikul sazrisebs           sxvadsxvagvarad ukavSirdeba. rogorc danawevrebuli da
iZens. moqmedebis ormagi droc 1 maisis dRis dResaswaulisa          orazrovani yofierebis paradoqsuli mTlianobis simbolo, mzis
da ivanes Ramis zeimis alogikuri SeerTebiT am kavSiris             naTebiT manaTobeli planeta, dRisa da Ramis gamaerTianebeli
gamoxatulebad SeiZleba miviCnioT. arsebobs mosazreba, rom          mogzauri, is movlenaTa Semkvreli faqtoris rols TamaSobs.
piesa romeliRac didgvarovani wyvilis qorwinebas mieZRvna.          mTvaris, rogorc momakvdavi da mkvdreTiT aRmdgomi planetis
zogierTi mkvlevaris mosazrebiT es adamianebi poetTa mfarveli       Tema dionise-osirisis dramatul Tavgadasavalsac gvaxsenebs.
qali lucia haringtoni da eduard raseli, bedfordis mesame           osirisi egviptur miTologiaSi mTvaris astrologiis simbolur
grafi unda yofiliyvnen, sxvaTa SexedulebiT ki mizezi uiliam        gansaxierebad gvevlineboda, misi sxeuli tifonma 14 nawilad
stenlis, graf derbis qorwineba iyo.                                daanawevra, rac milevadi da mzardi mTvaris 14 saxls Seesabameba.
    Tavad piesis CarCo-siuJeti Tezevsisa da i politas              mTvaris ambivalenturi buneba, misi dabadebis, sikvdilisa da
saqorwilo samzadisia. patriarqatis formirebam mraval qveyanaSi     Semdgomi Sobis fazebi tragedia-komediis ambivalenturi wyvilis
mzisa da mTvaris dualuri wyvilSi mamakacuri da qaluri              siRrmiseul erTianobasac ganasaxierebs.
funqciebi gansazRvra. mze mamakacur sawyissa da refleqsias             Tezevsis mier piesis dasawyisSi miTiTebuli mTvaris
daukavSira, mTvare _ warmosaxvas. mTvaris simbolikaSi misi         mdgomareoba Ramis mnaTobis mier ramdenime, kerZod mTvaris
ambivalenturobis, cvalebadobis, mzesTan ukuproporciuli             sami fazis gavlas Seesabameba. milevadi mTvare Savi mTvaris
kavSiris idea misi Sesatyvisi ricxviT - 2 gamoisaxeba, rac mis     fazaSi unda gadavides da Semdeg xelaxla daibados.Ees monakveTi
ganusazRvrelobasa da cvalebad bunebas aRniSnavs. piesis            mTvaris ciklSi yvelaze dramatulia da mTvaris gardacvalebas,
moqmedebaSi qronolgiur da miTologiur droebs Soris                  sulTa samyaroSi gadasvlasa da xelaxla dabadebas Seesatyviseba.
arsebuli gansxvaveba, maisidan ivlisis RameSi ganxorcielebuli      qorwilic swored axalmTvareobas aris daniSnuli, romelsac
naxtomi, piesis dasawyisSive Tezevsis molodiniT aris               ZvelTaganve miusadagebdnen xolme sxvadsxva ti pis sakulto
ganpirobebuli. Tezevsi Zveli mTvaris milevisa da axali mTvaris     ritualebs da qmedebebs. axalmTvareobas mraval magiur Zalas
dadgomis molodinSia, radgan axal mTvareze i politasTan             miawerdnen, maT Soris makurnebel Zalasac. uZvelesi droidan
iqorwinebs. swored qorwineba, rogorc mistikuri kavSiris            mTvaris fazebi cxovrebis dinebis warmmarTvel fenomenad
rituali, mzisa da mTvaris SeuRlebis momenti xdeba is Zala,         miiCneoda. Zveli mTvare berZnul miTologiaSi hekatas kults
romelsac kalendaruli droidan Tvisobrivi xdomilebis droSi           ukavSirdeboda. zogi versiis Tanaxmad, Zvel samyaroSi hekata
gadavyavarT.Ddro movlenis TariRidan misi Sinagani mniSvnelobis     sammag RvTaebad iTvleboda, romelic qvesknelSi mefobda rogorc
                                                                   hekata, dedamiwaze rogorc artemida, xolo zecaSi, rogoc mTvare.

44                                                                                                                                   45
                                                                                              Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis
Tamar bokuCava                                                                                       Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~

    amdenad, rodesac Tezevsi Zvel mTvareze saubrobs, mas           Serigebas, qalaqeli xelosnebis mier piramosisa da Tisbes
qvesknelis mTvare - hekata yavs mxedvelobaSi, fermkrTali           dadgmis istorias _ erTiani feeriuli kompoziciis asagebad
stumari, jadoqrobis, misticizmis, sikvdilis gansaxiereba.          iyenebs. Tezevsisa da i politas da oberonsa da titanias
i polita vercxlis mSvildiviT morkalul mTvares axsenebs,            Soris piesaSi gasnakuTrebuli kavSiria, es wyvilebi qalaqisa
romelmac maTi qorwilis Rame unda gaanaTos.Naxali mTvaris           da tyis samyaroebSi TiTqos erTmaneTs Seesabamebian, maT umaRlesi
vercxlis mSvildi amorZali i politas simbolodac SeiZleba            Zalaufleba da siyvaruli aerTianebT. Tezevsi da i polita
ganvixiloT, axali mTvare berZnul-romaul miTologiaSi                dRis samyaroSi mefoben, oberoni da titania _ Ramis. SeiZleba
nadirobis qalwuli qalRmerTis artemida-dianas Seesabameba.          iTqvas, rom feriebis dedofalisa da oberonis figurebi dRis
qristianul mistikaSi mariami axali mTvariT Ramis sibneleSi         mbrZanebelTa Rameul manifestaciasac warmoadgenen.
naTlis Semtan qalur princi ps ganasaxirebs. berZnebTan mTvare,         arsebobs analogia tyes, rogorc swavlis simbolur adgilsa
artemidesTan erTad qorwinebisa da ojaxis mfarveli qalRmerTis,      da vnebaTa da instinqtTa labirinTs Soris, sadac adamiani
heras simboloc iyo. i politas teqsti mTvaris am ori                Tavis Tavs kargavs da gamosasvlelis naxvasTan erTad kvlavac
hi postasis mimarT apelirebs. Ddianas civi mTvare SesaZloa,        pulobs.Aase kargaven da pouloben Tavis identobas tyeSi
mamis nebis winaaRmdeg amboxebuli elenas cxovrebis Tanamgzavric    Seyvarebulebi, romlebsac tyis sulebi Tavgzas ubneven da
gaxdes, romelsac daumorCileblobis SemTxvevaSi sikvdili an          exmarebian. tye, rogorc TavSesafari da damcveli, dedobriv
monazvnis unayofo da sevdiani xvedri emuqreba.MmTvaris romelime    arqeti psac ukavSirdeba. sizmrisa da Zilis Tema kidev ufro
fazaSi samudamod darCena sicocxlis kanonis SeCerebisa da           aaxlovebs tyis simbolikas aracnobieri fsiqikis fenomenTan,
sikvdilis tolfasad ganixileba.                                     sadac adamianis gzismkvlevebi aracnobieris arqeti pebi xdebian,
    Tezevsisa da ipolitas mTvareebis gamoCinebas Soris arsebul     romlebic xSirad zRaprisa da miTologiis personaJebSi
xanmokle droSi samyaros udidesi saswaulia moqceuli. swored         saxierdebian. swored aseTebi arian am koleqtiur sizmarSi
mTvaris gardasaxvis moments Seesabameba Seyvarebulebis Ramis       oberoni da titania, animasa da animusis msgavsi figurebi,
tyeSi, sulTa saufloSi saxifaTo mogzaurobis periodi, saidanac       sizmareuli tyis mbrZanebelni. Cinuri tradiciis Tanaxmad, tye
isini ganaxlebulni da gankurnebulni unda dabrundnen. Rameulma      xuTi elementidan erT-erTi, aRmosavleTs, siyvarulsa da
mogzaurobam harmonia da dakarguli wonasworobis princi pi           mamakacuri energiis ianis gamoRviZebasa da aRmasvlas Seesbameba.
unda aRadginos.                                                    piesis teqstidan SevityobT, rom oberoni Soreuli indoeTidan
    tyis simbolika Seqspiris piesebSi xSirad gvxvdeba, komediaSi   Camovida, misi samefo aRmosavleTSia. tradiciisamebr, evropa
` ro go rc m og ew oneba T~ m oq medebi s tyeSi g adatana          aRmosavleTSi ganusazRvrelobis, iracionalurobis, misticizmis
dramaturgisaTvis filosofiuri msoflgancdis gadmocemis               mxarea. jer kidev berZnebTan, aRmosavleli medea hekatas qurumi
saSualeba xdeba. `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~ tye erT-erTi            da jadoqaria. xolo iasonis mSobliur saberZneTSi goneba da
centraluri mxatvruli saxea, simbolo, romelic Seqspirma             samarTali batonobs. aTenisa da tyis, kulturisa da bunebis,
fantastikuri miTologiuri da folkloruli personaJebiT                dRisa da Ramis, dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis, mzisa da mTvaris,
daasaxla da aracnobieri fsiqikis numiozuroba mianiWa. Seqspiris    mamakacuri da qaluri sawyisis, antikuri miTologiisa da Sua
piesaTa Soris `zafxulis Ramis sizmari~ imiTac gamoirCeva,          saukuneebis folkloruli samyaros saxeebis urTierTkavSiri
rom misi siuJetis uSualo wyaro aRmoCenili ar aris. siuJetis        da `mistikuri qorwineba~ Seqspiris piesaSi samyaros dinamikuri
Canafiqri da moqmedebis kompozicia Tavad Seqspirs ekuTvnis.        harmoniis fantastikur panoramas qmnis. mxolod am sinTezs
dramaturgis fantazia moqmedebis samgvar esTetikas da oTxmag        aqvs makurnebeli Zala, sizmarisa da cxadis, cnobierisa da
siuJets _ Tezevsisa da i politas qorwils, aTeneli                  aracnobieris TanamSromlobiT miiRweva wonasworoba. swored
Seyvarebulebis ambavs, oberonisa da titanias konfliqtsa da         amiT aixsneba im totaluri siyvarulisa da erotizmis
46                                                                                                                                   47
                                                                                                   Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis
Tamar bokuCava                                                                                            Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~

atmosfero, romelSic CaZirula cvalebadi mTavris SuqiT               misteria. Tezevsis xumrobaSi gacilebiT meti Sinaarsi devs,
ganaTebuli piesis moqmedeba. es piesa winaaRmdegobaTa Sexvedrisa   vidre es erTi SexedviT moCans. romantikuli mTvariT dawyebuli
da dazavebis adgilia, TviT tyis sulebi Tavisi ormagi bunebiT,      misteria farsuli mTvaris gamoCeniT sruldeba, xolo lomi _
romelic maT sityvebsa da moqmedebebSi gamosWvivis, aq komediis     mzis simbolo, mTvaresTan erTad SeyvarebulTa mesaflaved
saerTo ganwyobisTvis Sesaferisi Serbilebuli mxariT                 gvevlineba.
warmogvidgebian. `unda viCqaroT, mbrZanebelo, Torem xom                qorwilis da ganaxlebuli mTvaris Tema masTan dakavSirebuli
xedav...…gamobrwinda aRmosavleTiT avroras macne~, _AafrTxilebs     metamorfozebiT, mdidari erotikuli simbolikiT, romelic piesis
paki oberons. razedac es ukanaskneli miugebs _ `Cven sul           teqstSi, gansakuTrebiT ki mis sizmareul da farsul nawilSi
sxvagvari sulebi varT. me, Cemda Tavad, ramdenjer ciskris          pirdapiri Tu metaforuli gziT Semodis, `zafxulis Ramis
megobarTan miTamaSnia...~ tyis sulebis Sualeduri mdgomareoba       sizmars~ formalurad komediis falikur sakulto da xalxur
da ciskarTan moTamaSe oberoni swored Seqspiris saerTo              sawyisebTan anaTesavebs. dionises kults aq sinTeturi RvTaebis
gadawyvetilebis farglebSi jdeba, rom sizmrisa da cxadis            _ mTvaris `kulti~ enacvleba, romelic, zrdisa da swrafi
samyaroTa TanamSromlobis gziT adamianis bunebaSi harmoniisa        saxecvalebis wyalobiT, zogierT kulturaSi nayofierebis
da wonasworobis aRdgenis suraTi SemogvTavazos.                     simbolod iqca. magaliTad, mesopotamiuri sini, mzis RmerT
    Sesabamisad, Tavad qorwilisaTvis samzadisis idea, rogorc       SamaSis mama, mcenareuli samyaros RmerTi iyo. Tumca, ra Tqma
nawarmoebis moqmedebis saerTo qarga, misi faruli sazrisic          unda, SeqspirTan mTvare rTuli kulturul-filosfiuri
xdeba da zedapiruli siuJeturi wyobidan Sida struqturaSi            simboloa, romelic dramaturgs piesis musikalur nawarmoebTan
gadainacvlebs da stiqiaTa da winaaRmdegobaTa Sexvedra-dazavebis    miaxlvebuli kompoziciis gamTlianebisa da urTulesi
sizmrad iqceva. sizmris TemiT Seqspiri Tavis romantikul            esTetikuri Tu konceptualuri sinTezis ganxorcielebis
xilvas, iseve, rogorc danawevrebul, winaarmdegobebiT aRsavse       saSualebas aZlevs.
samyaroS i ganxorcielebu li siyvarulis a rsebobis
SesaZleblobas kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebs, mxolod ivanes
Rames dasizmrebul sizmarSi Tu miiRweva sayovelTao siyvarulis
mdgomareoba. virisTava koWas saxeSi igi Tavisive ideis parodias    · Надя Жюльен, “Словарь Символов”, “Урал ЛТД”, 1999;
gvTavzobs da romantikul zRaparSi komikuri da vnebiani              · Карл Густав Юнг, “Архетип и Символ”, Москва, “Ренессанс”, 1991;
monstris groteskuli xateba Semoaqvs. dramaturgi amiT ar            · У. Шекспир, “Сон в летнюю ночь”;
kmayofildeba da finalSi qalaqis xelosnebis mier `piramosisa        · В. Гете, “Фауст”;
                                                                   · А. Аникст, Шекспир, Ремесло Драматурга, Москва, 1974;
da Tisbes~ komikurad gaTamaSebul tragedias gvTavzobs. imisaTvis,
                                                                   · G.S.Kirk, “Myth. Its meaning and functions in ancient and other cultures”,
rom qalebis mgrZnobiare nervebi daindon, xelosnebi dadgmas         Cambridge, At The University Press;
gulubryvilo da utrirebulad pirobiT farsad aqceven,                 · А. Аникст, “Творчество Шекспира”, Москва, 1965;
romelSic lomi nazad Rrialebs, prologi msmenls windawin             · Пинский Л.Е., Шекспир, Основные начала драматургии, Москва, 1975.
amSvidebs, raTa gmirTa tragikuli sikvdili gulTan axlos ar          · guram lebaniZe, `dasavleTi~, `ena da kultura~, 2000;
miitanon, xolo mTvariani Ramis gansaxierebisaTvis mTvares          · Дидье Жюлиа, “Философский словарь”, Москва, “Международные
speqtaklis personaJad aqceven.Bbolos scenaze mxolod lomi           отношения”, 2000;
da mTvare rCebian. _ albaT imitom, _ SeniSnavs gamxiarulebuli      · Э.Е. Платонова, “Культурология”, Москва, “Академический проект”,
Tezevsi, _ rom danarCenebi damarxono. swored ase farsulad          2003;
mTavrdeba `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~ gaTamaSebuli mTvaris           · Ю.Борев, “Эстетика”.

48                                                                                                                                          49
                                                 merab gegia,     es iyo zoomorfizmis xana, roca bunebis yvela movlena
                                            sruli profesori       mimsgavsebuli iyo romelime cxovelis TvisebebTan. samonadireo
                                                                  ritualSi ukve mocemuli iyo Teatris ZiriTadi komponentebi:
                 religia da Teatri                                fabula da personaJi, moqmedebiT Txroba da gardasaxvis
                                                                  elementebi. amave periodSi iSva niRabi, Teatris ucvleli
    Teatrisa da religiis urTierTmimarTeba uciloblad               atributi. aRsaniSnavia, rom swored totemur ritualSi daixvewa
saWiroebs imis ganmartebas, Tu ra igulisxmeba religiis cnebaSi    simRera da cekva, warmoiSva ritmi, rogorc moqmedebis
da ratom miviCnevT mas Teatris fundamentad.                       warmmarTveli elementi.
    religia ar aris statikuri fenomeni. mas aqvs Casaxvisa da         animizmis epoqam, anu, yovelive arsebulis gasulierebis
ganviTarebis Tavisi kanonzomierebani. religiaSi araviTar          tendenciam warmoSva magiuri rituali. aman kidev ufro gaaRrmava
SemTxvevaSi ar igulisxmeba esa Tu is sarwmunoeba, religiuri       meditaciuri procesebi da safuZveli Cauyara Teatris erT-
dogmatebi an Sexedulebebi. magram amasTanave nebismier religias   erT umTavres movlenas _ eqstazs. magiur ritualSive iSva
aqvs Tavisi zogadi maxasiaTeblebi. igi warmoSobs erTianobis       sityva, magram ara rogorc moqmedebis saSualeba, aramed rogorc
gancdas, aduRabebs adamianebs, erebs, rasebs. TviT aTeizmis       Selocvis ,,meqanizmi~. animizmis epoqaSive iSva miTebi, rac
pirobebSic ki igi kacobriobas evlineba humanizmis saxiT,          momavalSi Teatris formirebis aucilebeli nawili gaxdeba.
zogadsakacobrio idealebis SenarCunebiT, rac iSva swored           yvelaze saTayvano miTosur personaJad iqca nayofierebis RvTaeba.
religiis wiaRSi. amitomaa, rom Teatris umTavres Sinaarss          am RvTaebisadmi miZRvnilma ritualebma Teatrs Semata zeimis
qmnis religiuri miswrafebani, romelTa Soris gamorCeulia           elementi, ganaviTara personaJis cneba, TeatrSi Seitana
gmiruli Tavganwirva, adamianuri Rirsebis grZnoba, siyvaruli,      orgiastuli suliskveTeba. amave periodSi adamianis cnobiereba
saTnoeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom Teatri, rogorc msaxiobisa da          xdeba antropomorfistuli, anu, bunebis movlenebs da miTosur
mayureblis Ria, uSualo urTierTobis asparezi, mudmivad             personaJebs eniWebaT adamianuri Tvisebebi. aqedan ukve erTi
inarCunebs moZRvrisa da mrevlis urTierTmimarTebis statuss,        nabijiRa rCeboda dramatuli situaciis warmoqmnamde da es
rameTu mayureblis reaqcia TavisTavad aris komentari scenaze       nabiji ganxorcielda jer miTosSi da Semdgom ukve TeatrSic.
gaTamaSebuli movlenebis mimarT. arsad ise ar aisaxeba da          ase warmoiSva jer Zvelegvi pturi, Semdgom ki ZvelberZnuli
fiqsirdeba sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis gamovlinebani, rogorc       Teatri. magram TviT gaRmerTebul bunebis ZalebSi adamianma
TeatrSi. marto scena ki ara, mTlianad Teatria sazogadoebrivi      aRmoaCina Ria da faruli dapirispirebani. dRes Rame cvlis,
cxovrebis sarke.                                                  zamTars _ zafxuli, mzes – mTvare, gvalvas – kokispiruli
    magram isic uTuod gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Teatri araviTar    wvimebi, sicocxles – sikvdili, sikvdils – axali sicocxlis
SemTxvevaSi ar aris didaqtikis, qadagebisa da Ria propagandis     warmoSoba da es dapirispireba man ritualSi Seitana, riTac
tribuna. igi religiurobasTan erTad eyrdnoba TamaSs, am cnebis     Teatraluri xelovnebis umTavresi sayrdenis, konfliqtis
pirdapiri gagebiT. igi qmnis mxatvrul realobas da es              Camoyalibebas Seuwyo xeli.
mayurebels kargad aqvs Semecnebuli. ufro metic, sakmarisia,           adamianma nayofierebis RvTaebas mianiWa upiratesoba da es
Teatrma daTmos saTamaSo funqciebi, igi kargavs yovelgvar          savsebiT logikuri da gasagebi movlenaa. magram am ZiriTadi
mimzidvelobas da mosawyen sanaxaobad gadaiqceva.                  ritualis gverdiT iSva magiuri ritualebic, romlebic Serisxvas
    rogorc cnobilia, Teatri warmoiSva totemizmis xanaSi           an Selocvas emsaxureboda. swored am magiur ritualebSi iSva
samonadireo ritualidan. totemi iyo pirveli RvTaeba, romelsac      transmeditacia da eqstazi, swored aq Caeyara safuZveli
adamianma miawera magiuri Tvisebebi da Tavis mfarvelad aRiara.    tragediul intonaciasac. sagulisxmoa, rom am sakralur
50                                                                                                                            51
merab gegia                                                                                                        religia da Teatri

ritualebSi sityva gamoyenebuli iyo rogorc zebunebriv Zalebze       moxda naxtomiseburad. berZnuli miTebis analizi cxadyofs,
zemoqmedebis iaraRi.                                               rom maTSi mocemuli antropocentristuli tendenciebi, uTuod
    totemizmSi mibaZvis gziT warmoiSva gardasaxvis elementebi.     gamoiwvevda mizidulobas maTi profesiuli Sesrulebisaken.
magiurma ritualma imitacia aqcia abstraqtul gardasaxvad.           ra Tqma unda, RmerTebis Sesaxeb sjobs wavikiTxoT, magram
farTod iqna gamoyenebuli meditaciis da transmeditaciis             adamianebi sjobs ganvasaxieroT. adamianis gansaxiereba ki, niWTan
aRmZvreli saSualebebi, maT Soris – cecxli, msxverplSewirva,        erTad, saWiroebs Sesabamis ostatobas, ostatobis misaRwevad
bangi, Troba.                                                      ki aucilebelia scenuri Cvevebis gamomuSaveba.
    animisturma panTeizmma, Tavisi personificirebuli                   aRsaniSnavia, rom intrigis muxti TiTqmis yvela xalxebis
mravalRmerTianobiT, simbolur-metaforuli xedviT, RvTaebaTa          miTologiaSia mocemuli. ase magaliTad, vedur da induistur
Soris adamianuri urTierTobebis daSvebiT, niadagi Seumzada          miTebSi figurireben dabal safexurze mdgomi qal-RvTaebani _
miTebs da Sesabamisad, _ epossa da dramaturgias. aqedan erTi       afsarebi, ulamazesi norCi qalwulebi, cekvis didostatebi,
nabijiRa rCeboda egvi pturi da berZnuli miTologiis                 romlebic saxloben caSi, mdinareebSi, mTebze. RmerTebis davalebiT
Camoyalibebamde, romlebmac daagvirgvines winamorbedi procesebi     isini xiblaven da acduneben rogorc asurebs (dabal safexurze
da miTologia ideologiur sistemad aqcies. am sistemaSi adgili
                                                                   mdgom RvTaeba-mamakacebs), ise im adamianebs, romlebmac Tavisi
daeZebna yvela did Tu patara movlenas mzisqveSeTSi da mis
                                                                   asketuri amaRlebiT, SesaZloa moi povon RmerTebze ufro meti
farglebs gareTac.
                                                                   Zlevamosileba. verc erTi asketi ver uZlebs afsarebis xibls
    miTologiuri siuJetebi TiTqos TavisiT iltvodnen
                                                                   da efloba miwier codvilobaSi.
gaTamaSebisaken. bevr maTganSi tragediis an komediis gasaSlelad
                                                                       Teatrs sul sxva pirobebi Seeqmna monoTeisturi religiis
ukve mocemuli iyo dramatuli muxti, zogjer, _ naRmic ki.
ager, adrasti, argosis mefe, amfiaraes mier gaZevebuli, brundeba   wiaRSi. imis gamo, rom monoTeizmi qadagebda asketizmsa da
Tavis samefoSi da amfiaraeze Surs imiT iZiebs, rom swored          TavdaWerilobas, Teatri Tavisi TamaSiTa da orgiastuli
mas miaTxovebs Tavis idumalad mSvenier, magram verag da xarb       suliskveTebiT, Seuferebeli aRmoCnda monoTeizmisaTvis.
qaliSvils. amfiarae ver umklavdeba meuRlis intrigebs, ver          miuxedavad amisa, SuasaukuneebSi iyo mcdeloba, rom TeatrisTvis
uZlebs Sinagan gaorebas da iRupeba. am fabulaze SesaZlebelia       daebrunebiaT religiuri funqciebi. ase warmoiSva liturgikuli
aigos tragediac, komediac da tragikomediac.                        drama, misteria, mirakli, moralite. religiis cneba pirvelyovlisa
    ager, gasaTamaSeblad gamzadebuli oidi posis, antigones,        gulisxmobs demiurgis, anu yovlisSemZle, kreatuli gareSe
eleqtras da medeas tragikuli koliziebi. medea pirveli              Zalis arsebobas, adamianis sulis ukvdavebis rwmenas da sikeTis,
adamiani-antigmiria dramaturgiis istoriaSi. SemTxveviTi rodia,     saTnoebis gansakuTrebul unars, winaaRmdegobis gareSe sZlios
rom interesi mis mimarT epoqidan epoqas gadaecema da yvela         borotebas. eklesiis mamebi sul male darwmundnen, rom Teatri
droSi cdiloben gaSifron es uaRresad saorWofo, qimerasaviT          da TamaSi ganuyreli cnebebia da saeklesio drama gandevnil
idumali arseba.                                                    iqna qristianuli taZrebidan. magram ,,jini~ ukve gamoSvebuli
    magram sagulisxmo mainc is aris, rom saTeatro fabula,          iyo da misi ukan Cabruneba SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda. Teatrma jer
ZiriTadad, ibadeba saojaxo urTierTobebis wiaRSi. aRsaniSnavia      qalaqis moednebze gadainacvla, Semdgom ki misTvis gankuTvnil
isic, rom berZnebma jer miTebi gaaadamianes, mere ki adamianuri    specialur nagebobebSi, sadac igi imyofeba dRemde.
urTierTobebi aqcies miTologemebad, riTac kidev erTi nabijiT            filosofiuri azris ganviTarebam warmoSva deizmad (laT.
wawies win Teatraluri azrovneba.                                   deus _ RmerTi) wodebuli sruliad axali Sexeduleba samyarosa
    yovelgvar safuZvels moklebulia is varaudi, rom                 da RmerTis Sesaxeb. formalur logikaSi antinomiuri (berZn.
sinkretuli Teatridan verbalur, samayureblo Teatrze gadasvla        antinomia – kanonis winaaRmdegobrivoba sakuTar TavTan)
52                                                                                                                               53
merab gegia                                                                                                          religia da Teatri

debulebebis SemoWram (filosofiuri cneba, romelic gulisxmobs         bolos germaniaSi didi ganviTareba pova tragediis Janrma
urTirTsawinaaRmdego, urTierTgamomricxavi debulebis Sexamebas        (lesingis ,,emilia galoti~, 1772, goeTes ,,gioc fon berlixingeni~,
an erTianobas) warmoSva axali mimarTeba religiasa da Teatrs         Sileris ,,yaCaRebi~, 1781). anu, religiuri faseulobebis
Soris. religiis sakiTxebma SeiZina diskursis ieri, rac yvelaze      SenarCunebasTan erTad, Teatri xdeba antropocentristuli da
mkafiod aisaxa ganmanaTleblobis epoqaSi. antinomizmi isedac         masSi personaJi da misi xasiaTi gansazRvravs moqmedebas da
damaxasiaTebelia religiuri cnobierebisaTvis (wminda sameba          ara gareSe, zebunebrivi Zalebi. amave periodSi yalibdeba e. w.
,,SeerTebis gareSe erTiania~ da ,,ganuyoflad ganiyofian~,           maradiuli saxeebis ,,sistema~, asparezi eTmoba sxvadasxva qveynis
qristeSi mocemulia urTierTsawinaaRmdego – adamianuri da             Tu epoqis literaturaSi mravalgzis asaxul, zogadsakacobrio
RvTaebrivi sawyisi). antinomiis gansakuTrebuli simaxviliT           mniSvnelobis literaturul da miTologiur personaJebs:
da ganviTarebiT gamoirCeva Zen-budizmi, sadac paradoqsuli,          promeTes, kaens da abels, mefistofels da fausts, hamlets,
alogikuri, antinomiuri formulebi, erTdrouli ,,ho da ara~            don Juans, don kixots, mejnuns (da sxv.). isini aRqmulni arian
iqca cnobierebis verbalur-gonismier mzadebad ganviTarebisa          rogorc droisa da sivrcis miRma myofi adamianuri
da sakuTari Tavis srulyofisaTvis. paradoqsul, alogikur da           suliskveTebis simboluri gamosaxulebani. Semdgomi epoqebi
absurdul formulebTan erTad, antinomiebma mniSvnelovani adgili       maradiul saxeebs usadagebs konkretul-istoriul viTarebas
daikaves jer simbolizmis da avangardis, Semdgom ki mTlianad         da zogjer maTi daxasiaTebis sruliad axal versias gvTavazobs
modernistul xelovnebaSi.                                            (don kixoti gvevlineba xan komikur, xan satirul, xan ki
    ganmanaTlebloba, rogorc cnobilia, mimarTuli iyo                 sanimuSo gmirad; don Juani – xan borotmoqmedad, xan buntarad;
feodalur-absolutisturi wyobis winaaRmdeg. mis Camoyalibebaze        hamleti – xan simarTlisTvis mebrZolad, xan ki – simSvidis
zegavlena iqonia sensualizmma, swavlebam adamianis Sesaxeb, lokis   damrRvevelad, da a. S.). magram yvela epoqasa Tu viTarebaSi,
deizmma, dekartes racionalizmma da meqanisturma fizikam,            maTi miswrafebebi ganixileba sakacobrio idealebis poziciidan,
niutonis meqanikam da deizmma, me-18 saukunis dasawyisis            rac Tavisi arsiT, gvevlineba religiis erTgvar Canacvlebad.
antisqolasturma skeptikurma swavlebebma. ganmanaTleblobam               igive iTqmis ezoTerikuli xedvis gamZafrebazec, rac
wamoayena burJuaziuli demokratiis, sazogadoebrivi progresis,        gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebeli iyo simbolizmisaTvis. misticizmi,
Tanasworobis, sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sromis, pirovnebis         TviTCaRrmaveba, uSualo gancda, iracionalizmi, intuicia _ is
Tavisufali ganviTarebis ideebi. maTi mTavari mizani iyo gonebis     ZiriTadi sayrdenebia, rasac efuZneboda simbolistebis
meSveobiT umecrebis damarcxeba. am ideebma mkafio gamoxatuleba      Semoqmedeba. simbolizmisaTvis umTavresi iyo movlenebis wiaRSi
poves filosofiaSi, mxatvrul literaturaSi, xelovnebaSi.              da adamianebis sulSi idumali, faruli Sreebis warmoCena,
kacobriobis momavali maT esaxebodaT ,,gonierebis samefod~.          ezoTerikuli Sinaarsis amokiTxva. aqedan gamomdinare, sityva
ingliseli ganmanaTleblebis interesma yoveldRiuri yofis              kargavs komunikaciur funqciebs da mistikur qveteqsts iZens.
da Cveulebrivi adamianis mimarT moaxdina zegavlena mTel             arcTu iSviaTad, mas enacvleba mravlismTqmeli pauza an sityvaTa
evropul ganmanaTleblobaze. mdabiuri dramis warmoSoba                iseTi ganlageba, sadac vlindeba ara viTarebis raoba, aramed
safrangeTsa (didro, m. sedeni) da germaniaSi (lesingi)              Tavad individis araamqveyniuri swrafvebi. simbolistebma poeziaSi
dakavSirebuli iyo am Janris inglisur formebTan (j. lilo, e.         musika umTavres faseulobad gamoacxades. musikaSi maT
muri). didi ganviTareba pova satirulma komediam (r. Seridani        igulisxmes ritmis, metris da harmoniis princi pebTan erTad,
– inglisSi, p. bomarSe – safrangeTSi, l. holbergi – daniaSi).       musikisTvis damaxasiaTebeli wminda formiseuli zemoqmedeba.
ganmanaTleblebma tragediaSi Seitanes tiraniasTan brZolis            am princi pebis gaTvaliswinebiT warmoiSva simbolisturi
motivebi (volteris ,,bruti~, 1731 da sxv). me-18 saukunis           dramaturgiac (meterlinki, emil verharni, henrik ibseni).
54                                                                                                                                 55
merab gegia                                                                                                     religia da Teatri

simbolizmi TeatrSi sxva winamorbed mimdinareobebze               literaturasa da xelovnebaSi axali gamomsaxveli saSualebebis
radikaluri gamodga. mTlianad uaryofil iqna realobis              danergvas. cnobierebis nakadi, Sinagani monologi, asociatiuri
dakonkretebis princi pi. malarme Teatrs mouwodebda gamoenaxa     montaJi, mexsierebisa da wamieri gancdis gadakveTa, Txrobis
damoukidebeli ,,sametyvelo ena~. aseT ,,enad~ mas esaxeboda      ganTavseba sxvadasxva droSi, fabulis da personaJis gaerTianeba
sityvis, musikis da feris sinTezi, romelsac mayurebelze unda     _ es yovelive qmnida sruliad axal mxatvrul realobas.
emoqmeda musikis msgavsad. simbolistebma uari Tqves personaJis       modernizmma literaturasa da xelovnebaSi aRadgina
dakonkretebazec da ganyenebuli fabulis gmirad aqcies drois,      miTosuri azrovneba da arqetipuli xasiaTebi, danerga zedrouli
sivrcis, socialuri da eTnikuri niSnis miRma mdgomi adamiani-     da zenacionaluri xedva. es yvelaferi, ra Tqma unda, religiuri
simbolo. simbolistebma reJisors da mxatvars mianiWes
                                                                 cnobierebis mier iyo ,,naanderZevi~.
avtonomiuri ufleba da isini dramaturgs gauTanabres.
                                                                     Teatralur xelovnebaSi modernizmma mTlianad zurgi aqcia
gamomsaxveli saSualebebi _ mizanscena, ritmi, foni _ maT mier
gaazrebul iqna, rogorc Teatris iracionaluri fenomeni.            realobas da iqca pirobiTi, Ria Teatris apologetad. speqtaklis
    simbolistebi Seecadnen agreTve Suasaukuneebis Teatraluri     formam SeiZina simboluri, alegoriuli, groteskuli, mistikuri
kulturis modernizebas da simbolisturi stilistikiT                mniSvneloba. `ara Sinaarsi qmnis formas, aramed forma qmnis
aRadgines misteria, mirakli, bazrobis da sakarnavalo Teatris     Sinaarss~ _ aseTi iyo modernistebis devizi ara marto TeatrSi,
zogierTi saxeobani. mizanscenebis saxviToba, pozebis             aramed literaturaSic da xelovnebis sxva dargebSic.
skulpturuloba, musika, ganaTeba emsaxureboda mistikuri               modernizmma axali formis gziT TeatrSi Semoitana axali
ganwyobilebis Seqmnas. mistika da religia ki, rogorc cnobilia,   Sinaarsebi, Zireulad Secvala fabulis agebis, Temis damuSavebis
ganuyreli cnebebia.                                              da personaJis daxasiaTebis xerxebi, rac mTeli srulyofilebiT
    religiuri motivebi Zalze Taviseburad gaiazra modernizmma.    aisaxa jer eqspresionistul, Semdeg ki egzistencialur da
es arc aris gasakviri, radgan modernizmis fesvebi animizmSi      absurdis dramaSi.
(bunebis da sagnebis gasuliereba) da magiur ritualebSia              SegviZlia, Tamamad ganvacxadoT, rom RmerTebis ki ara,
ganTavsebuli. formis TvalsazrisiT misi uaxloesi winaparia        adamianebis gulisSemZvrelma istoriebma warmoSves samayureblo
manierizmi (me-16 s.) da barokos xelovneba (me-16_18 ss.).       Teatri da didxans, TiTqmis me-19 saukunis meore naxevramde,
    modernizmis filosofiur mamamTavrebad gvevlinebian:           isini tols ar udebdnen miTosur gmirebs da Tavad xdebodnen
fridrix nicSe (iracionalizmi), anri bergsoni (intuitivizmi       miTosurebi. es procesi daasrula xelovnebis humanizaciam da
da cxovrebis filosofia), edmund huserli (fenomenologia).         Cveulebrivi adamianis gakultebam. ase warmoiSva realizmi da
yvela isini idealistebi arian, rac TavisTavad gulisxmobs
                                                                 naturalizmi, Tavisi arsiT aTeisturi mimdinareobani, sadac
sulierebis primats materiaze. aqedan gamomdinare, aSkaraa, rom
modernizmis fesvebic religiaSia ganTavsebuli.                    pasuxismgebloba yofierebis av-kargze daekisra ara RmerTebs,
    modernizmis religiuri poziciebi sabolood gaamyares           mefeebs an gmirebs, aramed ubralo, Cveulebriv adamianebs. aseTi
egzistencialistebma (martin haidegeri, karl iaspersi).           midgoma Seicavda optimizmsac, radgan rogorc cnobilia,
dasavlurma xelovnebam saxe Zireulad icvala. ganxorcielda         pasuxismgeblobas, movaleobas axlavs uflebebic. uflebebis
Taviseburi sinTezi romantizmisTvis niSneuli individualizmis,     qona ki ganuzomlad zrdida Cveulebrivi adamianis mniSvnelobas.
naturalisturi        reduqciis (gamartiveba), simbolisturi           samwuxarod, igive ar iTqmis postmodernizmis Sesaxeb,
ezoTerikis (idumaleba), avangardistuli eqsperimentalobis da      romelic gaigivebulia ..daRlil~, ,,entropiul~ (gaurkvevel)
dekadansis grZnobaTa bunebis.                                    epoqasTan, sadac mefobs esqatologiuri (rel. _ ,,samyaros
    ganaxorciela ra mxatvruli revolucia, modernizmma swored      dasasruli~) ganwyobileba. mas axasiaTebs esTetikuri mutacia,
miRmier samyaroze orientaciiT sagrZnoblad xeli Seuwyo            stilebis ekleqtikuri Sereva. avangardistul midrekilebas
56                                                                                                                            57
merab gegia

siaxlisaken, aq erwymis miswrafeba, rom Tanamedrove xelovnebaSi                                                     maia goSaZe,
Setanil iqnas msoflio mxatvruli kulturis gamocdileba,                                                    asocirebuli profesori
Tundac ironiuli citirebis gziT. modernistuli koncefcia
samyaros qaoturobis Sesaxeb, aq icvleba surviliT, rom es                          pandoras yuTis fskerze
s am y ar o g a az reb ul iq nas ga Tam a Seb is p o zi c ii dan.
postmodernistuli esTetikis specifika iTvaliswinebs                      CvenSi amboben: imediT cocxlobso adamiani. igive moaruli
klasikuri tradiciebis araklasikur gaazrebas. igi emijneba           azri rusul yaidaze gansxvavebulad gamoiTqmis, – imedi
klasikas, magram gaurbis masTan konfliqts da cdilobs moargos        ukanaskneli kvdebao, _ amboben. sazogadod, imedi umeteswilad
igi axal Teoriul safuZvlebs. postmodernistuli esTetika              mainc pozitiuri gancdis, sicocxlis im damamkvidrebeli da
principulad antisistemuri, adogmaturi, konceptualuri sqemebis       moyvare sawyisis gamomxatvelad aRiqmeba, romlis danakargic
gare mdgomi movlenaa. misi mTavari simboloa labirinTi. aqedan       adamians misTvis pirquSi realobis pirispir unugeSod tovebs.
momdinareobs orientacia asonansze, asimetriaze. amaRlebuls              imavdroulad, imedis masazrdoebeli STagonebis wyaros,
cvlis sakvirveli, tragikuls – paradoqsuli. centralur                yovelTvis axla da amJamad, arsebulis miRmismieri sfero
adgils iWers komikuri Tavis ironiul hi postasSi. mozaikur           warmoadgens. imediT adamiani swored momavals Sehyurebs. imediT
postmodernistul xelovnebaSi ironia azris warmomTqmeli               mcxovrebi adamianic, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, swored axla da
princi pia. postmodernizmis meore Taviseburebaa xelovnebis          amJamad sicocxlis moZrav stiqiasTan sakuTari Zalisxmevis
sruli gaxsniloba, orientacia Seucnobelze, gaurkvevelze. man         gamovleniT Tanaziarebas, gulmowyale momavlis zurgis qaris
modernizmisgan isesxa mxatvruli da filosofiur-                      molodins anacvalebs.
fsiqologiuri xedvis ZiriTadi postulatebi, romelTagan
                                                                        swored molodinis inertulobaSi adamianis gamaxevebel
umTavresia zedrouloba da zenacionaluroba. igi xazgasmiT
                                                                    Zilispirulad Cagvesmis imedis goeTeseuli alegoriis
globaluri xelovnebaa. amasTanave, modernizmisgan gansxvavebiT,
                                                                    gamomxatveli sityvebi: „xval cxovreba TavisTavad zRaprad
postmodernizmi ar cdilobs Seqmnas esTetikuri doqtrinebi.
                                                                    gveqceva~.1 yovelives TavisTavad momgvareblad miCneuli,
misi mizani martivia _ gaamTlianos msoflios xelovneba, waSalos
                                                                    TviTmoqmedi wesrigisa Tu piruku, yovlismomcvelad aRqmuli
zRva ri eli tarul da mas obriv kultur as Sor is.
                                                                    qaosis winaSe, yovelgvari Zalisxmevis gamovlenis amaoebis,
postmodernizmis Tanamedrove tendenciebi gvafiqrebinebs, rom
isic, ,,gzaabneuli Svilis~ msgavsad, apirebs dabrundes religiis     zedmetobis idea (Cexovis piesebis marTlac imediT mcxovreb
wiaRSi. postmodernizmi ukve cdilobs mecnieruli da                   e. w. zedmet adamianTa cxovrebiseuli kredos gamomxatveli
miTologiuri azrovnebis morigebasac. amiT aixsneba is faqti,         leitmotivi) imedis alegoriis Tavisebur savizito baraTad
rom postmodernistul nawarmoebebSi mecnieruli daskvnebi ki           iqceva. sagulisxmoa, rom faustis gamafrTxilebeli goniereba
ar upirispirdeba ezoTerikas, aramed nayofierad TanamSromlobs        adamianis yvelaze ukeTur mtrebad imedsa da mis ganuyrel
masTan.                                                             Tanamgzavrad warmoCenil SiSs miiCnevs.
     amrigad, kvlavac ucvleli rCeba Teatris formula – religia               goniereba:
+ TamaSi.                                                                   qveynis ori didi mteri
                                                                            aris SiSi da imedi.
msoflios religiebis istoria (m., gam. eksmo, 2007);                       moerideT, am or mtarvals –
janeliZe d., qarTuli Teatris xalxuri sawyisebi;                           axlos nuRar gaikarebT.2
msoflio xelovnebis istoria (m., gam. bmmao, 1998).                        Tuki „faustSi~ imedi da SiSi hadesiseul alqajTa
                                                                    wyvilis iersaxes iZenen, aryofnis usasrulo sicarieleSi
58                                                                                                                             59
maia goSaZe                                                                                                                  pandoras yuTis fskerze

STanTqmul absurdis dramis gmirTa ganuyrel Tanamgzavrad                           „orsaxovani~ imedis Tavisebur personificirebul arqeti pad,
amjerad molodinTan dawyvilebuli imedi gvevlineba.                                Taviseburad amreklav oreulad aRiqmeba.
     imedis macdunebeli orsaxovneba, misi pirmSvenieri fasadisa                      gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa, rom zevsma pandora swored
da Sinagani siRrmiseuli arsis kontrastuli Seusabamoba,                           promeTesTan, swored TviTrealizaciisken, mudmivi zrdisa da
pandoras Sesaxeb antikur miTSic vlindeba.                                        ganviTarebisken mswrafi adamianis titanizmis gansaxierebad
     rogorc cnobilia, zevsma pandora promeTesTan megobrobisTvis                  qceul gmirTan dapirispirebis Sedegad mouvlina qveynierebas.
dasasjelad mouvlina kacobriobas. momajadoebeli silamazis,                        arsebiTad, adamianisve SemoqmedebiTi sawyisis, bunebis, aqtivobis
graciozuli, tkbilxmiansurnelovani, Tvalwarmtaci samosiTa                         gamomxatveli promeTeseuli suliskveTebis dasaTrgunad, imediani
da samkauliT damSvenebuli pandora Zvel berZnulad yovlad                          molodiniT mogvril sulier sizanteSi mimaZineblad mouvlina
Semkulis aRmniSvneli sakuTari saxelisve xorcSesxmad iqca.                        kacobriobas.
Tavis mxriv, garegnuli brwyinvalebiT mzesaviT manaTobeli,                            amdenad, imedTan gamoTxoveba SesaZloa ara mxolod
magram bunebiT mrude da yalbi qaliSvilis saxelma, marTalia,                      sicocxlis uarmyofeli sasowarkveTis, aramed swored
yovlad Semkuli, magram ubedurebis momtani ZRvenis gamomxatveli                   sicocxlis „uimedod~ miRebis moSiSi mimarTebis daZlevis
mniSvneloba SeiZina.                                                             mauwyebladac iqces, Tundac sasurvel, magram warsulis msgavsad,
     misi meuRlis, promeTes Zmis – epiTemes gafrTxilebis                         yovelTvis uZrav momavalSi gaxevebisken swrafvis damZlevi
miuxedavad, cnobismoyvare pandoram mainc gaxsna adamianuri                       sulieri mowifulobis gamomxatvelad.
mankierebebiT, sneulebebiTa da ubedobebiT aRsavse yuTi da                            sakuTar TavSi imediT mcxovrebTan gamoTxovebac, SesaZloa,
qveynierebas aTasgvari Wir-varami mouvlina – gaTavisufleba                       realobasTan pirispir, momavalSi „gamqcevi~ nugeSis gareSe
mxolod fskerze myofma imedma ver SesZlo, radgan pandoram                         Sexvedris, – sanugeSosa da sasurvelTan wilnayari iluziis
yuTis daxurva moaswro.                                                           safars miRma arsebulis Secnobis SesaZleblobad vaqcioT.
     sagulisxmoa, rom antikur miTSi imedi swored ukeTurobebiT                        amdenad, sicocxlis damamkvidrebeli „uimedoba~ yovelTvis
a R s a v s e y u Ti s k u T v ni l e b a d m o i a z r eb a . m r a v a l i ,   mxolod awmyoSi sicocxlis moZrav stiqiasTan sakuTari
aradiferencirebuli saxiT warmoCenil siaveTa Soris konkretul                      „yofniseuli~ mdgomareobiT, sakuTari Sinagan-pirovnuli
iersaxes mxolod imedi iZens. mxolod imedi iqceva pandoras                        resursebis realizebadi mdgomareobiT Tanaziarebis
yuTis Semadgenel „anonimur~ ubedobaTa masidan gamorCeul,                         SesaZleblobadac moiazreba.
Tavis konkretulobaSi Secnobad „protagonistad~. imavdroulad,                          imedis ukompromiso mamxilebeli alber kamiu, mudam
dRis sinaTleze gamosul, SeuniRbavi pirdapirobiT amqveynad                        saxvaliod Zalisxmevis gamovlenis gadamdeb, momavlis moimede
movlenil ukeTurebaTagan gansxvavebiT, mxolod imedi darCa                         sulier sizantes, sakuTari SesaZleblobebis mTeli sisavsiT
wyvdiadiT moculi, uxilavad danaRmuli safrTxis msgavsad                           awmyoSi cxovrebis Sinagan aqtivobas upirispirebs, imediT
Seucnobadi. tkbilxmianmaamebeli, magram imavdroulad, netar                       dabindul inertul mzeras ki uimedo „naTelmxilvelobas~.
inertulobis momgvreli imedi mimzidvel, magram macdur                                 Seqspiris „makbetSi~ swored axla da amJamad arsebobis
nugeSismcemlad, yovlad Semkul, magram saSiS ZRvenad darCa. am                    mTeli sisavsiT aRqma-gancdis SesaZleblobis (arsebiTad, sakuTari
TvalsazrisiT, aRsaniSnavia aTasgvari Wir-varamiT aRsavse yuTis                   Sinaganpirovnuli arsis TviTrealizebadi SesaZleblobis)
gasaxsnelad movlenil pandorasa da yuTis „usaxo~ binadarTagan                     STanTqmel fantomad, swored imedian facifucSi momavlisken
Tavisi individualuri „iersaxiTac~ da xvedriTac gamorCeuli                        swrafmavali mzera gvevlineba – mudam ararsebulSi, guSindelsa
imedis macduri arsis urTierTamreklavi msgavseba. yovlad                          Tu xvalindelSi gamqcevi sulieri umecreba iqceva.
Semkuli, tkbilxmianmaamebeli, magram ubedurebis momtani pandora                      „ase maradJams, sul mere da mere,
60                                                                                                                                              61
maia goSaZe

    xvale xvales misdevs                                                                               mixeil kalandariSvili,
    (dedanSi: tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow)                                                           sruli profesori
    da wvril nabijiT dRe dRis ukan miizlazneba,
    vidre JamT brunva ukanasknel saaTs dahkravdes                      modernistuli eqsperimenti tiflisSi
    guSindelTa dReT ugunurebs gza gaunaTes,
    miwad gardamqcev sikvdilamde~.3                                   `me Zlier miyvars iisfer Tovlis qalwulebiviT xididan
    arsebulidan ararsebulSi, warsulTan dawyvilebul momavalSi      fena...~ _ es striqoni axalgazrda galaktions ekuTvnis. saocrad
gamqcevi imedis maradiul mZevlebad gvevlinebian kinomsaxiobTa     amaRelvebeli, saocrad mSvenieri... `TovlSi~ galaktioni
TeatrSi giorgi margvelaSvilis mier dadgmuli „alublis              gvixatavs uimedo, sasowarkveTili grZnobis amaRlebul, poetur
baRis~ – im speqtakl paradigmis gmirebic, romlis finalSi          suraTs: iisferi Tovlis qulebi xididan qalwulebiviT efinebian,
swored pandorasa da imedis urTierTamreklavi identurobis           xolo `siyvarulis ase moTmena~ mwuxare TviTmkvlelobaSi
motivi warmoCindeba. rodesac ranevskaia Tavisi dakarguli          gadadis. es leqsi 1916 wliTaa daTariRebuli. aTi wliT adre
mamulis amjerad ukve samudamod misatoveblad mieSureba, scenis     ki, 1906 wels, TbilisSi pirveli `iisferi Tovli~ gaCnda.
siRrmiv SuagulSi ganlagebul masiur skivrTan miaxlovebisas,        Tovli, romelic aseve uimedod Seyvarebuli fermkrTali qalis
TiTqos erT adgilas Sezrdili xevdeba, Semdeg gasatanad             TviTmkvlelobiT sruldeba. Tumca, es `Tovli~ poezia ar iyo,
gamzadebul skivrs gaxsnis da ganvlilisa da gardasulis             es iyo vsevolod meierholdis skandaluri speqtakli.
Tanamdev Zvelmanebs Tanmimdevrulad amoyris. dacarielebul              meierholdi saqarTveloSi Camovida, raTa sabolood daesva
skivrSi ki TiTqos brma, somnambuluri SeupovrobiT Tavadve          wertili naturalisturi TeatrisTvis. axali ideebis
Cawveba da zed Tavsaxursac daimxobs. Zvelmanebisgan daclili       ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba sagrZnoblad gaizarda TbilisSi,
skivris fskerze, swored uwyvet moZraobaganviTarebaSi              miT umetes, rom mis gankargulebaSi moeqca `axali dramis~
gamovlenili sicocxlis stiqiisgan, zrdisa da fericvalebis          amxanagobis ukanaskneli teqnikuri miRwevebiT aRWurvili
SesaZleblobis momcveli „yofniseuli~ realobisgan, warsulis         rusuli Teatris scena. i. elagini ostatis muSaobis saerTo
msgavsad yovelTvis uZrav momavalSi gamqcevi gmiri rCeba           mimarTulebis daxasiaTebisas gamoyofs, erTi mxriv, `moskovis
samudamod miZinebuli, netar inertulobaSi gaxevebuli.              samxatvro Teatris gamocdil gzas~, romelmac ganapiroba
dasangrevad ganwiruli saxlidan ranevskaia swored im skivriT       warmateba Tbilisis inteligentur publikasTan da, meore mxriv,
gaaqvT, romlis fskerze sakuTari nebiTve aRmoCndeba misive         miuTiTebs ukve axal, `modernistuli dramaturgiis~ uCveulo
gamxsneli „pandora~ – mudam mizans acdenili isariviT, yovelTvis   labirinTze, romlis bilikebi meierholdma pirvelad swored
swored axla da amJamad arsebuls „acdenili~. mudam warsulsa        aq gakvala.
da momavals Soris miusafari mgzavri.                                  TbilisSi moRvaweoba k. stanislavskis gamorCeulma mowafem
                                                                  nacadi xerxiT daiwyo: igi virtuozis simsubuqiT acxobda
                                                                  samxatvro Teatris speqtaklebis gamartivebul aslebs, yovel
                                                                  dRe imeorebda da aRadgenda `cxovrebiseul suraTebs~, rogorc
1.   iohan goeTe „fausti~, Tbilisi, 1987, gv. 321;                reJisuris savarjiSoebs, cdilobda zemoqmedeba moexdina
2.   iqve;                                                        Tbilisel mayurebelze, Seecvala misi Cveuli esTetikuri
3.   uiliam Seqspiri, tragediebi, t. III, Tb., 1987, gv. 222;     kriteriumebi. gaocebuli kritika aRniSnavda: `msaxiobi mxolod
4.   Н. Кун. “Легенды и мифы древней Греций”;                     aucilebeli Cxiria im etlis borbalSi, romelsac reJisori
5.   Альберт Камю. Бунтующий человек. М., 1990.                   marTavs~.1
62                                                                                                                           63
mixeil kalandariSvili                                                                                    modernistuli eqsperimenti tiflisSi

    i. elaginis Tanaxmad, yvelaferi kargad midioda iqamde, vidre   piesaSi Tovli TeTri iyo. sxva mxriv, orive `TovlSi~ erTi da
meierholdma s. pSibiSevskis2 `Tovli~ ar dadga. igi werda:          igive ram xdeba: aqac da iqac saubaria lamaz sikvdilze, anu,
`mayureblisaTvis nacnobi naturalisturi Teatris xerxebisagan        cxovrebisagan daRlili adamianebis im ocnebaze, romelic
`Tovlis~ dadgmaSi araferi ar darCa. TviTon Tovlic ki ar            scildeba ukve simbolizmis esTetikas da dekadansis idealSi
iyo TeTri... iyo ultraiisferi~.3                                   gadadis..
    `Tovlis~ dadgmamdec da merec publikis nawili da misi               1906 wels fSibiSevskis `Tovli~ misi gmirebis vnebaTa
interesebis gamomxatveli oficiozuri gazeTi `Кавказ~-i              daufaravi siSiSvle Sokis momgvreli gaxldaT da, cxadia, yvela
ukmayofilebas gamoxatavda meierholdis modernistuli                 erTnairad ver aRiqvamda: moulodnelobisgan Seuracxyofili
repertuaris gamo. amas pirdapir asabuTebs speqtakl `Tovlze~        Tbiliseli recenzenti saubrobda `WuWyian Tovlze~, romelic
gamoqveynebuli recenzia: `Cvenma mayurebelma ver moaswro           mas Tavze Turme vsevolod meierholdma daayara. galaktionis
`CaZiruli zaris~4 mere sulis moTqma, rom meierholdma axali         poeturi qmnileba Sors dgas amgvari SegrZnebebisgan: misi
dartyma ganizraxa da mayurebels Tavze daayara pSibiSevskis         zambaxisferi Tovli – sufTaa. iyo Tu ara realurad raime
WuWyiani `Tovli~... scenuri Sarlatanobis nimuSi~.5                 kavSiri am or `Tovls~ Soris - varaudis Temaa. mxolod imis
    yvelasTvis gaugebarma `Tovlma~, romelSic `egvi pturi           Tqma SeiZleba, rom Cven qalaqSi XX saukunis dasawyisSi saswauli
wyvdiadi sufevda~, aiZula meierholdi kulisebSi damalvoda           moxda:      gadaikveTa sami didi xelovanis gza: stanislav
ganrisxebul mayurebels. Tumca sabolood speqtakli istoriuli         fSibiSevskis, vsevolod meierholdis da sul axalgazrda
mniSvnelobis gamodga, mas ruseTSi uwodeben pirobiTi,               galaktion tabiZisa.
antinaturalisturi Teatris pirvel cdas.                                 Teatri poezia ar aris. mas SedarebiT ufro uWirs bolomde
    Cven profesiaSi kritikul recenziebs meti mniSvnelba aqvs,      `gamouTqmelobis~ scenuri xorcSesxma, rac sruliad bunebrivia
vidre saqebar diTirambebs: kritikosebis paTosi, Tavisi uaryofiTi   misi mTavari Taviseburebis da bunebis gaTvaliswinebiT. magram
muxtiT, mets gveubneba meierholdis gaugebar eqsperimentze da       Teatrs gaaCnia sxva upiratesoba – Cveneba, saxieri gadmocema,
ufro gvafiqrebs uCveulo kanonzomierebis SemTxvevaze, romelsac      c o c x a l i k o n ta q t i , i nt er p r et i r eb a , m a y u r eb l i s
adgili hqonda maSin. vis SeuZlia imis Tqma, naxa, Tu ara           mojadoeba...…amitomac iZens gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas
Teqvsmeti wlis galaktionma meierholdis `iisferi Tovli~,            fSibiSevskis `Tovli~, romelic 1906 wlis gazafxulis sezonze,
Tumca misi araCveulebrivi metafora: `me Zlier miyvars iisfer       TbilisSi bolo Camosvlisas, dadga meierholdma. Tumca, es
Tovlis qalwulebiviT xididan fena~ ucnaurad saxiers xdis            gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva iyo, rogorc wesi, mis dadgmebs udidesi
daviwyebul, gamqral spektakls, TiTqos gvenaxos igi... SesaZloa,    warmateba hqondaT. `haneles~ dadgmas presaSi reJisoruli
swored Teatraluri STabeWdilebis anarekli mogvevlina                Semoqmedebis apoTeozs uwodeben. meore sezoni ki v. meierholdma
mogvianebiT saocar leqsad, an iqneb geniosebi erTnairad            m. meterlinkis6 `tentaJilis sikvdiliT~ daasrula. speqtakli
araCveulebrivad xedaven Cveulebriv movlenebs! aseTi ram xdeba      TamaSdeboda muqi mwvane tulis qsoviliT gadakrul CarCoSi,
xolme, Tumca, ratomRac mgonia, rom galaktionma SemTxveviT ar       fizgarmonze Sesrulebuli akompanimentis TanxlebiT: `artistebi
uwoda Tavis leqss `Tovli~, vfiqrob, rom igi swored                 antraqtebze gamoZaxebisas ar gamodiodnen. mexuTe aqtis Semdeg
meierholdis `iisferi Tovlis~ konceptze migvaniSnebda,              daiwyo grandiozuli ovacia... gamoiZaxes aranakleb ocjer~.7
mxatvrul saxeze, romelmac SesaZloa SeZra poeti da, Tavis               ase daemSvidoba maestros Tbilisi.
mxriv, aseTi leqsiT upasuxa. SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom: radgan              meierholdi ukmayofilo iyo msaxiobebiT da uCioda maT
fSibiSevskic modernistia, SesaZloa, swored mimarTulebas            TamaSs. Tbilisidan gagzavnil werilSi igi werda: `mSralad,
ekarnaxa msgavsi aRqma galaktionisTvis, magram fSibiSevskis        teqnikurad, magram ras izam? rodisRa gamoCndebian momavali
64                                                                                                                                         65
mixeil kalandariSvili                                                                                  modernistuli eqsperimenti tiflisSi

Teatris msaxiobebi~.8 amgvari msaxiobebi masTan mxolod oci           periodSi, rodesac yvelaze mediduri xelmZRvaneli amxanagebi
wlis Semdeg mividnen, Tavisi xalisiani xelovnebiT gaielves           gamocxaddebodnen xolme kabinetebSi, TeatrebSi da restornebSi
da wavidnen, sul male TviTonac SeeTvisnen `socialisturi              gimnasturiT Semosilebi `beladis msgavsad~, maSin meierholdi
realizmis Teatris amRvreul, damdgar gubes~.9                         ukve saukeTeso mkeravTa kostumebs aniWebda upiratesobas,
    Tbilisuri sezonebi gardamtexi gaxda v. meierholdis               inglisur halstuxebs, italiur qudebs, mkacr, aristokratul,
SemoqmedebisTvis: aq man xorci Seasxa Tamam ideebs da Canafiqrebs,   konservatiul stils~.12
realurad warmoadgina axali reJisoruli gamomsaxvelobisa                   am Cacma-gadacmebis logikis axsna SeiZleba: rolis
da xerxebis mTeli speqtri. swored Tbilisurma eqsperimentebma         gasaxsnelad msaxiobisTvis kostumi iseve mniSvnelovania, rogorc
daudes dasabami msoflioSi saxelganTqmul `rusul pirobiT               qmedeba. meierholdi ki, suliT xorcamde artisti, stilis
Teatrs~; Tavis mxriv, qarTulma scenamac ganviTarebis uSualo          ufaqizesi grZnobiT Tavisi princi pebis Sesatyvisad icvamda;
impulsi miiRo vsevolod meierholdis xelidan. ecnoboda                 magram misi iersaxe yovelTvis konfliqturad gamoiyureboda
samxatvro Teatris axalTaxal aslebs, ufro metic, sruliad              garemos fonze.
axali, modernistuli repertuaris uSualo mowme gaxda.                      meierholdma datova Tbilisi da daikarga is realuri
meierholdma saqarTvelo datova madlieri mayureblis                    SesaZlebloba, rom ara petrogradSi, aramed swored aq
samaxsovro saCuqriT – vercxlis firfitaze amotvifruli                 aRsrulebuliyo cocxali marionetebis `modernistuli
sityvebiT:10 `Tqven dagvamarcxeT, – swerda mas mravalricxovani       Teatris~ Tamami mxatvruli idea, romelic msoflio reJisoruli
Tbiliseli mayurebeli, – Tqven SeZeliT dagemsxvriaT eWvis             Semoqmedebis umaRles mwvervals warmoadgens. Tumca, SeiZleba
yinuli, undoblobis yinuli, rodesac Tqven mogvevlineT, Cven           iTqvas, rom erTgvari estafeta gagrZelda _ saqarTvelos
ar gicnobdiT... Tqven gyavdaT uamravi mteri, Tqven isini axlac       kulturis, tradiciisa da gemovnebisTvis ucxo ar aris aseTi
gyavT, magram isini imas ki ar uaryofen, Tu rogor TamaSobT,          xasiaTis Teatris sistema. es bevrad ufro gvian, magram mainc
aramed Tu ras... Tqven dagvimorCileT mwyobri ansamblis SeteviT,      aRsrulda da xorci Seisxa marjaniSvilis da axmetelis
axali repertuaris Seupovari ieriSiT... gamarjvebulebs ar             modernistul eqsperimentebSi. axalma talRam axleburad aagora
asamarTleben!~                                                       XX saukunis udidesi Teatraluri idea, romlis dabadeba
    rogorc Cans, gulisamaCuyebelma damSvidobebam ver moubruna        Ggordon kregis saxels ukavSirdeba. 70-iani wlebidan dRemde
guli meierholds da man ver daiviwya yvela is wyena, rac ori          qarTuli Teatri kvlav am talRaze aRmoCndeba, isev am ideidan
sezonis ganmavlobaSi SemoqmedebiTi wvis Sedegad Sexvda. es im        aRmocendeba da gabrwyindeba speqtaklebiT, romlebic qarTuli
werilidanac Cans, romelic man Tbilisidan gamgzavrebis win            xelovnebis emblemad iqcnen: `yvaryvare~, `kavkasiuri carcis
dawera: `me mombezrda, xalxs anbani vaswavlo, me poeti var da        wre~, `riCard mesame~, `mefe liri~ da sxva.
ara skolis maswavlebeli... arc uxovi, arc fedotovi, da arc
miT umetes nemiroviC-danCenko... me esTeti var. mombezrda WuWyian
perangebSi da gaqonil SarvalSi siaruli... me minda, imdenad
kargad viyo Cacmuli, rom sulis mSvenieri swrafva sacvlis             1. Кавказ, 1904, 28 сентября;
elvarebas Seesabamebodes~.11                                         2. stanislav pSibiSevski (1868-1927) - poloneli mwerali da
    TxuTmeti wlis Semdeg meierholdi komisris msgavsad                dramaturgi. modernisti, dekadenti, TanamedroveTa yuradRebas iqcevda
gimnasturasa da tyavis qurTukSi gamoewyo, miuxedavad imisa,          antimeSCanuri, burJuaziul-anarqistuli meamboxe suliskveTebiT, mwvaved
                                                                     asaxavda burJ. inteligenciis cnobierebis kriziss. sayrdens eZebda
rom omi ukve karga xnis damTavrebuli iyo. Tumca amgvar
                                                                     nicSeseul `Zlieri pirovnebis kultSi~, erotizmSi, princi pSi,
samosSi man didxans ver gaZlo: `stalinis meore xuTwledis
66                                                                                                                                     67
`xelovneba xelovnebisaTvis~, piesebi `bednierebisaTvis~ (1899) da                                                        maia kiknaZe,
`Tovli~ (1903), gamoirCeva stilis gamokveTili, ganzrax efeqtaciiT;                                            asocirebuli profesori
3. Jelagin J., Dark Genius, OPY, LTD. London, 1982, P.89;
4. SeniSvna: saubaria g.hauptmanis `CaZirul zarze~;                         Tojinebisa da Crdilebis warmodgenebi
5. Кавказ, 1904, 4 октября;
                                                                                        indoneziaSi
6. moris meterlinki (1862-1049) - belgieli mwerali, dramaturgi,
filosofosi.. meterlinki qmnida zRaprul filosofiur piesebs.                              (vaiang kuliti)
misi adreuli dramatugiis wamyvani Temaa daucveli da brma adamianis
bedi gaugebar, daundobel samyaroSi. mis nawarmoebebs gamsWvalavs            Crdilebisa da Tojinuri Teatris saxeobebi, romelic termin
idumali bedisweris dekandenturi koncepcia. gansakuTrebuli               vaiangis1 qveS gaerTianda erT-erTi Zveli da gavrcelebuli
popularobiT sargeblobdnen misi piesebi: `mona vana~, `brmebi~, `lurji   sanaxaoba iyo indoneziaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki _ kunZul iavaze.
frinveli~, `tentaJilis sikvdili~, `da beatrisa~, `peleasi da                Tojinuri sanaxaoba vaiangi Tavis TavSi moicavda yvela
melisandra~ da sxva;                                                    aspeqts sazogadoebrivi, ideologiuri Tu kulturuli
7. Jelagin J., Dark Genius, OPY, LTD. London, 1982, p.109;              cxovrebisa da am TvalsazrisiT is `iavuri sinamdvilis oreuls~
8. iqve, gv. 106-107;                                                   warmoadgenda, romelSic mkafiod ikveTeboda indoneziuri
9. Jelagin J., Dark Genius, OPY, LTD. London, 1982, p. 106-107;
                                                                        klasobrivi sazogadoebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi:
10. Тифллисский листок, 1905, 1 марта;
11. ix. iqve, elagini, gv. 106-107;                                     winaparTa kulti, agraruli kulti da animisturi tradiciebi.
12. iqve, Jelagin, p. 106-107.                                              iavis, balis, maduras soflebSi saRamos 7 sT.-ze qoqosis
                                                                        zeTiT gaJRenTil naTuras aanTebdnen da xis karkasze gadaWimul
                                                                        TeTr tiloze _ ekranze, cnobili Tojinebis Teatris vaiangis
gamoyenebuli literatura:                                                warmodgenebs marTavdnen, sadac orkestr gamelangis musikis
                                                                        TanxlebiT xaris tyavisagan Sekerili Tojinebi mefeebis, gmirebis,
i. Tuxareli, meierholdi saqarTveloSi, disertaciis avtoreferati,       princesebisa da groteskuli urCxulebis saxeebs warmoadgendnen.
Tb. 1978.                                                                   ekranze RvTaebebisa da miTiuri gmirebis gamoCena principSi
                                                                        iyo winaparTa sulebis gamoZaxeba, romlis Cvenebebisas vaiang
                                                                        kulitis (tyavis Tojina) warmodgenebi uzrunvelyofda da
                                                                        romelic miznad isaxavda winaparTa mier STamomavlebis
                                                                        dalocvasa da maTTvis keTildReobis motanas.
                                                                            Senoba, sadac warmodgena imarTeboda, pirobiTad gayofili
                                                                        iyo or nawilad. erT mxares qalebi da bavSvebi isxdnen, romlebic
                                                                        Crdilebs uyurebdnen, meore mxares _ mamakacebi da isini
                                                                        meTojinisa da Tojinis TamaSs adevnebdnen Tvalyurs. mayurebelTa
                                                                        amgvari ganlageba migvaniSnebda, rom warmodgena erTdroulad
                                                                        Crdilebisa da Tojinebis sanaxaoba iyo, raSic mdgomareobs
                                                                        misi unikalurobac.
                                                                            vaiang kulitis warmodgenebis ZiriTadi funqcia, romelic
                                                                        saritualo, religiur-mistikuri niSan-TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba,
                                                                        boroti sulebis Selocva, RvTaebebis gulis mogeba, miwis
68                                                                                                                                   69
maia kiknaZe                                                                              Tojinebisa da Crdilebis warmodgenebi indoneziaSi

ganayofiereba da kargi mosavlis aReba gaxldaT. agraruli               600-mde Tojina inaxeboda), romelic Tavisi mniSvnelobiTa da
magiis Semcvel epizodebSi, rac, pirvel rigSi, brinjis mosavlis        sazogadoebrivi mdgomareobiT qurumsac ki utoldeboda.
aRebasTan iyo dakavSirebuli animisturi religiisaTvis                  speqtaklis dawyebis win, roca locvas ityoda, Tojinebsa da
damaxasiaTebeli sagnis, am SemTxvevaSi, brinjis sulier arsebad        rekvizits bolSi gaaxvevda, ekranis win moikalaTebda da gonebis
warmoCena da maTdami pativiscemis gamoxatva warmodgenis               koncentraciis meSveobiT gardacvlil sulebTan kontaqtis
ZiriTadi Tema gaxldaT. am dros sruldeboda warmodgena                  damyarebas axerxebda. aseTi niWis wyalobiT qveynis mmarTvelebi
`brinjis RvTaeba sri~, raTa kidev erTxel pativi miegoT brinjis        vaiangis meTojineebs, rogorc es qronikebSia aRniSnuli (1847-
mindvrebisaTvis da ganedevnaT parazitebi, radgan iavelTa gagebiT      77), saxelmwifos siZlieris garantad Tvlidnen da cdilobdnen
Tu rituali ar Sesruldeboda mosavalic ar iqneboda.                     isini mudam TavianT garemocvaSi hyolodaT. me-19 s.-is2 iavuri
     vaiangis warmodgenebis daniSnuleba da mizani kidev ufro          Txzulebis erT-erTi personaJi (serat Centini) ki dalaings
Rrma da mravalmxrivi iyo, rac mTlianad indonezieli xalxis             RmerTis simbolod miiCnevda `dalaingi _ es RmerTia, romelmac
rwmenasa da Sexedulebaze iyo dafuZnebuli. vaiang-kulitis              Seqmna yvelaferi da daadgina Cveni bedi, im dros, roca adamiani
lakonebis Casma aucilebeli iyo adamianis cxovrebis iseT               dedis saSoSi Caisaxeba, misi cxovrebis istoria ukve
mniSvnelovan epizodebSi, rogoricaa dabadeba, iniciacia da             gaTamaSebulia da dasrulebulic. asea Tojinur warmodgenebSic
sikvdili. Tu romelime ojaxs surda misi vaJi lamazi                    _ vis Tu ara dalangs SeuZlia Tojinebis moqmedebebisa da
gamosuliyo, sasurveli iyo fexmZimobis me-7 Tves SeekveTaT             moZraobebis xelmZRvaneloba _ es aris erTianoba Semoqmedisa
piesa `arjunas dabadeba~. xolo Tu adamians boroti sulebisagan         da qmnilebisa _ Cveni cxovrebis gza vaiangis piesaa.~
ganTavisufleba sWirdeboda, speqtakl `kolos dabadebas~                     Tojinur warmodgenebs Tavisi tradiciuli repertuari
warmoadgendnen radgan mosaxleobis azriT, warmodgenas magiuri          gaaCnda. piesebi, anu lakonebi, specialurad iTxzveboda da is
Zala gaaCnda da is ara marto SemkveTisTvis (warmodgena                zepirsityvierebiT Taobidan Taobas gadaecemoda. amave dros
y o v el Tv is S ekv eTi T ta rdeb o da ) , a r a m ed da m s w r e   warmoadgendnen maTTvis ukve kargad nacnobi induri eposis
sazogadoebisTvisac Zalze sasargeblo iyo da xSirad CaZinebul           `ramaianasa~ da `mahabharatas~ siuJetebs, romelTa epizodebic
mayurebelzec (speqtakli 9-10 saaTi grZeldeboda) dadebiT               saukuneebis manZilze nel-nela adgilobriv zRaprebsa da
gavlenas axdenda, radgan maT uaryofiTi energiisgan                    miTologiur motivebSi gaiTqvifa. ase Seiqmna iavuri
aTavisuflebda.                                                        miTologiiTa da istoriiT STagonebuli nawarmoebebi: `ramaiana~
     rogorc vxedavT, warmodgena yovelTvis gansakuTrebuli              (IX), `arjunas qorwili~ (X).
SemTxvevebis dros tardeboda da mas aranairi gasarTobi                     vaiangis lakonebis ZiriTadi Tema adamianis daniSnuleba,
datvirTva ar gaaCnda. dabadeba Tu gardacvaleba, fexmZimoba,           sakuTari Tavis Zieba da cxovrebis sazrisis Secnoba gaxldaT.
winadacveTa, avadmyofoba Tu sixaruli, omis dawyeba Tu damTavreba,     mTavari gmiris (vaJis) gamgzavreba ukvdavebis wlis an ucnobi
axali mmarTvelis mosvla Tu sxva mniSvnelovani movlenebi               mamis mosaZebnad da am gzaze (ZiriTadad, uRran tyeSi) uamravi
adamianisa Tu qveynis cxovrebaSi Tojinebis monawileobis gareSe        dabrkolebebis gadalaxva, urCxullebTan da goliaTebTan brZola
ar Caivlida. aseTi Zala gaaCnda tyavis warmodgenebs, romelic          araerTi lakonis siuJetSi iyo warmodgenili. erT-erTi iaveli
wminda sanaxaobad iTvleboda, xolo Tojina _ magiuri Zalis              avtoris princi mankunegoro VII-is3 mtkicebiT, survili gaigo,
matareblad, romelsac didi pativiscemiT epyroboda misi sulis           vin aris mamaSeni, cxovrebis gagebis survilia, rac piesaSi
Camdgmeli meTojine _ dalangi, speqtaklis reJisori da Tojinis          mxolod meditaciis samadis gziTaa SesaZlebeli. mamis saZebnelad
matarebeli. yvelaze ganaTlebuli adamiani iavur sazogadoebaSi          wasuli axalgazrda vaJi meditaciaSi varjiSobs. man unda
(gansakuTrebiT sasaxlis karis dalangi, romlis koleqciaSi              daTrgunos vnebebi da survilebi. adamianuri vnebebi da sisusteebi
70                                                                                                                                     71
maia kiknaZe                                                                          Tojinebisa da Crdilebis warmodgenebi indoneziaSi

ki lakonSi simbolurad urCxulebisa da goliaTebis saxiTaa            mag: vulkanuri warmoSobis plato diengze4 ganlagebuli Sua
warmodgenili. goliaTebis damarcxeba ki sakuTar vnebebze            saukuneebis arqiteqturis saukeTeso nimuSebi momcro sakulto
gamarjvebas niSnavda.                                              nageboba Candebis yvelaze warmosadgeni Zeglebi Teatr vaiangis
    vaiangis warmodgenebSi kargad aisaxa indoneziuri               gmirebis personaJebiTaa dasaxelebuli. (Candi puntadeva, Candi
sazogadoebis ierarqiuli dayofac, rac moqmed pirTa sametyvelo       arjuna, Candi bima) da sxva.
enaSic vlindeboda. mayureblisaTvis Znelad gasagebi RmerTebis           vaiangi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani movlena gaxldaT indoneziis
ena iyo, advilad gasagebi ki msaxurTa ena. qveynis ierarqiuli      kulturis istoriaSi da is am kulturis simbolos
mowyoba migvaniSnebda ama Tu im funqciaze, mis saWiroebebsa da     warmoadgenda. mravali saukuneebis manZilze vaiangi ayalibebda
aucileblobaze indoneziur sazogadoebaSi. mag.: RvTis msaxurTa       iavelTa esTetikur gemovnebasa da msoflmxedvelobas, qmnida
funqcia ritualis mowyoba iyo, raindebs saxelmwifos dacva           kulturasa da icavda tradiciebs, romelsac Taobidan Taobas
evalebodaT, vaWrebs ki ekonomikis ganviTarebisTvis unda SeewyoT    gadascemda.
xeli. ierarqiuli mowyobidan gamomdinareobda lakonis
moralur-eTikuri swavlebac, rac vaiangSi `moraluri
pluralizmis kodeqss~ (andersoni) efuZneboda. amdenad, adamianis,
rogorc garkveuli socialuri fenis warmomadgenlis moqmedeba,
vaiangis mixedviT, Tavisi kargi an cudi TvisebebiT ki ar
fasdeboda, aramed imiT, Tu rogori warmomadgeneli iyo Tavisi
rangisa (mag., kauravebs kicxavdnen imis gamo ki ara, rom isini
cudebi arian, aramed imis gamo, rom cudi raindebi arian).
    vaiangis lakonebis mniSvnelovani nawili qveynis warsulis
Txrobasac eTmoboda da mas ganixilavdnen, rogorc erTian
uwyvet movlenas istoriuli procesebisa. vinaidan iavelTa
sulieri cxovreba vaiangTan iyo dakavSirebuli da is maTTvis
garkveul skolis funqciasac asrulebda, istoriis ardaviwyebas
winaparTa brZolebis, RmerTebis, pandavebis, madjahitebis
mmarTvelebisa da misi STamomavlebis CvenebiT cdilobda. am          1. vaiangi _ ramdenime mniSvneloba aqvs
TvalsazrisiT vaiangi saganmanaTleblo da SemecnebiTic iyo,          a) mas eZaxian Tojinebs gamoWrils xis an tyavisagan
romelsac didi gavlenis moxdena SeeZlo axalgazrdobaze. mis          b) warmodgenas niSnavs
sulier aRzrdasa da xalxuri tradiciebis SenarCunebaze, vinaidan     g) adgilobrivi mcxovreblebi vaiangis mniSvnelobaSi suls,
masSi kargad ikveTeboda humanisturi msoflmxedveloba,               aCrdils gulisxmobdnen;
movaleobisadmi erTgulebis grZnoba, samarTlianobisaTvis brZola      2. С. С. Кузнецова – У истоков индонезийской культуры м. 1989
da maRali idealebi.                                                ст. 88;
    vaiangis gmirebis istoria da Tojinis figuris moxatuloba        3. И. И. Соломоник – Традиционный театр кукол востока м. 1983
imdenad popularuli iyo mTel indoneziaSi, rom arqiteqturaSi         ст. 105;
`vaiangis stilic~ ki damkvidrda. vaiangis personaJTa cxovrebis     4.Г.Г. Баидиленко – Культура и идеология средиевековых
amsaxveli epizodebi monumentur xelovnebaSi gamoiyeneboda da        государств явы м. 1984 ст. 59.
araerTi arqiteqtoruli Sedevris kedlebze iyo gamosaxuli.
72                                                                                                                                 73
                                        guliko mamulaSvili,       abasidebis mmarTvelobamde (XVI-XVII s.), vidre `Sia~, anu Siitoba,
                                 wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli     Siizmi, ar gamocxadda oficialur religiad.
                                                                      sefianTa saxelmwifos (1502-1722 ww.) politika Siizms
 `Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi                          eyrdnoboda, romlis meSveobiTac iranma damoukidebloba moipova,
                                                                  qveyana fexze dadga, gaZlierda. `Tazies~ warmoCena da ayvaveba
    Zveli sparsuli Teatris nairsaxeobis, `Tazies~, Rrmad          ki am politikuri da religiuri damoukideblobis erT-erTi
mistikuri arsi, erovnuli fesvebi da sulieri, zneobriv-            Semadgeneli nawili da Sedegi iyo. saSualo klasis ganviTareba,
moraluri Rirebulebebi gansakuTrebuli siRrmiT warmoCndeba          vaWrebisa da wvril mewarmeTa, xelosanTa momagreba ganapirobebda
iraneli avtorebis specialur samecniero literaturaSi. iranel       myar ekonomikur viTarebas, SedarebiT stabilurobasa da simSvides,
specialistTa xedva kidev ufro naTels xdis `Tazies~ da             rac religiurad unda Semkobiliyo salocavi gund-dasebisa da
Sahsei-vahseis misteriul buneba-xasiaTs, mis kulturologiur        misteriuli saxiobebis arsebobiT. sefianTa dinastia, uwyobda
Rirebulebas mTeli Sua saukuneebis iranuli yofisTvis da,           ra xels xelovnebis, literaturis, mwerlobis, poeziis
imavdroulad, mis princi pul mniSvnelobas sazogadod sparsuli       ganviTarebas, agebda didebul arqiteqturul nagebobebs, imgvar
Teatris CamoyalibebisaTvis; miT umetes, roca aseTi samecniero     sazogadoebriv garemos qmnida, saiqioze, imqveyniur cxovrebaze,
kvlevebi amomwurav istoriul-literaturul wyaroebzea                rom SeZlebuli moqalaqeni, memamuleni Tu didebulebi,
dayrdnobili. Cven uprianad miviCnieT sparsulenovani samecniero    afinansebdnen religiuri misteriebis Semsrulebel dasebs. saero
Sromebis monacemebi calke warmogvedgina, radgan maTSi             xelovnebaSi (cekva, simRera, mxatvroba, poezia) moRvawe msaxiobebis
Tanmimdevrulad da kompleqsuradaa ganxiluli samsjelo               garda, sefianTa dedaqalaqSi isfahanSi umaRles mwvervals miaRwia
misteriis arseboba warmoSobis dRidan dRemde da Tavmoyrilia        profesiuli misteriuli dasebis Camoyalibebis procesma. es
yvela monacemi iranis vrceli teritoriis yvela kuTxidan.           dasebi aisidan vaxSmamde awyobdnen msvlelobebs, rac XIX saukunis
qvemomoyvanili masala ramdenime aseTi Sromis ZiriTadi Sinaarsis   Suawlebamde iyo SemorCenili. maT mier warmodgenili scenebi
mokle mxatvrul gadmocemas asaxavs SigadaSig Cveni                 Seicavdnen sanaxaobebs kacobriobis dasabamidan VIII Siiti imamis
komentarebiTurT.                                                  saflavis monaxulebamde.
    `misteriis dadgma~ (Sabihgardani) an `misteriis Sesruleba~        963 wels qristianuli welTaRricxviT, Tazie pirvelad
(Sabahxani), igive `Tazie~, iyo warmodgena, warmoSobiT            Catarebula baRdadSi mayzoldoulebuies wyalobiT.Mman brZaneba
dakavSirebuli islamis winaswarmetyvelis ojaxis dramatuli          gasca, bazari daketiliyo da Savebi (ZaZebi) CaecvaT.BbrZanebis
movlenebisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb arsebul gadmocemebTan.           gamo ara, magram ufro Rrma xalxuri tradiciis gamoisobiT
gansakuTrebiT es Seexeba im faqtebs da tragediebs, rac imam       Taziem TandaTan swored aseTi saxe miiRo: ZaZebi, Savebi da
huseinsa da mis ojaxs daatyda Tavs moharamze, hijris 662          bazris daketva. Svidi Semdgomi saukunis ganmavlobaSi Tazie
wels, romelic swrafad gavrcelda da moicva xalxuri                 ixveweboda da TandaTan Teatraluri piesis, anu misteriis
kulturis, zepirmetyvelebisa da dasTanebis (Tqmulebebis) yvela     (saxiobis), saxe miiRo. mogzaurTa wyaroebi mowmoben, rom mkerdSi
mimdinareoba.                                                     cema, jaWvebis rtymeva, moTqma-tirili, xmiT simRera-glova, almebis
    arabTa gabatoneba iranSi erovnul marcxad aRiqmeboda da        tareba, Semdgom ki sagangebo samosis da garegnuli atributikis
iranelebi imTaviTve cdilobdnen, Tavi daexsnaT am batonobisagan.   gamoyeneba _ yovelive es ukve adridanve Tazies maxasiaTeblebad
maT arab xalifebs daupirispires winaswarmetyvelis, muhamedis      gvevlineba.
memkvidreebis Sto, garkveuli jgufi Seqmnes safaris saxiT da           Camoyalibda terminologiac. ase, mag.: misteriis mowyoba
am gziT sando `sp. Sia~ seqta warmoiqmna, romelic moqmedebda      aris Sabihsazi (`mibaZvis mowyoba~), msaxiobi _ Sabihbaz

74                                                                                                                                75
guliko mamulaSvili                                                                              `Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

(mimbaZveli, moTamaSe) an Sabihxan (misteriis wamkiTxveli), Sabih   unatifesi gamoTxovebisas saqmro aZlevs sacoles samgloviaro
(misterikosi), bazigar (msaxiobi) da sxv.                           samoss, romelsac is mxrebze moigdebs da Semdeg ki ojaxis
    rogorc Cans, sefianTa (1502-1722) dinastiis dros Taziem         Tanamgzavri qalebis garemocvaSi warmoTqvams satiral leqss
gaiara Tavisi srulqmnisa da srulyofis saboloo etapi da              daRupul yasimze.
miaRwia mwvervals. am srulyofilebis Semdeg igi im saxiT                 aRniSnuli sasiyvarulo sevdiani sceniT Tazies sistema
warmoCinda, rogoradac dResdReobiT vicnobT.                          ukve aSkarad mZlavr ganacxads akeTebs namdvil Teatrze. zendebis
    rogorc irkveva, piesa, Teatraluri warmodgena jer kidev          xelmwifobis dasasruls Taziem Tavi Teatris saxed warmoaCina.
1634 wels qristianuli welTaRricxviT (Seesabameba mzis               xolo mogvianebiT, yajarTa epoqis dros (1795-1925), Tazie
kalendriT pijris 1012 wels) ar arsebobda. iyo mxolod                samefo karis yuradRebas miipyrobs, da didebulTa da didvaWarTa
samgloviani rituali (qviTini, moTqma, xanjlis cema, datireba        mfarvelobis qveS moeqca.
aSuris dRes, panaSvidi da misT.). magram 1668 weli qristianuli          erTgvarad moduri gaxda Tazies mxardaWera, rac mxolod
welTaRricxviT (mzis kalendriT, hijris 1046 weli) sefi II-           saxiobis mfarveloba ki ara, saerTo saxalxo erovnuli
is Sahobisas, yofila movlena, romelsac tavernie misterias           pativiscemis mizidva-mimxrobasac niSnavda. amiT Tazies momxreni
uwodebs. metad sayuradReboa aseTi scenis aRwera: bavSvebi           upirispirdebodnen Taziesadmi skeptikurad ganwyobilT. yajarTa
daxocilebs TamaSobdnen da kuboebSi iwvnen gaunZrevlad               dinastiis dros Taziem Tavisi ganviTarebis mwvervals miaRwia.
mZinareebiaviT. GmaT garSemo ki glova-datireba iyo                  igi imarTeboda TamaSxaneebSi, TaqieebSi (dasayrdeni), huseiniebSi
gamarTuli.Ees bavSvebi ganasaxierebdnen xalifasgan moklul           (huseinis saxli), droebiT Teatralur SenobebSi _
huseinis or mcirewlovan vaJs. es ukve msaxiobobaa da                nemaieSxaneebSi.Aamdenad, gaCnda Teatraluri Senobebis mTeli
Teatraluri scena, romelic diliT iwyeboda da (5 saaTi)               seria, sxvadasxva Sesabamisi saxelwodebebiT. am Senobebis qselma
SuadRemde grZeldeboda. dasSi mxolod mamakacebi Sediodnen            mTeli irani moicva: dedaqalaqi Teirani, didi qalaqebi, pirvel
da qalebis rolebs yrmebi, ymawvil-Wabukebi asrulebdnen. Tumca       rigSi, isfahani, sadac ukve sefianTa dedaqalaqis Zveli tradiciebi
gogonebi 9 wlamde daSvebulni iyvnen.                                arsebobda, aseve provinciebis centrebi da ufro patara qalaqebi
    1738 wlisTvis (mzis kalendriT hijris 1166 wels)                 da dabebic.
u.franklini gvamcnobs TamaSobebis Sesaxeb, romelic ambebisa             Taqies princi pi, dasajdom-dasayrdeni nageboba, rogorc
da Tqmulebebis (dasTanebis) nawilebs eyrdnoboda.Ees iyo piesa,      droebiTi Senoba, karvebidan iRebs saTaves, esaa ZvelTagan
saxioba (sp. nemaieS). dasSi sxvadasxva asakis msaxiobebi           gamoyolili tradicia da suliskveTeba karvebSi jdomisa,
monawileobdnen, iyo simboloebic (magaliTad, `faraTis wyali~,        karvebSi cxovrebisa.
`samoTxis wyali~); msaxiobebs ecvaT Sesabamisi Sesamoslebic,            `warmodgenis saxli~ _ nemaieSxane Sedgeboda karvisgan an
quCebSic gamodiodnen huseinis neStis Tanmxlebebad, iyo ficxeli      Zalian didi karvisgan (karvis saxli, fanCaturi), sp. Cador,
omi da Cxubi, xalifa ijda Zvirfasad morTul-mokazmul cxenze,         xeime. igi magrdeboda xis boZebiT da SesaZlebeli iyo misi
xolo mis gverdiT idga is frangi elCi, romelic Siitad                iolad akecva da gadadgma, gadatana.
moiqca da Sahidad, anu mowamed, wamebulad iqca.                         Semdeg gaCnda mtkice, medgari qvis an xis Senobebi. isini
    Tazies erT-erTi yvelaze mimzidveli da Teatralurad               warmoSobiT da ideiT ukavSirdeba tradiciul zurxanebs, mrgvali
saintereso scena iyo yasimis qorwinebis ambavi, romelic             darbaziT, amfiTeatris ti pis dasasxdomebiTa da centrSi
idgmeboda samgloviaro warmodgenaSi. yrma Wabuki yvela               m oq c eu l i s ceniT. Aa s eTi m edg a ri Ta q ies Zi ri Tadi
Sesabamisi morTulobiT TamaSobs patarZlis _ hasanis                  nawilebiaMmayureblebis aivnebi (yorfa) da maRali mrgvali
qaliSvilis fatimas, rols. yasimi (huseinis ufrosi vaJi) da          wriuli qva (saqu) SuaSi, qvemoT, ormoSi. saqu aris TamaSis
fatima Sewyvetili qorwilis dros eTxovebian erTmaneTs, unazes-       adgili, scena. erTi aseTi Taqies zusti istoria warmodgenilia

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guliko mamulaSvili                                                                           `Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

(1799 wels, mzis kalendriT hijriT 1177), faThaliSahis mefobis     Teatris centrad gvevlineba am droisTvis. isfahanSic da
pirvel wlebSi. mas erqva `nouruzxanis Taqie~.                     TeiranSic arsebobda uzarmazari Taqieebi, romlebic aTasobiT
    am epoqis uamravi evropeli TviTmxilveli iZleva aRniSnuli      mayurebels itevda, qalebi mamakacebisgan gamoyofilad sxdebodnen.
ti pis Teatralur SenobebSi nanaxi sxvadasxva speqtaklebis         aivnebi ramdenime sarTulad adioda, sadac didebulebs sakuTari,
sakmaod mxatvrul da emociur aRwerebs. isini aRniSnaven, rom       aRmosavlur stilSi gamoWrili, yajarTa epoqis sparsuli
fanCaturiani Teatrebis garSemo Ria cis qveS uamravi xalxi         mxatvrobiTa da CuqurTmebiT morTuli loJebi gaaCndaT.Ggarda
iyrida Tavs, saxuravebze, banebzec adiodnen. yvela monayolidan    amisa, iyo naklebad SeZlebulTaTvis qandarebi da gasasvlelebi,
Cans, rom Tazies warmodgenebi uzarmazari popularobiTa da          sadac uamravi adamiani eteoda. specialur adgilebze aTasobiT
siyvaruliT sargeblobda. yvelaze mniSvnelovani ki isaa, rom        qali da bavSvi sxdeboda. TaqiedoulaTi yovelTvis gadaWedili
am droisTvis Tazie sayovelTao erovnul Teatrs warmoadgens:         iyo aRtacebuli mayurebliT.Yyvela evropeli TviTmxilveli
rogorc iTqva, misi mayureblebi da mfarvelebi xalxis farTo         aRfrTovanebiT aRgviwers im Teatralur viTarebas da ganwyobas,
masebis garda vaWarTa da mewarmeTa klasi, umaRlesi aristokratia   rac sufevda imdroindel TaqiedoulaTSi Tu sxva TamaSxanebSi.
da TviT samefo ojaxebi iyvnen.                                    centraluri Teatrebi da, pirvel rigSi, TaqiedoulaTi
    Tavisi saboloo saxis Ziebisas Taziem bevri ram aiRo,          ukiduresad mdidruli dadgmebiT xasiaTdeboda, rac vimedovnebT
mTxrobelTa institutidan (sp. nayal) da _ wamkiTxvelTagan          Tavad Sahis karis, aristoktatiisa da maRali wreebis
(xeTab _ kiTxva, yuranis mkiTxveli, da sxv.). moambeni da         warmomadgenelTa xelSewyobiT da dafinansebiT xdeboda.
wamkiTxvelni XIX saukunis Tazies saxiobis erT-erT mTavar          dekoraciebi, Cacmuloba, atributika, grimi, cocxali cxovelebis
Semsruleblebad iqcnen.                                            (cxenebis, aqlemebis da sxv.) monawileoba, _ yovelive
    amdenad, Tazies Teatrma Tavisi ganviTarebis umaRles           grandiozuli iyo.
safexurs miaRwia sefianTa epoqaSi isfahanSi da yajarTa epoqaSi        arsebobs cnobebi warmodgenebSi uamravi cxenisa da aqlemis
(1795-1925) TeiranSi.                                             gamosvlis Sesaxeb, rac monumentur, waruSlel STabeWdilebas
    nadirSah afSarma, piriqiT, am or epoqas Soris garkveuli       tovebda. farTod iSleboda bataluri scenebic, iaraRis
xniT daasusta da SeaCera Tazies ganviTareba, radgan ver iyo       JRaruniTa da SeZaxilebiT, cxenebis WixviniTa da yvela saTanado
mis i, wmi nda Si ituri aristokratiuli s anaxao bis               aRWurvilobiT.
Tayvanismcemeli.                                                      moqmedeba TamaSdeboda ormoSi, saquze da mis garSemo. saqu
    samagierod, nasreddinSahis dros yajarTa mfarvelobis qveS      Tavisi warmoSobiT Wasac ukavSirdeba, romelsac qvis sarqveli
Tazies, marTlac, erovnulma Teatrma Tavis kulminacias miaRwia.     aqvs, qveS ki didi raodenobiT civi wyali. Wis sarqvelze
    igi gadaiqca mdidarTa da aristokratiis fufunebad,             jdoma SeiZleboda da mis garSemo qarvaslebSi xalxi ikribeboda
imavdroulad Rirsebad, radgan Tazies dafinanseba da mxardaWera     da erToboda. sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis es xalxuri elementi
didebulebs pativad eTvlebodaT. aseTi iyo sazogadoebrivi           TaqieSi saqus saxiT iCens Tavs: saqu – skami, dasajdomi.
ganwyoba, saerTo klimati, rasac uSualod Sahis Sexedulebebi            msaxiobebs tansacmlis gamosacvleli oTaxebi hqondaT _
da damokidebulebebi umagrebda poziciebs.                          Tanamedrove kulisebi. aseve kulisebis saxiT mowyobili iyo
    warmodgenebi uSualod sasaxlis karzec imarTeboda da            cxovelebis samyofeli adgili gamosvlamde da sxva damxmare
yajarTa sagvareulos zogi warmomadgeneli Tavadac msaxiobobda.      saSualebebi.
Ddidebulebi ki am gzaze baZavdnen Sahs da mis ojaxs, xels             TaqiedoulaTi imdroindeli evropuli (dasavluri) Teatris
uwyobdnen Teatraluri Senobebis mdidrulad morTvas da               teqnikur xerxebs flobda da AaRWurvili iyo xmis, sinaTlisa
galamazebas. bevrgan aRwerili aris da Caxatulicaa Teiranis        da sanaxaobis efeqtebiT. Hhaeridan eSveboda nivTebi, eSvebodnen
mTavari Taqie, _ TaqiedoulaTi, romelic sparsuli erovnuli          da dasrialebdnen angelozebi, sulebi, scenaze iqmneboda burusi,
78                                                                                                                               79
guliko mamulaSvili                                                                            `Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

Rrubeli, naTeba cecxli da sxv. MmZlavri iyo xmovani efeqtebic.     damfuZnebeli da ganmaviTarebeli samefo ojaxi da aristokratia
msaxiobebisaTvis TamaSisas gansazRvruli iyo xmis tembri, Yyvela    iyo. yajarTa sagvareulos qalbatonebi amzadebdnen da Sinaur
rolisTvis damuSavebuli esa Tu is, laparakis stili, yvirili,        wreSi gaiTamaSebdnen xolme scenebs, romlis monawileni mxolod
tirili, simRera, da a. S.                                          qalebi iyvnen. yvelaze arsebiTi ki Teatris istoriisTvis isaa,
    dasebSi mravalricxovani personali iyo. ganarCevdnen            rom am periodis Taziewarmodgenebi, romelic TaqiedoulaTSi
scenarists, reJisors (Sabihgardan), reJisoris TanaSemwes,          idgmeboda, struqturulad, Sinaarsobrivad da scenaTa
musikalur dass, wamkiTxvelebs, momRerlebs, motiralebs, meomrebs,   SemadgenlobiT swraf cvlilebebs ganicdida. mas emateboda
cxovelebTan momuSaveebs da sxv. MmaTi gasamrjelo mTlianad          axal-axali scenebi, zogi Zveli, zogic axlad SeTxzuli. zog
damfinanseblebze iyo damokidebuli da igi imxanad Zalian            maTgans glovasTan uSualo kavSiri arc hqonda, xdeboda
didi iyo. amitomac, dedaqalaqis profesiuli dasebis wevrebi         improvozireba. aRwerilia, magaliTad, aseTi scena: mecxramete
SeZlebul adamianebad iqceodnen da pativiscemiTac                   saukunis evropeli mogzauri qali, Tanamedrove tansacmliT,
sargeblobdnen.                                                     aqlemze an cxenze mjdari, moxvdeba qarbalas velze. mas axlavs
    cnobilia, rom am epoqaSi iranis yovel kuTxeSi eZebdnen da      adgilobrivi gamyolebi, Rames karavSi atarebs. sizmrad ieso
CamohyavdaT niWieri da garegnulad momxiblavi msaxiobebi,           qriste moevlineba, romelic uyveba qarbalas tragediis ambavs.
rogorc Wabukebi, aseve asakovani adamianebic.                      es monayoli tradiciul TaziesQwarmoadgens. qalze monaTxrobi
    centraluri didi Taqieebis garda arsebobda provinciuli          iseT STabeWdilebas moaxdens, rom rwmeniT ganimsWvaleba da
patara Taqieebi da gadasatani fanCaturebi.MmaTi patronebic         Siizmze moiqceva. aseT TxzulebebSi naTlad ikveTeba yajarTa
da mesveurebic aqtiurad iRvwodnen Tavisi dasebis                   epoqis suliskveTeba: evropasTan, dasavleTisaken swrafva, evropul
                                                                   civilizaciasTan ziareba da Serwyma. imavdroulad aSkaraa
gasaumjobeseblad da qiraobdnen, iwvevdnen msaxiobebs sxvadasxva
                                                                   religiaTa daaxloebis ideac: iesos monawileoba da TanagrZnoba
provinciebidan. samefo,Aaristokratiuli Tazies paralelurad,
                                                                   Siiti Sahidebisadmi (mowameebisadmi), saerTo sakacobrio
arsebobas ganagrZobda xalxuri Taziec, romelic saukuneTa
                                                                   Rirebulebebis da saerTo sulieri faseulobebis warmoCena.
siRrmidan im dromde arsebobda da kvebavda xalxis dabali
                                                                   TeatrSi warmodgenili es ideebi yovelmxriv momgebiani iyo
fenebis da farTo masebis sulier cxovrebas, magram imavdoulad
                                                                   yajarTa epoqis TaqieebisTvis, miT ufro, rom maT mayureblebSi
moSorebul da SedarebiT Rarib regionebSi arsebobas                  mravlad iyvnen iranSi Camosuli dasavleli mogzaurebi,
ganagrZobdnen WeSmaritad saxalxo TamaSxanebic, romelic             di plomatebi, mecnierebi, saqmiani xalxi da oficialuri pirebi.
yovelTvis da axlac ubralo xalxis SemowirulobebiT                   yajarTa droindeli dadgmebis ganviTareba bolos iseT
cxovrobda da sulier sazrdos awvdida Tavis Semomwirvelebs.          mimarTulebasac iZenda, rom, glovis garda, sxvagvar piesebsac
    aseTi xalxur tradiciebze damyarebuli Taziexanebi Tavisi        warmoadgendnen, xdeboda improvizireba. zogjer igrZnoboda,
fesvebiT Tazies misteriis saTaveebs ukavSirdebodnen.MmaTi          rom, tragediisa da glovis garda, xalxs garTobac unda. imave
Rirseba ki imaSia, rom isini farTo masebis uangaro da gulwrfel     TaziexanebSi paralelurad Semovida komediebi, xalxuri
siyvaruls emyarebodnen da kvebavdnen im siyvaruls. msaxiobebs      komediebi) sxvadasxva gasarTobi da TavSesaqcevi Janris piesebi.
xSirad qiraobdnen sezonurad, _ roca samiwaTmoqmedo samuSaoebi          saboloo jamSi SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom TaqieebSi Teatri
soflad amoiwureboda. zogs ki visac Zalian, moewoneboda             imxanad bunebrivad viTardeboda, sazogadoebis moTxovnebis
msaxioboba, xangrZlivad rCeboda.                                   Sesatyvisad.
    qali kvlavindeburad ar gamodioda scenaze, magram arsebobda         Tavad Tazies wyaroebi misi dadgmis mravalgvari variantis
`qalTa Tazieebi~, romelic Sinaurul wreSi qalbatonebis
                                                                   SesaZleblobas iZleva, Tanac imgvarad, rom interpolaciuri
garemocvaSi idgmeboda moyvarulTa mier. am mimdinareobis
                                                                   scenebis wyalobiT SesaZloa, sakuTriv tragedia aRar moeqces

80                                                                                                                                81
guliko mamulaSvili                                                                           `Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

centraluri yuradRebis qveS. swored amgvar mimarTulebebs           zogierTi komentari da mosazr eba spa rsuleno vani
vxedavT gasuli saukunis (igulisxmeba XIX saukune. g. m.)
                                                                  wyaroebisTvis:*
mogviano xanis dedaqalaqis TaqieTa moRvaweobaSi.
    Tazies wyaroebi Tavdapirvelad dasTanebi (Tqmulebebi,              1. amgvarad, ganxiluli wyaroebidan da specialuri
gadmocemebi, ambebi) iyo, Semdgom ki daiwyes maTi Cawera da       literaturidan irkveva, rom iranSi xalxuri Teatri _ saxioba,
bolos _ piesebis wera. Aam kuTxiT yajarTa epoqisTvis cnobili      islamis droidan Tu visaubrebT da uZveles epoqas aRar
saxelebic arsebobs: jer Taziexanebi (wamkiTxvelebi), Semdgom      SevexebiT _ adreuli Suasakuneebidanve iwyeba, anu, islamis
piesebis avtorebi, wasakiTxi Tu xmiT samRerali leqsebis damweri   epoqis saTaveebidanve momdinareobs. centraluri adgili amaSi
poetebi, scenaristebi da gadamwerebi, agreTve wamyvanebi da       `Tazies~ ukavia, romelic Tavdapirvelad mxolod samgloviaro-
                                                                  religiuri misteria iyo, Semdeg ki TandaTan ise ganviTarda,
reJisorebi. did TaqieebSi diriJorebic iyvnen, romlebic
                                                                  rom damatebiTi axali Senakadebi SeiZina da gviani Suasaukuneebis
musikalur dass niSans aZlevdnen, rodis daiwyon da daasrulon
                                                                  bolosTvis (sefianTa dros) da XIX saukuneSi, agreTve XX
Tavisi gamosvlebi.EerT-erTi elementi iyo agreTve winaTqma
                                                                  saukunis dasawyisamde, grandiozuli Teatraluri sanaxaobis
(piesis Sesavali), romelic TaqiedoulaTis pirobebSi
                                                                  donemde avida, rac ukve profesiuli Teatris xasiaTs atarebda.
Tavisuflad gamoiyeneboda.Mmas sxvadasxva variantiT specialuri         2. wyaroebis avtorebi revoluciamdeli iranis epoqas
mTqmeli asrulebda. Sesavali SeiZleba mTeli scenis saxiTac         ganekuTvnebian, amdenad maTi daskvnebic ukve warsuls ekuTvnis.
warmoCeniliyo.                                                    avtoris sinanuli Tazies daqveiTebadacemisa da degradaciis
    mogvepoveba Cawerili piesebis xelnaweri nimuSebic, leqsebis   gamo dRes aRar aris safuZvliani, radgan misteriuli msvlelobis
xelnawerebi da maTi variantebi.                                   saxiT kvlav aRorZinebulia, Tumca ar arsebobs im profesiuli
    dasavluri kulturis mZlavri nakadis SemoWrasTan da             saxiTa da masStabiT, rac yajarTa epoqis TaqieebSi imarTeboda.
gacxovelebuli kontaqtebis, Sedegad Taziesadmi interesi            Cven mainc vfiqrobT, rom Tazies udidesi tradiciebi Tanamedrove
TandaTan sustdeboda da igi brZanebiT ki ara, kvlav bunebrivad     sparsul Teatrsac erTgvarad kvebaven.DdRevandeli sparsuli
ukusvliTi dinamikiT ixevda ukan, vidre maRali profesiuli          Teatri aerTianebs Tavis TavSi erovnulsa da dasavlurs, da
Teatraluri scenidan ar Camovida da arsebiTad kvlav Tavis          manamde arnaxul ganviTarebas miaRwia. es aRaraa is ususuri
tradiciul poziciebs ar daubrunda. am saxiT igi dRemde             `dasavleTis mimbaZveloba~, razedac wuxs zemoaRniSnuli iraneli
arsebobs da uWiravs faqtobrivad Tavisi sawyisi istoriuli          avtori. Taziem ver SeinarCuna profesiuli Teatris poziciebi,
adgili da mdgomareoba. rogorc Cans, am adgils da statuss          magram aseTad rCeboda Tavisi istoriis TiTqmis ori saukunis
mas veraferi da veravin waarTmevs.                                manZilze, ori yvelaze saxelganTqmuli da Zlevamosili samefo
    dasanani mxolod isaa, rom garkveul periodSi erovnuli          dinastiis epoqebSi. xolo xalxuri misteriis saxiT igi ukve
saxiobis ganviTarebis nacvlad, iranSi bevri meorexarisxovani      saukuneebis manZilze ar Tmobs poziciebs da, Cveni azriT, zogadad
dasavluri piesebis TargmaniTa da arc Tu RirsSesaniSnavi           Teatraluri, saxioburi azrovnebis ganviTarebisTvis nayofier
dadgmebiT iyo dakavebuli, rac xels uSlida WeSmariti               masalas Seicavs. A
                                                                      3. `Tazie~ udidesi sulieri Rirebulebebis matarebeli da
xelovnebis ganviTarebas,AamasTanave, daingra da ar SemogvrCa
                                                                  Semcveli kulturuli monapovari iyo. igi araoden religiuri
didebuli Taqieebi, _ es originaluri Teatraluri Senobebi.
                                                                  (Siituri mimdinareobis) SinaarsiT iyo datvirTuli, aramed
                                                                  politikuri (irani arabTa eqspansiis winaaRmdeg) SeniRbuli


82                                                                                                                               83
guliko mamulaSvili                                                                                `Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

arsiTac. man Rrmad erovnuli mniSvneloba SeiZina: iranuli              specialuri mowyobiloba; scenografia, scenuri atributebi,
Segnebis TviTgamorkveva arabizaciisa da islamizaciis Semdgom,         kostumebi, niRbebi, grimi, cocxali cxovelebis monawileoba(!);
nawilobriv ki, _ dabruneba Zveli iranis fesvebTan, sasaniduri         Semdgom cocxali cxovelebis gamoyvana evropisa da ruseTis
sawyisebis Zieba personaJebis warmoSobis genealogiur                  scenebze XX saukunis did modernistul novatorobad iyo
labirinTebSi, da bolos, _ Rrmad erovnuli Teatraluri                   miCneuli da axlac aseTad aRiqmeba, _ dResac es modernul
kulturis Seqmna yovelive amis gamoisobiTa da Sedegad.                 eqstravagantobad miiCneva, iranisTvis ki es imTaviTve bunebrivi
    4. XIX saukuneSi iranma, zogadad aRmosavleTma mZlavrad            saxioburi xerxi yofila; da rac mTavaria: mayurebeli aTasobiT
gaiwia Tavisi mravalgvari interesebiT dasavleTisken, Zveli            hyoliaT! hyavdaT agreTve mecenatebi, mfarvelebi.
iranuli kulturidan da xalxuri eposidan aRmocenebuli                       amdenad, aSkaraa: saqme gvaqvs xalxuri tradiciis wiaRidan
misteria, romelSic Tavis mxriv ZvelTagan jer ebrauli, Semdeg          amozrdil namdvil profesiul saxiobasTan _ TeatrTan.
qristianuli da bolos arabuli elementebic iyo SeTvisebuli,                 9. `Taziem~ mTel msoflios uCvena, rom iranma ver da ar
Cvens dromde erTi-ori saukuniT adre TiTqmis Tu nawilobriv             daiviwya qerbalas ambavi (tragedia). aseTi mZlavri erovnuli
evropuli piesis saxiT idgmeboda da mas erTdroulad                     mexsiereba gamovlinda da aisaxa saxiobaSi, xolo saxiobam,
aRmosavleTic uWvretda da dasavleTic.                                  Tavis mxriv, didad gansazRvra sulierebis xarisxi da xelovnebisa
     5. xalxis wiaRSi warmoSobili es saxioba, dabal da farTo          da kulturis, Teatraluri skolebisa da saxiobis ganviTareba.
fenebSi naloliavebi da gafrTxilebuli, siyvaruliT motanili                 `Tazie~ unikaluri, fenomenologiuri movlena aris msoflio
gvian Suasaukuneebamde, sefianTa epoqidan dawyebuli, da Semdgom       Teatrisa da kulturis istoriaSi.
nadirSahis gamovliT, yajarebis friad ganaTlebul da
ganswavlul epoqaSi, aristokratiul da elitarul sanaxaobadac
gadaiqca da arnaxul masStabebs miaRwia. imavdroulad, orive
SemTxvevaSi igi Zalzed popularuli iyo. ramdenime aTasi
mayureblisTvis aSenebuli uzarmazari da grandiozuli Teatrebi
XVII-XIX saukuneebSi ivseboda Turme!
    6. `Tazies~ istoria gviCvenebs, rom SuasaukuneebSi iranSi
moRvaweobda namdvili profesiuli moxetiale Teatri, swored
iseTive, Tavisi wminda Teatraluri niSnebiT, rogoric evropaSi
iyo.
    7. `Taziem~ TandaTanobiT SeiZina, ZiriTadi misteriebis garda,     * wyaroebis warmodgenili mokle varianti qrestomaTiuli masalis
sxva speqtaklebis nusxac da aq, miT umetes, gadaiqca ara marto        saxiT da detaluri analiziT srulad calke gamoqveyndeba.
misteriul Teatrad, ara marto misteria-saxiobad, aramed Teatrad        beizan bahrami. iranis erovnuli Teatris istoria. Teirani. 1956
am sityvis dasavluri gagebiTac.                                       (sparsul enaze);
    8. `Tazie~ Teatris Semdegi niSnebis matarebelia: arsebuli          abul-yasem jenaTi aTani. iranuli Teatraluri warmodgenebis
                                                                      safuZvlebi. Teirani. 1956 (sparsul enaze);
dramaturgia (piesa), teqstebi _ jer zepiri, Semdeg ki saxiobis
                                                                      azarnuS azarTaSi. iranis xelovneba. Teirani. gam. senehri. 1976
werilobiTi nusxebi; aseve kiTxva, laparaki, musika, leqsi, simRera,   (sparsul enaze);
moqmedeba, moZraoba da sxva; profesionali msaxiobebi,                 abul-yasem anjavi Sirazi. iranis xalxuri Teatri. Teirani. gam.
profesionali reJisorebi, damdgmelebi, maTi TanaSemweebi,              amirqabiri. 1973 (sparsul enaze);
musikaluri dasebi; scena, Teatris Senoba, Teatraluri Senobis
84                                                                                                                                    85
                                                nino maWavariani,         da marTlac, is faqti, rom pirobiTobiTa da TeatralobiT
                                  wamyvani mecnier-TanamSromeli       zRaprebi TeatrisaTvis misaRebi mxatvruli formaa, Tavis droze
                                                                      karlo gocimac daamtkica, magram maT kidev erTi sikeTis motana
 evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis                           SeuZliaT _ isini ise qadageben simarTles, rom Tanamedrove
                   TeatrSi                                            realiebis zust konstatacias ar iTxoven. ase iwereba `Crdili~,
                                                                      `SiSveli mefe~, `drakoni~...
    `me miyvars Cexovi. miyvars cotaa. me ar mjera, rom adamianebi,       Tavis dRiurebSi Svarcma zRaprebis weris survili 1942
romelTac is ar uyvarT, namdvili adamianebi arian. rodesac             wlis 17 aprils gamoTqva, anu, maSin, rodesac is ukve aRiarebuli
Cem Tvalwin gamoxataven aRfrTovanebas CexoviT, iseT siamovnebas       dramaturgi iyo. ori wlis Semdeg ki Tavis antifaSistur
vgrZnob, TiTqos saubari CemTvis pirovnulad axlobel adamians           piesas `drakons~ wers. `Написал я тут пьесу... Зон и Большой
exebodes da am siyvarulSi ukanasknel adgilze ar dgas imis             Драматический собираются ее ставить. Даже репетируют. До чего
gacnobiereba, rom Cexovis maneriT wera CemTvis warmoudgenelia.        же отчаянные бывают люди на свете~.3 es sityvebic naTlad
misi niWi organulia, bunebrivi, mxolod misTvis damaxasiaTebeli.       gviCvenebs, Tu rogori TavmdablobiT gamoirCeva es dramaturgi,
CemSi ki is saswaulis SegrZnebas badebs. rogor SeeZlo ase             romelic sicocxleSive aRiares niWier dramaturgad, magram
wera?                                                                 misi namdvili fasi mogvianebiT gaiges _ maSin, rodesac misi
    romantikosebi, mezRapreebi da misTanani ki CemSi saswaulis        piesebi didi warmatebiT daidga sazRvargareT. mwerlis megobari
SegrZnebas ar badeben. meCveneba, rom ase wera iolia. me TviTonac     v. kaverini 1965 wels, anu, misi gardacvalebidan Svidi wlis
ase vwer... nuTu Cemze gavlenas is mwerlebi axdenen, romlebic         Semdeg, aRniSnavda ra, Tu rogor uWirda literaturis am
naklebad momwons? Tu aq saqme gvaqvs organul (rogorc,                 usayvarles Janrs (zRapars – n. m.), romelic sabWoTa
magaliTad, xma), Tandayolil midrekilebasTan literaturis am            msoflmxedvelobam arasaWirod, mavned da socialurad saSiSadac
saxeobisadmi?..                                                       ki CaTvala bavSvebisaTvis, ase mimarTavda mwerals: Ты знаешь,
    Cems pirvel piesas `undervuds~ gulwrfelad, realistur              а ведь я только теперь, перечитывая твои пьесы, понял, что тебе
nawarmoebad vTvlidi. gancvifrebiTa da kmayofilebiT gavige,            удалось. 4
rom Turme zRapris axali saxeoba Semiqmnia. es me Zalian                   eWvs gareSea, rom zRaprebs poeturi aRqmis unariT
momewona. vfiqrob, SemdgomSi me ufro gacnobierebulad, vidre           dajildovebuli adamianebi weren da mezRapreebis es qmnilebebi
adre, vcdilobdi, Cemi piesebi damsgavsebodnen zRaprebs~.1 evgeni      poeziis mxatvrul donezea Sesrulebuli (anderseni, Zmebi
Svarci yvelasaTvis gasagebi da erTi SexedviT, martivi                 grimebi). Tavisi dRiurebis sruliad ubralo, yofiT CanawerebSic
literaturuli formiT movida dramaturgiaSi da mainc SeZlo               ki Svarci gansakuTrebulia. is teqsts ar riTmavs, magram mis
Tavisi politikuri da pirovnuli mrwamsis mxatvruli                     striqonebSi yofis poeziis aRqmis unari gamosWvivis: `Как-то
srulyofilebiT gamoTqma. SeZlo gamoecxadebina is erTgvari              меня поразило, что все птицы моего детства умерли...~ _ wers
Teatraluri manifestebis _ piesa-zRaprebis saxiT. `Искусство           igi dRiurebSi 1950 wlis 24 dekembers. wignis saTauradac
вносит правильность, без формы не передашь ничего, а все              `Живу беспокойно~ SearCia da asec iyo mTeli misi cxovrebis
страшнее тем и страшнее, что оно бесформенно. Никто не избежит        manZilze.
искушения тут сделать трогательнее, там характернее, там                  evgeni Svarci peterburgSi 1921 wels Cavida rostovis
многозначительнее... Уж лучше сказки писать. Правдоподобием           TeatrTan erTad da SeuerTda am qalaqis literaturul kampanias.
не связан а правды - больше~.2                                        im dros axalgazrdoba erTmaneTs raRac iSviaTi komunikabelobiT


86                                                                                                                                87
nino maWavariani                                                                     evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis TeatrSi


_ Sinagani grZnobiT _ ecnoboda da uaxlovdeboda da Svarcic          calmxrivad moiazrebs. am zRapris siuJeti ar iTxovda drakonis
Seeria maT, rogorc samxreTeli _ Crdiloelebs, rogorc msaxiobi       realuri saxiT Cvenebis aucileblobas. boroteba xom saxes
_ mwerlebs. megobari mwerlebi sul fiqrobdnen, rom igi              yoveli epoqis Sesabamisad icvlis da mxolod imitom parpaSebs
daiwyebda weras, radgan es axalgazrda, temperamentiani msaxiobi,   amqveyanaze, rom brbos masTan brZolis unari, axlis, ukeTesisa
nerviuli, moZravi, feTqebadi, yvelafers iWerda Tvisi Wkviani       da miT ufro, sikeTis damkvidrebis unari ar Seswevs. es mxolod
cocxali TvalebiT da sityvaSi svamda. myisierad xvdeboda            im srulfasovan sazogadoebas xelewifeba, romelic Tavad qmnis
yovel dafarul azrs Tu grZnobas.                                    moralur kodeqss da emorCileba mas.
    20-ian wlebSi evgeni Svarcs hqonda gonebamaxvilobiT                `SeibraleT erTmaneTi da maSin bednierebi iqnebiT. es aris
gamorCeuli improvizaciebi, romelTac is Tavis megobrebTan _         yvelaze didi simarTle, rac ki arsebobs am qveyanaze~ _ es
zoSCenkosTan da luncevTan erTad dgamda xelovnebis saxlis           sityvebi am piesis mTavar gmirs, lancelots ekuTvnis.
romelime darbazSi. am `kapustnikebze~ ikribebodnen mwerlebi,           `drakoni~ rusTavelis akademiurma Teatrma `yvaryvares~
mxatvrebi, musikosebi, xelovnebis moyvaruli axalgazrdoba. aq       dadgmidan ori wlis da `kavkasiuri carcis wris~ dadgmidan
yalibdeboda momavali mwerlis ganumeorebeli satiruli niWi,          erTi wlis Semdeg SesTavaza mayurebels. es iyo 1976 weli. man
romelic mogvianebiT mis dramaturgiaSi gamobrwyinda.                organulad da pirdapiri gziT gaagrZela zemoxsenebul
    1925 wels gamovida evgeni Svarcis pirveli wigni `Zveli         warmodgenaTa mTavari saTqmeli. masac iseve, rogorc `kavkasiurs~
balalaikis naambobi~. ase daibada is, rogorc mwerali. man          axasiaTebda gamokveTili Teatraloba da pirobiToba, romelSic
Seqmna brwyinvale nawarmoebebi bavSvebisaTvis leqsad Tu prozad,    ara mxolod dramaturgiulad, aramed vizualuradac ikiTxeboda
magram misi SesaZleblobebis mcodne megobrebi Tvlidnen, rom         reJisoris azri Svarcis piesis irgvliv. borotebasTan brZolis
mas niWis erTi meoTxedic ki ar hqonda gamovlenili da is            da sikeTis gamarjvebis garda, rac erTgvarad anaTesavebda piesas
jer kidev izrdeboda SemoqmedebiTi TvalsazrisiT. isini ar           `carcis wresTan~, man win wamoswia uzenaesi xelisuflis _
cdebodnen.                                                         diqtatoris Tema, romelic ~yvaryvareSi~ JRerda.
    Svarcma SeZlo yofis poeziisa da poeziis yofiTobis Serwyma          am speqtaklze ar arsebobs arc erTi recenzia, arc
originaluri Teatraluri formiT. misi zRaprebi is Wkviani            TeatrmcodneTa da arc literatorTa mier dawerili. mxolod
zRaprebia, romlebic umRerian sikeTes, magram amavdroulad,          mogvianebiT, sxva warmodgenaze msjelobisas b-ni niko yiasaSvili
politikuri da satiruli simaxviliT gviCveneben borotebas,           ityvis mis Sesaxeb, rom robert sturuas an `yvaryvare~ unda
romelic yovelTvis arsebobs Cvens garSemo da yvela epoqaSi          daedga, an `drakoni~ am nawarmoebTa zeamocanebis identurobis
mTavar rolSia. gviCveneben sikeTis umweobas, romelic marTlac       gamo da radganac `yvaryvare~ ukve dadgmulic iyo da
rom zRapriseuli paradoqsulobiT imarjvebs xolme borotebaze,         aRiarebulic, meoris dadgmas Temis gameorebis sababiT uadgilod
radgan adamianTa umravlesoba mainc Sinaganad sikeTis mxarezea,     miiCnevda. jer erTi, am Temas robert sturuam iseTi saetapo
Tumc aseve umravlesoba arasodes ibrZvis mis dasamkvidreblad.       mniSvnelobis speqtaklebi miuZRvna, rogorebic iyo Seqspiris
sazogadoeba erTeuli gmirebis, Zlieri borotebisa da misi            `riCard mesame~ da `mefe liri~, romlebSic reJisori swored
pasiuri da arapersonificirebuli qveSevrdomebisagan Sedgeba.        gvirgvinis, anu diqtaturis, problemas aJRerebda da am gziT
es aris misi zogadi modeli da rogor hgavs igi `Crdilisa~           iwvevda asociaciebs Tanamedrove qarTuli yofis irgvliv.
Tu `drakonis~ zRaparTa personaJebsa da samyaros...                 aRsaniSnavia, rom arc erT recenzents ar mosvlia azrad, misTvis
    Svarci 1944 wels `drakons~ aSkara antifaSisturi                am warmodgenaTa zeamocanebis identurobaSi daedo brali da
ganwyobilebiT qmnis, Tumc diqtatoris Temas is arcTu                erT-erTi maTganis zedmetoba am gziT daesabuTebina. ra Tqma


88                                                                                                                                  89
nino maWavariani                                                                   evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis TeatrSi

unda, aq saqme sxva movlenas exeboda. is pirvelive Cvenebaze     erideba iyos gulaxdili. sturuas am mosazrebas kidev ufro
akrZala maSindelma xelisuflebam da presam gasagebi mizezebis     amyarebda kritikos k. rudnickis gakvirveba, Tu rogori
gamo ver SeZlo misi dacva. zogma ki, rogorc vxedavT, mTavrobis   TavisuflebiT eqceoda reJisori lenins (Satrovis `lurja
poziciis dasabuTebac ki SeZlo.                                   cxenebi wiTel balaxze~, sadac man leninis sami personaJi
    ra periodSi daidga `drakoni~ qarTul scenaze? amas yvelaze    SesTavaza mayurebels) da Tundac stanislavskis legendarul
ukeT daaxasiaTebda piesis pirveli suraTis zRapruli personaJis    saxelebs. sturuas TiTqmis yvela speqtakls, romelsac is
_ katis replika: `cxovreba gvaswavlis, roca Tbilad xar da        samSobloSi an mis gareT dgams, atyvia reJisoris, rogorc
Tanac rbilad (Targmani r. sturuasa da l. fofxaZis), jobia        Tavisufali pirovnebis, SemoqmedebiTi silaRis kvali. m. ulianovi
Tvlemde da Cumad iyo. dumilSia mTeli sibrZne, Zvirfaso~.         m. Satrovis `brestis zavis~ Sesaxeb werda: `Tundac samarcxvinod
dRes am dros e. w. uZraobis periods veZaxiT. piesa zRaparia,     CavflavebuliyaviT, mainc Rirda. Cven Tavi xelovanebad vigrZeniT,
magram es zRaprad moTxrobili ambavi Tavisi scenuri               vigemeT riskis mSveniereba. sturuam iseT muSaobaSi CagviTria,
metaforebiTa da mxatvruli simbolikiT ti purad asaxavs            rogorzec sul cota xniT adre verc ki viocnebebdiT~, magram
totalitaruli saxelmwifos cxovrebis models, romelsac              es riski mainc sxva iyo. Tuki `yvaryvareseuli~ diqtatorebidan
ise, rogorc arc erTi sxva politikuri wyobis saxelmwifos,         arc erTi aRar iyo cocxali, `drakonis~ SemTxvevaSi saqme
sWirdeba zRapruli gmiri, romelic daamarcxebs diqtators.          uaresad iyo. visac unaxavs speqtakli, albaT, axsovs, Tu rogor
    speqtaklSi Sarlemani, anu misi saxiT xalxi, moCvenebiTad     hgavda msaxiobi guram saRaraZe aw gansvenebul leonid ilias
mainc kmayofilia da Seguebuli drakonis arsebobas da aramc        Ze breJnevs, romelic, sxvaTa Soris, maSin gansvenebuli ar gaxldaT
Tu Sarlemani, aramed drakonis momavali msxverpli _ mSvenieri     da es iyo mTavari. ulvaSebi, saxis moTeTro feri, Tmis
elzac moxiblulia perspeqtiviT, rom misi gardacvalebis dRes       varcxniloba, siarulis miseuli manera da datkepnili, marTalia
xalxi funTuSebs `sabralo gogonas~ daarqmevs da SuadReze          qarTuli, magram iSviaTi sizustiT SerCeuli intonaciebiT
miirTmevs. ufro metic. xalxi sikTesac ki xedavs drakonSi,        metyveleba pirdapir asociaciebs badebda. am faqtma TiTqmis
romelmac epidemia mospo qalaqSi cecxliT, romelsac afrqvevs,      Sokuri reaqcia gamoiwvia garkveuli ti pis mayurebelTa Soris.
tba aaduRa. qalaqelebi ixsna boSebisagan _ im Tavisufali             drakoni-g.saRaraZe sulac ar iyo is zRapruli urCxuli,
bunebis xalxisagan, romelTac SeeZloT gadamdebad emoqmedaT        romelic spobs adamianebs an sadilad miirTmevs. is evropulad
da gaexsenebinaT maTTvis Tavisuflebis bedniereba da silamaze.    Cacmuli Suaxnis mamakaci gaxldaT, romelic sakmaod logikurad
miuxedavad imisa, rom drakoni Zroxebis jogebsa da cxvris         azrovnebda da miT ufro, moqmedebda. magram diqtatori
farebs anadgurebda da qaliSvilebsac iTxovda desertad,            diqtatoria da amitom drakonisTvis misarTmev gogonas
burgomistris azriT, zRapruli gmiri qalaqisTvis mainc zedmeti     wamoZaxilSi `raRa am drakonis dros davibadeo,~ iSviaTi
da arasaWiro iyo. `Cveni qalaqis saamayo Svilebi movidnen da     mentalobis grZnoba isadgurebda yovel CvenganSi. Cven yvelas
muxlmodrekiT gevedrebian, waeTrioT aqedan~, _ mimarTavda is      maSin sxva droSi cxovreba gvenatreboda da ar vicodiT, rom
lancelots. rom ityvian, asociaciebi naTeli iyo. Svarcis          namdvil Tavisuflebamde arsebobs Turme raRac gardamavali
mizani beladis saxis SeuniRbavi Cveneba iyo, magram ara im       droc, romelic jer Svarcma da Semdgom sturuam `drakonis~
beladisa, romelic 70-iani wlebis miwurulis qarTul scenaze        safinalo sceniT dagvanaxes ase aSkarad da daufaravad _
gamoCnda.                                                        gmiris mier drakonis damarcxebas Tan mohyva patara pauza,
    mocemuli periodis erT-erT interviuSi robert sturua           radgan lanceloti daiWra da goneba dakarga. es dro gaxda
aRniSnavda felinis Sesaxeb, rom geniosi Tavisufalia. mas ar      sakmarisi imisaTvis, rom qalaqis burgomistrs, anu mTavrobas,


90                                                                                                                                91
nino maWavariani                                                                      evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis TeatrSi

xelSi aeRo Zalaufleba. piesaSi amas burgomistri xalxisadmi           Sedga da man Tqva Tavisi saTqmeli ara mxolod mxatvruli
mimarTviT axerxebs. sturuas speqtaklSi ki es azri saxierad           srulyofilebiT, aramed im politikuri TavisuflebiTac, romlis
ganxorcielda. wiTel-yviTel bafTebSebmuli burgomistri,                saSualeba mas pirovnulma gambedaobam da evgeni Svarcis
romelic oriod wuTis win buCqebSi imaleboda da Wkuas uxmobda:         SesaniSnavma nawarmoebma misca.
modi CemTano, anu giJs TamaSobda (an iyo kidec), brZolis
velze movida. man daWrili raindisa da elzas gverdiT dagdebul
urCxulis ski ptras mokra Tvali, aiRo xelSi es joxi, ris
Semdgomac moxda saswauli: scenaze Semosuli qalaqis mosaxleoba,
romelic yvelafris daTvalierebas da ambis gagebas cdilobda,
sul erT wamSi or mwkrivad ganlagda da ukan gahyva burgomistrs,
rogorc yoCs _ cxvris fara. burgomistris mier Zalauflebis
mopovebis scena iyo reJisoris namdvili gamarjveba da Svarcis
am nawarmoebis mxatvruli srulyofilebiT gaazreba.
    maSasadame, guSindelma giJma, romlis mier qalaqis marTva
pirobiTi iyo da urCxuls emorCileboda, dRes qveynis marTva
daiwyo. drakoni, romelic ara adamianis, aramed misi sulis
nafleTebad qcevas natrobda misi samudamo damonebis mizniT,
Secvala giJma (`drakonis mZleveli Tavisufali prezidenti
mobrZandeba~), romelmac monoba ki ar aRmofxvra xalxSi, aramed
piriqiT, drakonis diqtatura gaagrZela. asociaciebma awmyos
gadaaWarba da momavlis winaswarmetyveleba daiwyo. es faqti
araerTxel SeumCneviaT reJisoris SemoqmedebaSi da dauweriaT
kidec mis Sesaxeb. amis magaliTad Tundac `mefe liris~ safinalo
scenebic sakmarisiaa.
    `Tavisufleba gaCuqeT, Tqven ki ra CaidineT~ _ am sityvebiT
mimarTavda xalxs lanceloti (msax. k. kavsaZe) romelic                1. Евгений Шварц, Живу беспокойно... советский писатель, 1990
sikvdils saswaulebrivad gadarCenili brundeboda qalaqSi.              (1948г);
`elza, drakoni ar momkvdara, isev adamianad iqca, mTel qalaqs        2. iqve;
moedo da Tqvens sulSi Casaxlda, magram Cven amas movuvliT,           3. iqve;
yvela TqvenganSi movklav drakons!~                                   4. М.Слониьслий, собр.соч.т.4 стр.513;
    brZola grZeldeba. is ar damTavrebula, radgan monobas
SeCveulma Tavisuflebis fasi ar icis. lancelotis mizani da            gamoyenebuli literatura:
misi rwmena, bednierebi viqnebiT, radgan miyvarxarTo, ufro imedian   · В. Каверин, избранные произведения, «художественная
momavals gamoxatavda, vidre awmyos SesaZlo realizacias.              литература», 1977, т.2, стр. 651;
    rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, `drakoni~ moxsnes repertuaridan,           gaz.: `Tbilisi~. 1987.16.11. r. sturua. saWirboroto da
Tumca sturuas ukmayofileba mainc ar emCneoda, radgan speqtakli       maradiuli reJisoris xelovnebaSi (k. rudnickis interviu).


92                                                                                                                                   93
                                             gubaz megreliZe,      Casvla da dasTan lanZRva-muqariT saubari, dasis Semcirebis
                                 wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli      mcdeloba, korporaciasa da marjaniSvils Soris konfliqtis
                                                                   gaRrmaveba. uS. CxeiZe pirdapir wers, rom maswavlebels Tavisi
        uSangi CxeiZis ucnobi mogoneba                             aRzrdilebi daupirispirdnen da brZola gaumarTes: `marTalia,
     `kotes rusTavelis Teatridan wasvla~                           marjaniSvili sardlis uflebebiT iyo aRWurvili, magram raRaa
                                                                   igi sardali, romelsac jari aujanydeba. jari ki korporacia
    uSangi CxeiZis dRemde gamouqveynebeli mogoneba mravalmxrivaa   da mTeli axalgazrdoba iyo.~ uS. CxeiZes awuxebs ra konfliqtis
saintereso. masSi asaxulia rusTavelis TeatrSi arsebuli             arsSi Cawvdoma, gulwrfelad wers: `am sakiTxs axla, sruliad
faruli, Tu aSkara dapirispirebebi, ramac mogvianebiT kote          obieqturad minda mivudge, ramdenadac SevZleb vcado simarTlis
marjaniSvilis Teatridan wasvla ganapiroba.                         garkveva, radgan marjaniSvilis rusTavelis Teatridan wasvlis
    mogonebaSi mocemulia rusTavelis Teatris 1924-26 wlebis         namdvili mizezi jerac gamourkvevelia, an arada damaxinjebuli~.
SemoqmedebiTi analizi, agreTve k. marjaniSvilsa da s. axmetels         uSangi CxeiZe mokled ixsenebs 1924 wels momxdar konfliqts,
Soris Tavidan kargi urTierTobis TandaTanobiTi daZabva da           ramac Teatridan s. axmetelis xanmokle wasvla ganapiroba.Ees
ukiduresad gamwvaveba, Tu ra viTarebebma ganapirobes               incidenti asaxulia korporacia `durujis~ 1924 wlis 31
konfliqturi situaciis Seqmna, raSic gvarebis dausaxeleblad         ianvris #9 oqmSi. saqme exeba gazeT `komunistis~ publikacias
msaxiobTa garkveul jgufsac moixseniebs: `marjaniSvilis             `axalgazrda msaxiobebis manifesti~,1 romelic mimarTuli iyo
gajavrebis erTaderTi namdvili mizezi is iyo, rom mis               korporaciis winaaRmdeg. viTarebis gasarkvevad korporaciasTan
warmodgenaSi axmeteli metad gaTavxedda da TandaTanobiT mas         SeuTanxmeblad s. axmeteli, v. jiqia, pl. koriSeli da ak. vasaZe
Teatr s a c l ida _ a s e a r w mu nebda m as , zo g i er Ti       redaqciaSi mividnen, rasac incidenti mohyva.Aamitom isini
keTilismsurveli~.                                                  disci plinis darRvevisTvis korporaciidan garicxes. 2
    samagierod, konkretul pirebs Tavis mogonebaSi akaki xorava     Tebervals k. marjaniSvili incidentis monawileebTan erTad
asaxelebs, riTac uS. CxeiZis mogonebis es faqti dasturdeba         redaqciaSi mivida da bodiSi moixada.
da srulyofili saxiT warmogvidgeba.Bbatoni akaki wers:                  amis Sesaxeb `durujis~ 3 Tebervlis #10 oqmSi aRniSnulia:
`durujSi~ imTaviTve ori jgufi Seiqmna _ erTi, ase vTqvaT,          `redaqcia `komunistTan~ momxdari molaparakebis Semdeg, sadac
aristokratia, `kulturul~ msaxiob-moRvaweebSi miRebuli xalxi,       gairkva, rom araviTari mZime, zneobrivi danaSauli ar CaudeniaT
ukve saxelmoxveWili: v. anjafariZe, g. daviTaSvili, e. donauri,    Cvens oTx amxanags _ axmetels, jiqias, koriSels da vasaZes, _
b. gamrekeli da sxvani.…pirveli jgufis mier axmetelis              korporacia winadadebas aZlevs maT daubrundnen Cvens wres...~
damuSavebam umaRles wertils miaRwia. isini cdilobdnen,             amrigad, es garicxva simboluri xasiaTis iyo da uS. CxeiZe
rogorme kotes guli acrueboda sandroze...~ aqve aRvniSnav,          cdeba, rodesac ambobs _ axmeteli Teatridan wasulic ki iyoo.
rom ak. xoravas mogoneba kotes Teatridan wasvlis Taobaze,              am mogonebidan is viTarebac kargad Cans, rom or did
Zalian hgavs uS. CxeiZis Sexedulebebs da erTobliobaSi srulad       xelovans Soris urTierTobis daZabva mxolod `lamaras~ dadgmam
warmosaxaven TeatrSi Seqmnil mZime viTarebas.                      ar ganapiroba, rasac win uZRvoda marjanisvilsa da `durujs~
    uS. CxeiZe gabedulad asaxelebs im mizezebs, ramac dasi k.      Soris konfliqturi viTarebis Seqmna.
marjaniSvilis winaaRmdeg ganawyo da axmetelis mxares                   mniSvnelovania is faqtic, Tu rodis naxa marjaniSvilma
gadavida.Aaseve Tamamad aris mocemuli k. marjaniSvilis mier        pirvelad speqtakli `lamara~, vinaidan amis Sesaxeb arsebobs
daSv ebuli       Secdomebi       da    dasis     moTxovnebis       Tamar wulukiZis, mixeil yvarelaSvilis, akaki vasaZisa da dodo
gauTvaliswinebloba.Eesenia: kotes avadmyofoba, misi baTumSi        anTaZis winaaRmdegobrivi mogonebebi.
94                                                                                                                             95
                                                                                                           uSangi  CxeiZis ucnobi mogoneba
gubaz   megreliZe                                                                                    `kotes rusTavelis Teatridan wasvla~

    uS. CxeiZis TqmiT, marjaniSvilma speqtakli Teatris              dasasruleblad axmetelmac, didi Sroma Caatara, magram es
gastrolebidan dabrunebis Semdeg, fexburTelTa gund `durujis~         araviTar uflebas ar aZlevda, rom dadgma sakuTrad mas
materialuri daxmarebisTvis gamarTul saSefo RonisZiebaze             mieTvisebina, rasac SemdgomSi hqonda adgili, rodesac
naxa.Aaseve mniSvnelovania cnoba, Tu ra garemoebebma SeuSales       marjaniSvili Teatridan wavida.~Aam SemTxvevaSi uS. CxeiZe ver
xeli baTumsa da zestafonSi speqtaklis Cvenebas, ramac               asxvavebs 1926 wlis marjaniSvil-axmetelis dadgmas 1930 wels
marjaniSvilis eWvebi dasis mimarT ufro gaaRrmava. sxvaTa            ax meteli s m ier dadg mul sr uli ad da mou kidebeli
Soris, arcerTi moRvawis mogonebebSi ar ixsenieba `lamaras~          speqtaklisgan.Oorive warmodgena erTmaneTisgan radikalurad
Cvenebis TariRi, romelic gaz. `komunistis~2 cnobiT 13 ivliss        gansxvavdeboda da yovlad dauSvebelia axmetels mimTvisebeli
gaimarTa.                                                           ewodos.Aamaze metyvelebs orive speqtaklze arsebuli recenziebi,
    Tamar wulukiZe wers, rom marjaniSvilma `lamara~                 Teatralur moRvaweTa memuarebi da araerTi samecniero
specialurad misTvis gamarTul daxurul speqtaklze naxa:               gamokvleva.
`konstantine aleqsandres Zem speqtakli `lamara~ naxa mxolod              s. axmeteli `lamaras~ miTvisebas arc cdilobda, vinaidan
dasis sagastrolo mogzaurobidan dabrunebis Semdeg. misTvis           speqtakli marjaniSvilis Teatridan wasvlis Semdeg moixsna.
rusTavelis Teatris scenaze daxuruli speqtakli specialerad           moskovSi gastrolebis Semajamebel ganxilvaze 1933 wlis 25
gaimarTa. rogorc axla, ise vxedav mas benuaris me-12 loJaSi,        ivniss s. axmeteli pirdapir acxadebda: `...Cven garkveviT davinaxeT,
ojaxuri sinklitis garemocvaSi lele vaCnaZis meTaurobiT.             rom gza, romelic naCvenebi iyo Teatris xelmZRvanelobis mier,
cnobilia, rom konstantine aleqsandres Ze ukmayofilo darCa           marjaniSvilis mier _ es is gza aRar iyo, romelic Cven
Tanadamdgmelis namuSevriT da misTvis Cveuli maneriT amis            gvWirdeboda... da daiwyo... patiosani principuli brZola~.Aaqedan
damalva saWirod ar CaTvala.3                                        gamomdinare, axmetels Tavisi gansxvavebuli mxatvruli xedva
    sinamdviles ar Seesabameba mixeil yvarelaSvilis mogoneba,       hqonda da marjaniSviliseuli stili misTvis miuRebeli iyo.
TiTqos `lamaras~ premieraze miiyvanes avadmyofi marjaniSvili:            unda aRiniSnos, rom uS. CxeiZe iseT detalebs ixsenebs, rac
`TviTon axmetelma etliT, eqimebis daxmarebiT moiyvana               sxvaTa mogonebebSi ar gvxvdeba da ukeT warmoaCens pirad
kote.Aaxmeteli mxarSi Seudga da ase aiyvana loJaSi.Kkote            urTierTobaTa sirTuleebsa Tu intrigebs, romlebic Teatralur
Tvalcremliani uyurebda speqtakls. speqtaklis Semdeg xalxis          cxovrebaze zegavlenas axdendnen.Aam urTierTobebis gamwvaveba
gasagonad marjaniSvilma ganacxada, rom aseTi speqtaklis dadgma      Teatris dasavleT saqarTvelosa da kaxeTSi gastrolebmac
Cemi ocnebaao~.4                                                    ganapiroba, romelic 1926 wlis 22 aprilidan 29 ivnisamde
    arc, dodo anTaZis mogonebaa uzustobisgan daculi, sadac          mimdinareobda. uS. CxeiZe s. axmetelisa da v. anjafariZis
wers: `saavadmyofodan gamosulma marjaniSvilma miaSura Teatrs        konfliqtze miuTiTebs. d. anTaZe am incidents saerTod ar
da Tavidan bolomde uyura speqtakl `lamaras~.Bbunebrivia,            ixseniebs da mxolod Teatris Sida konfliqtis gamwvavebaze
rom es mas ar moewona, Zalze TavSekavebulad, magram mainc           zogadad saubrobs.
agrZnobina axmetels Tavis ukmayofileba, rogorc Teatris                   uS. CxeiZe am gastrolebze v. anjafariZis aryofnas operaciis
xelmZRvanelma~.5                                                    g a keTeb i Ta da a x m etel -a nj a f a r i Zi s ko nf l i q tu r i
    uS. CxeiZe, T. wulukiZe da d. anTaZe mxolod im garemoebaSi      damokidebulebiT xsnis. gamojanmrTelebis Semdeg igi kotes
arian erTsulovanni, rom marjaniSvilma loJa ukmayofilom              nebarTviT `hamletSi~ ofelias rolis Sesasruleblad quTaisSi
datova.                                                             Cavida.Aam faqts Teatrmcodne naTela uruSaZe ase xsnis: `maSin
    uS. CxeiZe ar aris marTali, rodesac wers, TiTqosda, axmetelma   is fexmZimed iyo da Tavs SeuZlod grZnobda, magram amis Sesaxeb,
`lamaras~ dadgma usamarTlod miisakuTra: `piesis                     etyoba, aravisTvis uTqvams~.6 am incidents ak. vasaZec aRniSnavs,
96                                                                                                                                     97
                                                                                                       uSangi  CxeiZis ucnobi mogoneba
gubaz   megreliZe                                                                                `kotes rusTavelis Teatridan wasvla~

mxolod v. anjafariZis gvaris dausaxeleblad mas uaryofiT           patariZe zestafonSi Cavida, saidanacUuSangisa da dodo
konteqstSi ixseniebs: `zogierT amxanags mxolod quTaissa da        anTaZesTan erTad sofel rionSi wavidnen. sainteresoa, rom
baTumSi moundaT monawileobis miReba~-o.7 Tamar wulukiZe           uSangi CxeiZe Sexvedris iniciatorad kukuri patariZes asaxelebs,
(dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 162) ki wers, rom korporaciis            dodo anTaZe (gv. 344) ki am iniciativas sakuTar Tavze iRebs:
ukompromiso gadawyvetilebiT axmetelma da sagastrolo               `me damevala Cavsuliyavi zestafonSi, sadac imyofeboda uSangi
komisiam v. anjafariZes ofelias rolis Sesrulebaze uari            CxeiZe, iqedan ki wavsuliyaviT quTaisSi kukuri patariZesTan
uTxra.                                                            da samiveni unda gavmgzavrebuliyaviT rionSi~. Tanac d. anTaZe
    sxvadasxva mogonebaSi gansxvavebulad aris aRwerili k.         marSrutsac gansxvavebulad aRwers.Aakaki vasaZe ki upiratesobas
marjaniSvilis baTumSi Casvla. uS. CxeiZis mogonebiT, kotes        arcerT maTgans ar aniWebs: `dodo anTaZes, uSangi CxeiZesa da
sadgurze mxolod oriode kaci Sexvda. T. wulukiZis8 azriT,          kukuri patariZes gadaewyvitaT Cveni da batoni kotes naxva~
kotes Sesaxvedrad sadgurze mTeli dasi movida. Dd. anTaZis9        (gv. 229). sxva mxriv samive avtoris mogoneba marjaniSvilTan
cnobiT, kote moulodnelad dasma baTumSi samxedro eklesiis          Sexvedris Sesaxeb realurad asaxavs Seqmnil viTarebas da
kibeebze suraTis gadaRebisas dainaxa.Aak. vasaZe10 ki kotesTan    erTmaneTs avsebs.
Sexvedras pirdapir TeatrSiMmosvlidan aRwers, Tumca yvela              aucileblad unda aRiniSnos, rom uS. CxeiZis, ak. xoravas, ak.
maTi maswavleblis gajavrebul da oficialur saubars erTxmad         vasaZis da d. anTaZis mogonebebSi erTiani azri ikveTeba k.
aRiarebs.                                                         marjaniSvilis xasiaTis sificxis, dasze ganawyenebis, Teatridan
    uS. CxeiZe, rodesac saubrobs k. marjaniSvilisa da i.          wasvlis Sesaxeb, raSic mniSvnelovan rols obieqtur garemoebaTa
gedevaniSvilis mier TeatrSi Catarebul Semcirebaze,                garda, TamaSobda moaruli Worebi, marjaniSvilisa Tu axmetelis
mxedvelobaSi aqvs xelovnebis saqmeTa mTavari sabWos prezidiumis   mxridan enis mimtanebi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom uS. CxeiZe zog
1926 wlis 17 ivlisis #666 brZaneba.Aam reorganizaciiT             epizodSi daufaravad adanaSaulebs k. marjaniSvilis garemocvasa
marjaniSvili `durujis~ winaaRmdegobis saboloo gatexvasa           da ojaxis wevrebs, rogorc konfliqtis wamqezeblebs.Aamave
da sakuTari poziciebis ganmtkicebas cdilobda, Tumca               azrs iziarebs akaki xoravac, rodesac wers: `TandaTan ise
sawinaaRmdego Sedegi miiRo.                                       gaaRvives kotes eWvebi sandros mimarT, rom imanac sandroze
    uS. CxeiZe naTlad warmoaCens k. marjaniSvilsa da `durujs~     guli aicrua.~ uSangic imaves ambobs: `mas ase TandaTanobiT
Soris arsebuli brZolis mizezebs. igi daufaravad saubrobs          aZulebdnen axmetels~.Oorive msaxiobi k. marjaniSvilis ojaxis
ukompromiso dapirispirebasa da arsebul intrigebze. ixsenebs       Sesaxeb msgavs poziciaze dgas _ uS. CxeiZe wers: `misi axloblebi
im viTarebasac, rodesac k. marjaniSvili TiToeul msaxiobs          aramc Tu ar ifaravdnen aseTi Secdomebisgan, aramed isedac
masTan muSaobas sTavazobda.                                       ficxsa da eWvian adamians sawinaaRmdego qmedebaSi uwyobdnen
    es epizodi agreTve aRwerili aqvT Tavis mogonebebSi akaki      xels.Mmisi ojaxi gadagvarebuli qalebisgan Sedgeboda, romelTac
vasaZes (gv. 225-227), Tamar wulukiZes (gv. 164), xolo dodo       arc uyvardaT da arc ainteresebdaT rogorc Teatri, ise saerTod
anTaZe am moments saerTod ar asaxelebs. gansxvaveba mxolod        qarTuli kultura. maT mxolod patara, wvrilmani, yoveldRiuri
imaSia, rom akaki vasaZe am Sexvedras k. marjaniSvilis binaSi     adamianuri interesebi amoZravebdaT da aseTi xalxi kargs
aRwers, T. wulukiZe Teatris direqtoris kabinetSi, xolo uS.        arafers gaagonebda da verc raime goniers urCevda.~Aakaki
CxeiZe ki saubris adgils ar akonkretebs.                          xorava ki ase afasebs: `Seiswavles ra kotes sisuste, donauris
    uSangi CxeiZe aRwers korporantebis Sexvedras k.               ojaxi TiTqmis yoveldRe marTavda qeifebs kotesTvis... mudam
marjaniSvilTan sofel rionSi, sadac `samaniSvilis                  dRe iyo damuSaveba korporaciisa misi daSlis mizniT.Aaxmetelis
dedinacvalis~ gadaRebebi mimdinareobda. igi igonebs, rom          damuSaveba, TiTqos mtrisa marjaniSvilis.~
Tbilisidan korporaciis imJamindeli mamasaxlisi kukuri
98                                                                                                                                 99
gubaz   megreliZe

     sainteresoa, rom uS. CxeiZis am mogonebis fragmenti Sesulia                                                  manana turiaSvili,
s. axmetelis krebulis pirvel tomSi (sTs, 1978), sadac aRniSnulia,                                               asistent-profesori
rom dedani dakargulad iTvleba. sinamdvileSi dedani daculia
saq. Teatris, musikis, kinosa da qoreografiis sax. muzeumis                            aTasi saxis adamiani
fondSi (f. 1, saqme #570, x-16888, saqaRalde #9).                                          (mixeil Cexovi)
     vfiqrobT, rom am mogonebis gamoqveyneba zog pirs ar awyobda,
vinaidan uS. CxeiZe daufaravad saubrobs k. marjaniSvilis                  m. Cexovi werda: `ratom ambobs poeti, rom apoloni misgan
garSemo Seqmnil viTarebebze, mis pirovnul naklsa, Tu Rirsebebze,      wminda msxverpls iTxovs? ratom msxverpls? imitom, rom miece
korporacia `durujis~ poziciebze. Cans, rom uS. CxeiZe garkveul        STagonebas da STagonebis gziT mayurebels, drois suls, epoqas
sakiTxebSi k. marjaniSvils ar eTanxmeba da xSirad                     da a. S. _ es niSnavs msxverplis Sewirvas.~
gamarTlebulia s. axmetelis gadawyvetilebebi.Ees mogoneba im               roca moskovis samxatvro TeatrSi (mxatSi) stanislavskim
garemoebasac cxadyofs, rom kotes rusTavelis Teatridan                 m. Cexovs `mousmina~, nemiroviC-danCenkos uTxra: `anton pavles
wasvlaSi is msaxiobebi monawileobdnen, romlebmac TavianTi             Zis ZmisSvili _ geniosia.~ 1912 wels m. Cexovi mxatis filialis
maswavlebeli aiZules erTad Seqmnili Teatridanac wasuliyo,             ganyofilebaSi Caricxes, TanamSromlad. 1913 wels samxatvro
magram Seqmnes legenda _ TiTqosda sicocxlis bolomde mis               Teatris dasSia. mxatis msaxiobebi k. s. stanislavskis sistemis
erTgul mowafeebad darCnen.                                            gadasamowmebel eqsperimentebze ar Tanxmdebodnen da Seiqmna
                                                                      mxat-is pirveli studia (1913). studiis xelmZRvaneli iyo l.
1. gazeTi `komunisti~, 1924, 31. 01, #25;                             a sulerJicki, sistemis mixedviT mecadineobebs xelmZRvanelobda
2. gazeTi `komunisti~, 1926, #158;                                    k. s. stanislavski, e. b. vaxtangovi. im periodSi m. Cexovi
3. T. wulukiZe, mxolod erTi sicocxle, rus. enaze. `xelovneba~,        korespondents eubneboda: `Cven varT stanislavskis religiis
1983, gv.166;                                                         mimdevrebi~.
4. e. daviTaia, arjaniSvilisa da axetelis erToblivi dadgmebi~, gam.
                                                                          pirvel studiaSi man ramdenime roli iTamaSa: kobusi _ g.
`xelovneba~, 1981, gv. 130;
5. d. anTaZe, `dReebi axlo warsulisa~, gam. `xelovneba~,1962, wigni   heiermansis `imedis~ daRupva~ (1913, l. a. sulerJicki). Cexovi
pirveli, gv.316;                                                      am rolSi siberis xatebas qmnida. male Seasrula fribes
6. n. uruSaZe, `meore sicocxle~, gam. `xelovneba~, 1987, gv.110;      roli g. hauptmanis `samyaros dResaswaulSi~ (1913, reJ. e.
7. ak. vasaZe, `mogonebebi, fiqrebi~, gam. sTs, 1977, gv. 221;        vaxtangovi) _ sadac ikveTeboda misi TamaSis msubuqi manera da
8. dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 162;                                       samsaxiobo ferebis swrafi cvalebadoba.
9. dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 333;                                           1914 wels kalebis saxe Seqmna C. dikensis `WriWina Rumelze~
10. dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 222.                                      (dadges l. a. sulerJickim da b. m. suSkeviCma), am saxes n.
                                                                      benuam: `namdvili mxatvruli saswauli~ uwoda. n. efrosis
gamoyenebuli literatura:                                              azriT, m. Cexovi samxatvro Teatris saukeTeso artistul xazs
d. anTaZe, `dReebi axlo warsulisa~, gam. `xelovneba~,1962, wigni    gaagrZelebs.
pirveli;
                                                                          p. markovi werda: `mas pirvel planze Seucvlelad gamoaqvs
n. uruSaZe `meore sicocxle~, gam. `xelovneba~, 1987;
ak. vasaZe `mogonebebi, fiqrebi~, gam. sTs, 1977;                   erTi Tviseba, adidebs garkveul sazRvramde da mere mas
e. daviTaia arjaniSvilisa da axetelis erToblivi dadgmebi~, gam.     uqvemdebarebs yvelafers~ 1 . a m per io dS i i s g mi ri s
`xelovneba~, 1981.                                                    individualurobis warmoCenaze muSaobda.


100                                                                                                                              101
manana turiaSvili                                                                                                aTasi saxis adamiani

    bergeris `warRvnaSi~ _ frezeri (1915, reJ. l. sulerJicki,         misi pirveli rolebis qeba-didebis miuxedavad sircxvili
Ce. vaxtangovi) mdabali sulis, xarbi da sacodavi adamiani         tanjavda _ scenaze Tavisi Tavi ar moswonda da ar eTanxmeboda
gemis daRupvis saSiSroebisas ametyveldeboda da moulodnel          maSindel Teatrs _ gulisxmobda daaxloebiT 20-iani welebis
kontrastul Tvisebebs amJRavnebda: adamianurs, asxivebda sulier    bolos. dakarga TviTdajerebuloba mayurebelTan da Semoqmedebis
silamazes, ubraloebas. saSiSroebis Cavlis Semdeg frezeri          Sinagani impulsi, scenaze gamosvlisas yvelafers iviwyebda,
kvlav Zvelebur stiqias ubrundeboda. rogorc n. efrosi              stiqiur grZnobas eZleoda, romelic ar asvenebda misi cxovrebis
aRniSnavda, `warRvnaSi~ m. Cexovi iyo scenis namdvili ostati.     gviandel periodSic. scenaze mxatvruli mTlianobis SegrZneba
am rolma mas gaugonari warmateba moutana.                         dakarga. scenazec da cxovrebaSic meqanikurad moqmedebda. Tu
    1917 wels mxatis I studiaSi dadgmul Seqspiris `meTormete      uceb Sin wasvla moundeboda, rols swrafad amTavrebda da
RameSi~ (reJ. k. s. stanislavski) m. Cexovma malvolios roli       SeeZlo Sua speqtaklis mitoveba. warmodgenis dros sicili
Saesrula. warmodgenaSi groteskul malvolios speqtaklSi             autydeboda xolme da farda ixureboda maSinac, roca darbazSi
xuTi gamosvla hqonda da intonaciebis mravalferovnebiT             stanislavski ijda.
umaRlesi dramatulidan sacirko-bufonadamde misuli mimikiT              1917 wlis dekembers `warRvnis~ msvlelobisas antraqtSi
da saxasiaTo JestebiT homerul sicils iwvevda. komikuri            _ fanjridan xalxis brbo dainaxa da daumTavrebeli
feierverkis Semdeg malvolios bolo sityvebi: `me Tqven             speqtaklidan gaiqca. TiTqmis mTeli weli saxlidan ar gamosula.
mawyenineT, grafinia, sastikad mawyenineT~ gaismoda, rogorc       oqtombris revoluciis dReebSi ukve Zalian avadmyofi, gulis
qviTini da mouxerxebel, ucnaur adamianSi, uceb xedavdiT saocr     SeteviT itanjeboda. Teatri saerTod gadaaviwyda. 1918 wlis
siRrmes, sulierebas, adamianurobas.                               1 ianvridan Teatrma avadmyofobis gamo naxevari wliT
    mxat-1 msaxiobTa erTi jgufi samsaxiobo teqnikaSi              SvebulebaSi gauSva. stanislavskim eqimebic gaugzavna. erTxel
fsiqologiur detalizaciamde midioda, meore ganzogadoebul           erTma megobarma b. s. smiSliaevma uTxra, gaexsna sakuTari
saxeebs eZebda. Cexovi am periodSi mkveTrad arc erTi jgufisaken   Teatraluri skola da amiT mudmivi Semosavali eqneboda.
ar ixreboda.                                                          `Cexovis studia~ Seiqmna 1918 wels, mecadineobebi mis binaSi
    m. Cexovi didxans itanjeboda imis gamo, rom sistematiuri      mimdinareobda da iarseba 1922 wlamde. oTx weliwadSi is
muSaoba ar SeeZlo. dasawyisSi codnas Zalian swrafad iTvisebda,    gamojanmrTelda da misi suli moicva mTlianobis SegrZnebam.
vnebianad, magram zedapirulad... Tu adre afasebda uSualobas,      mowafeebi m. Cexovis gakveTilebis paralelurad mecadineobdnen
talanturobas, Semdeg aSinebda es `talanturoba~, radgan            stanislavskisTan da vaxtangovTan. nicSe, Sopengaueri, Spengleri,
Seupovari, daJinebuli Sromis gareSe is stiqia iyo, riTac          kanti, bergsoni. axalgazrda studielebi kiTxulobdnen am
scenur kulturas ver SeiZenda...                                   literaturas da Semdeg m. CexovTan erTad msjelobdnen. am
    Tu msaxiobi formisa da stilis sakiTxebs ar icnobs, m.         periodSi iwyebs savarjiSoebs `burTebiT~, romelsac mere
Cexovis azriT, isini Zvel, dromoWmul formebs iyeneben an          `hamletis~ dadgmisas gamoiyenebs.
saerTod ar iyeneben formebs. amitom scenidan `yrian um                stanislavski ambobda: `rac ufro Zlieria msaxiobi, miT
(Semousvlel) masalas vnebebisa da afeqtebis saxiT _ rasac         ufro metad interesdeba Tavisi xelovnebis teqnikiT.~3
eZaxian temperaments. msaxiobi TandaTanobiT swavlobs                  `Cexovis studiaSi~ mimdinareobda Ziebebi etiudis,
diletantizmis siyvaruls da iRebs mas rogorc Tavisuflebas.         improvizaciebis sferoSi. m. Cexovis azriT, etiuds dasawyisi
magram rogori damRupvelia es `Tavisufleba!~ mas mihyavs           da dasasruli unda hqondes, unda gadawydes mocemuli siuJetis
TavaSvebulobamde, aRviraxsnilobamde ara mxolod scenaze, aramed    stili da Janri. mere mTavaria `marcvlis~ Taviseburebis povna
cxovrebaSic.~2                                                    da Semdeg siuJetis SezRudvisagan ganTavisuflebuli, TemiT
102                                                                                                                             103
manana turiaSvili                                                                                                  aTasi saxis adamiani

gamdidrebuli _ iwyebda improvizacias. m. Cexovi ambobda, rom        is ver gaigebs da ver SeigrZnobs asos rogorc bgeris cocxal
ase muSaobda ara mxolod etiudze, aramed yovel rolze. msaxiobi       suls. `metyveleba, cocxali metyveleba _ sityvis sferoSi
imdenad unda daeuflos teqnikis Sinagan da garegan xerxebs,          uapelacio maswavlebelia.~
rom misi sulis axali unareb-Cvevebi unda gaxdes. mxolod                 mecadineobebze warmoiSveboda simarTlis SegrZnebis sakiTxi.
gamudmebuli improvizaciebis gziT SeiZleba amis miRweva... misi      amasTan dakavSirebiT Cndeboda Tema masaxiobis fantaziaze da
moswavle m. knebeli werda: `Cexovi gamudmebiT laparakobda, Tu       droebiT studiis muSaoba fantaziis niSniT mimdinareobda. ase
msaxiobi SeiTvisebs im Semoqmedis fsiqologias, romelic              gaCnda zRapris Tema. m. Cexovi Tvlida, rom zRapari, rogorc
improvizirebs, is Tavis TavSi i povis mxatvars. amitom msaxiobi,    mxatvruli nawarmoebis forma, niWieri axalgazrdebis
pirvel rigSi, unda aRizardos rogorc mxatvar-improvizatori.~4        ganviTarebisTvis mniSvnelovania, damwyeb msaxiobSi aRagznebs
    m. Cexovi Tvlida, rom iumori adamians xelovnebis SeicnobaSi     SemoqmedebiT fantazias. mxatvris cnobierebas is aamaRlebs
exmareba da Semoqmedebis muSaobaSi Seaqvs simsubuqe. Sesrulebis     naturalizmze. zRapari araCveulebrivad xlarTavs erTmaneTSi
simsubuqe CexovisTvis arsebiTi iyo _ misi azriT, iumori             tragizms da iumors, anviTarebs mxatvruli stilis SegrZnebas,
yovelTvis gamoarCevs xelovnebis WeSmarit qmnilebas. iumori          iTxovs mkafio da zust formebs da ar dauSvebs Sinagan, mxatvrul
mxatvars obieqturobis unars aniWebs, rac aucilebelia... m.          sicrues, romelic scenaze ase msubuqad SeRwevadia.
Cexovis azriT, msaxiobs, romelsac iumori ara aqvs, kargi msaxiobi       studiaSi muSaobis ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi m. Cexovis
ver iqneba. igi Tvlida, rom iumoris swavla SesaZlebelia da          mtanjveli azrebi, dardebi gaqra da 1920 wels m. Cexovi
Teatralur skolebSi unda iyos klasi, sadac iumoris                   mxatis pirvel studiaSi dabrunda. 1921 wels gadatvirTulobis
gakveTilebs Caatareben.                                             gamo `Cexovis studiis~ xelmZRvanelobaze uari Tqva. studiam
    forma da stili _ kulturuli msaxiobi da ukulturo                 arseboba Sewyvita 1922 wels.
adamiani SeuTavsebelia. misi azriT, codnis SeZena msaxiobisaTvis        1921 wels samxatvro TeatrSi man xlestakovi iTamaSa n.
aucilebelia. oRond codnaSi gulisxmobda ara mSral,                   gogolis `revizorSi~. man Seqmna niRabi, komediuri groteskis
inteleqtualur codnas, aramed WeSmarit, cocxal codnas.               planSi, TiTqmis farsuli, rac adreul namuSevrebSi ar
talanti, cocxali codnis gareSe ver ganviTardeba. codnis             SeiniSneboda. xlestakovSi bolomde aviTarebda simsubuqis
gareSe stilisa da formis SegrZnebas Semoqmedi ver daeufleba.        cnebas. fizikuri uwonadobas sxeuliT xatavda. sakmarisi iyo
`msaxiobi-mxatvari gaigebs, rom stili yvelaze Zvirfasi ramaa,       suli SegeberaT, rom xlestakovi gaqreboda, rogorc mtvris
romelic Seaqvs Tavis nawarmoebSi, risTvisac bolos da bolos          nawili. amas emateboda improvizaciuli feierverki. Cexovis
Rirs Seqmna.~5                                                      i provizaciis dros scenaze teqsts arasdros cvlida da arc
     metyveleba _ xmis dayeneba, diqcia, deklamacia, plastika       dadgenil mizanscenebs.... misi improvizaciebi qaosuri ar iyo
da im dros moduri akrobatika `Cexovis studiaSi~ ZiriTadad           da mxolod sxvebs uxmobdnen Sesaqmnelad.
ar iswavleboda, maT meorexarisxovani roli hqondaT. m. Cexovs            1921 wels Cexovma xlestakovSi srulyo atmosferos cneba.
gasaocari damokidebuleba hqonda sityvasTan. uyvarda anbanis         atmosfero _ yvelanairi mxatvruli warmodgenis gulia Tu
yvela aso. misi azriT, yvela asos Tavisi garemo, Tvisebebi da       `msaxiobi eZleva ama Tu im atmosferos, es masSi aucileblad
feri hqonda. misi azriT, msaxiobi Cveulebrisamebr mecadineobas      gamoiwvevs aqtiuri qmedebisken swrafvas. sanam rolSi ar miaRwev
artikulaciT iwyebs, es bolos unda iswavlebodes. veraviTari          `atmosferos~ absolutur realur SegrZnebas, CaTvale, rom
garegnuli xerxebi ver aswavlis msaxiobs mxatvrulad da               rolis arsisTvis jer ar migignia. atmosfero aRviZebs
gamomsaxvelobiT laparaks, Tu is manamde ar SeaRwevs TiToeuli        warmosaxvas, nebisyofas da grZnobas.~ ixsenebs misi moswavle
sityvis, calkeuli marcvlis Rrma da mdidar SinaarsSi da Tu           m. knebeli wignSi `mTeli cxovreba.~
104                                                                                                                               105
manana turiaSvili                                                                                               aTasi saxis adamiani

    cxovrebis bolo wlebSi sxvadasxva Teoriul mosazrebebebTan       sivrceSi xatavs Tavis formebsa da xazebs. Tu sxeuli cocxalia,
erTad anviTarebs am azrs da askvnis, rom scenaze atmosferoTa       maSin Tvalebi aucileblad aivseba azriT da xdeba gamomxatveli.
Widili da erT-erTi maTganis gardauvali gamarjveba mxatvrul             m. Cexovi scenaze muSaobisas Zlier grZnobebsa da energias
gamomsaxvelobis Zlieri saSuaelebaa _ werda m. Cexovi               bolo momentisTvis, kuliminaciisTvis da a. S. ar iyenebda.
`msaxiobis teqnikis Sesaxeb~.                                      `erik XIV~-Si pirvelive Semosvlidan mTeli datvirTviT
    presaSi ambobdnen, m. Cexovis gansakuTrebul, Zalauflebriv      muSaobda, mis pirvel gamosvlas ki mexis dartymas adarebdnen.
momxibvlelobaze, romlis winaSec fermkrTaldebodnen                  erikis Jestebi iyo mokle, daZabuli. marmarilos TeTri saxe
`revizoris~ iseTi monawileebi, rogorebic iyvnen samxatvro          da Savi Tma. Tvalebi gayinuli, TiTqos ar moZraobdnen. misi
Teatris wamyvani msaxiobebi: leonidovi, moskvini, gribunini,       gasaocari martooba Semzaravi iyo. `cocxlebisa~ da `mkvdrebis~
lilina.                                                            niRbebis kontrastuli dapirispireba da am mxatvrul saxeebSi
    a. strindbergis `erik XIV~ (1921) mxat-1 studiis speqtakli,    reJisorisa da msaxiobebis subieqturi damokidebuleba
saetapo mniSvnelobis iyo. aq daiwyo e. vaxtangovma samsaxiobo      imaleboda. Semdeg Cexovi azrs Seicvlis da ityvis, rom Tavis
teqnikaSi axali formebisa da gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebisa            mxatvrul saxeebs uyurebs obieqturad. eriki am or sazogadoebas
Zieba. `erTxel da samudamod mayurebels unda CamovaSoroT            Soris sxlteboda _ xan aqeT da xan iqiT.
WuWrutanidan dazverva, TvalTvali. mayurebelma yovelTvis                1916 wels sulerJicki gardaicvala. 1921 wels studiis
Tavi unda igrZnos TeatrSi da ara Zia vaniasTan. unda moxvide       gadasarCenad mxatTan SeerTebis sakiTxi dadga. 1922 wlis 29
TeatrSi da ara voinickisTan. saWiroa, rom Teatri Teatri            maiss e. vaxtangovi gardaicvala. 1922 wlis seqtemberSi Cexovma
iyos.~6                                                            moiTxova studiis xelmZRvaneloba da 24 seqtembers gaxda
    m. Cexovi saxes aRiqvamda erT mTlianobad, swored amitom        misi direqtori. 1924 welis 5 ivniss pirvelma studiam miiRo
SeeZlo repeticia bolo scenidan daewyo _ misi azriT,                nezlobinis yofili Teatri, sverdlovis moedanze da nemiroviC-
mxatvruli saxis Seqmnaze gavlenas ar moaxdens. m. Cexovis          danCenkos winadadebiT daarqves mxat 2. studiis patara
azriT, msaxiobi scenis sivrceSi moZraobisas Tavisi sxeuliT         mayurebelTa darbazi, romelic 175 kacze iyo gaTvaliswinebuli,
unda `xatavdes~ figurebs, xazebs da roca msaxiobi Tavis            Seicvala darbaziT, romelic 1350 kacs itevda.
gamomxatvelobas debs mimikaSi amiT sxeulis gamomsaxvelobas             m. Cexovi sastikad uaryofda naturalizms, romelic, misi
klavs. `ratom ar undaT (msaxiobebs _ m. t.) mTeli sxeuliT          azriT xelovneba ar iyo, radgan mxatvari naturalistur
farTo, lamazi da gamomxatveli Jesti? aq damnaSavea msaxiobis       `xelovnebis nawarmoebSi~ Tavisas ver Cadebs, misi amocana
Cveva mimirebsa. is iswrafvis, Tavis gamomxatveloba jer mimikaSi   SezRudulia, misi unari vlindeba `naturis~ met-naklebad zusti
Cados, amiT ki sxeulis gamomsaxvelobas klavs. mimikis dros         aslis gaakeTebSi. im dros moskovisa da peterburgis scenebze
sxeuli irindeba da qvavdeba. sxeulis Jesti gadadis saxis           gamoCnda agitaciuri piesebi da propagandistuli xasiaTis
JestSi, xdeba patara da xandaxan sacodavi. imas aRar vambob,       nawarmoebebi (revoluciis pirveli          epoqis produqti).
rom msaxiobis saxes mayurebelTa darbazi ubralod ver dainaxavs      naturalizmi, `ubraloeba, rogorc cxovrebaSi~, fotografiuli
da amasTan is arasodes iqneba iseTi gamomxatveli, rogorc           zustiT mimdinare movlenebis gadmocema, maTi xorcSesxmis
sxeuli.~7                                                          erTaderTi SesaZlo `stili~ iyo.~ gaCndnen axali `Tanamedrove~
    m. Cexovis azriT, scenaze maqsimalurad metyveli mxolod         dramaturgebi, romelTa nawarmoebebiT savse iyo klubebisa da
msaxiobis Tvalebia, magram Tvalebi metyveli xdeba maSin, roca      qarxnis scenebi da isini cdilobdnen mxat-2 studiaSic
msaxiobis sxeuli absoluturad Tavisufalia da scenur                 SemoRwevas.


106                                                                                                                             107
manana turiaSvili                                                                                                  aTasi saxis adamiani

    m. knebeli wers: misi azriT, `materializmi~ rogorc sawyisi,    Sexedulebebi mkveTrad gaiyo. isini, vinc usityvod iRebda
xelovnebis mteria,        is ki ara da rogorc kacobriobis          `rwyils~, ar iRebda `hamlets~. aman Teatris SigniT da mis
pirovnebisac... Cexovi Camoscildeba `materialurobas~, rogorc       garSemo gamiwvia arajansaRi atmosfero.~9
`sulieris~ damangrevels~8                                              a. d. diki werda Tavis wignSi: `Повесть о театральной юности~:
    am viTarebaSi m. Cexovma studiis mxatvruli cxovrebis           `studiam ar icis, ra gzas daadges, is ver grZnobs drois
SenarCunebisaTvis Tavis Tavze aiRo marTva da Tavi `diqtatorad~     pulsacias... studiaSi m. a. Cexovis xelmZRvanelobiT mistikur-
gamoacxada, ramac bevris mtroba gamoiwvia. m. Cexovma Teatris      antroposofiuli mimarTulebaa da koleqtivis ufro met wevrs
marTvisTvis oTxi kacisagan Semdgari sando piri airCia, romelTac    isrutavs... pirvelive dRidan me mkveTrad gavemijne Cexoviseuli
dasi pativs scemda. m. Cexovis `Zalauflebis xelSi Cagdebis~        jgufis Ziebebis Cemi `miwierobis~ gamo. me bavSvobidan ver
sami-oTxi dRis Semdeg narkomprosma mis diqtatorobas sanqcia        vitandi yovelgvar `jandabas~, maT Soris _ filosofias...
daado.                                                             magram mxolod me ar meCveneboda, rom mefe SiSvelia...
    1924 wels m. Cexovma `hamletis~ dadgma daiwyo. am              xelmZRvaneloba direqciis xelSi iyo, Cexovis xelSi _
speqtaklis repeticiebze m. Cexovi axali samsaxiobo teqnikis        inteligenturi moskovis sayvareli adamianis...~ _ 1927 wels
SemuSaveba daiwyo, romelic Sesatyvis savarjiSoebs eyrdnoboda.      Jur. `Новый зрител~-is # 13,+ РСФСР-s pirveli saxalxo
`hamletis~ repeticiebi uxmaurod mimdinareobda da idumalebiT        komisari (1917-29), a v. lunaCarski hamletze da ableuxovze
iyo moculi. teqstis warmoTqvamde msaxiobebi moZraobiT              wers: `Театру МХАТ-2-му совершенно необходимо отделаться от
midionen. es iyo savarjiSoebi `burTebi~. `repeticiis periodSi,     пристрастия к сюжетам туманным, к созданию настроений жутких,
`raTa teqsti enis kunTze ar damjdariyo~ (stanislavskis             тревожных и неясных~, Semdeg agrZelebs: `Suq-Crdilebis bundovan
gamoTqmaa) msaxiobebi sityvebs ar iyenebdnen da burTebis           simbolikaSi hamleti aSkarad abstraqtuli, istorizmisgan
gadagdeb-gadmogdebisas, yovel moZraobaSi debdnen garkveuli         daSorebulia, is orientirdeboda mxolod aradroul moralur
nebisyobis gzavnils. ase eziarebodnen urTierTobis bunebas,         kategoriebze sikeTisa da borotebis maradiul brZolaze.~
ritmebis sxvadasxvaobas.                                           hamletis scenas aCrdilTan mistikurs uwodebdnen. Rrublebidan
    xlestakovidan hamletamde intervali ori weliwadia. m.           mTvaris Suqi i pareboda da mxolod hamletis saxes da xelebs
Cexovi Ziebebma `axal sarepeticios teqnikasTan~ miiyvana. swored   anaTebda. Tavad m. Cexovi ambobda mamis aCrdilis sityvebsac da
`hamletze~ acxadebs m. Cexovi: `rom msaxiobi saxes qmnis           hamletis teqstsac. scenis miRma musikalur fonze gongisa da
fantaziaSi da Semdeg cdilobs mis rogorc garegnul, ise              dolis mkveTri dartymebi gaismoda, romelic aCrdilis fexis
Sinagan imitacias. `mxatvruli saxis imitacias~. imitacias          xmas mianiSnebda. `scenis miRma mamakacebis gundis xmebi aCrdilis
hamletSi bolomde ver miaRwia.                                      sityvebs warmosTqvamden, xolo hamleti ki am sityvebs imeorebda,
    es is welia _ 1924, roca a. belis gavleniT gaicno              TiTqos, xelaxla iazrebda. m. Cexovma `hamletSi~ TiTqmis
rudolf Steineri da mas Sexvda. 1913 wels man daafuZna              mTlianad uaryo Jesti da mizanscenebis dinamika: im mxolod
antroposofiuri sazogadoeba. Steineris TeoriaSi m. Cexovs           usmenda, akvirdeboda da fiqrobda. arnaxuli Zalebis mokreba
Secnobis intuiciuri SesaZleblobebi ainteresebda.                   gonebas unaTebda. 1928 wels m. Cexovi a. b. lunaCarskisadmi
    `hamletis~ repeticiebis paralelurad mezobel                    sapasuxo werilSi wers: `rogorc mxatvari me arasdros uarvyof
sarepeticioSi a. d. diki muSaobda n. s. leskovis nawarmoebze       imas. rom Tu scenaze gamoCndeba `hamletis suli~, es ise unda
Seqmnil `rwyilze` (1925). `hamletis~ garSemo sxvadasxvanairi       gaakeTo, rom iyos STabeWdileba `sulis~ da ara gadacmuli
xmebi dadioda. ambobdnen, rom Cexovi dakavebulia raRac mistikiT.   msaxiobisa, es mistika araa, aramed mxatvruli gemovneba~.10
`roca orive speqtakli gamovida, presisa da mayureblis
108                                                                                                                                109
manana turiaSvili                                                                                                     aTasi saxis adamiani

      a. b. lunaCarski `rwyilis~ da misi reJisoris _ a. d.                ableuxovi (a. belis `peterburgi~, 1925 weli _ mxat-2), es
dikis2Ddidi megobari iyo. dikis TqmiT, man gulwrfelad miuloca         speqtakli gamoirCeoda ritmebis iSviaTi mravalgvarobiT, magram
da premieraze saidumlo fraza uTxra: `ai, speqtakli, romelic           warmodgenis centri da mTavari mxatvruli Zala iyo senatori
niCabze dadebs mTel konstruqtivizms~ (А. Д. Дикий `Повесть            ableuxovi _ m. Cexovi. `socialuri Tvalis axela.~ wignSi
о театральной юности~), lunaCarski _ profesionali                     `msaxiobis teqnikis Sesaxeb~ gamoTqvams azrs, rom msaxiobisTvis
revolucioneri. РСФСР-is pirveli saxalxo komisari (1917-               aucilebelia `socialuri grZnoba~. ableuxovi miagavda Ramuras,
29), 1917 wlidan kulturis sferoSi leninuri politikis                  mas didi Zalaufleba hqonda _ ableuxovs Tavis sastik xelebSi
aqtiuri gamtarebeli.LМХАТ-2-is msaxiobi serafima birmani,             eWira `cecxlmokidebuli imperia~ da monarqis miniWebul
romelic TamaSobda e. vaxtangovis `erik IV~ da a. dikis                Zalauflebis sxvisTvis micemas ar apirebda. masSi iyo Zalac
`rwyilSi~, wers: `gulwrfelad rom vTqva, CexovTan metoqeobda           da avbediTi mbrZanebluroba, SiSi da Svilisadmi saTuTi grZnoba,
misi yvela megobari, isini SesaniSnavad acnobierebdnen, rom           magram yovelive amaSi iyo ganwiruloba, istoriuli ganwiruloba,
Cexovi niWierebiT maTze maRla dgas. me vfiqrob, swored amitom         da dasasrulis moaxloeba.
ebrZoda diki Cexovs da ara imitom, rom maTi politikuri da                  m. Cexovis bolo namuSevari ruseTSi muromskia. (suxovo-
ideuri swrafvebi gansxvavebuli iyo~.                                  kobilinis `saqme~, 1927 weli _ mxat-2). igi gulRia, keTili
    hamletis sikvdili mayurebelSi kaTarziss iwvevda, Tumc             da gaxsnilia sisastikis, borotebis da veragobis samyaroSi.
perspeqtiva wydeboda, radgan fortinbrasis scena amoRebuli             amis yureba ki mayurebels saSineli tkivilis gareSe ar SeeZlo.
iyo _ ris gamoc lunaCarskis sayveduri gamoiwvia. m. Cexovis
                                                                      es saxe imitaciis princi piT aago. `muromskis saxes fantaziaSi
gadawyvetiT wydeba sicocxle sikeTisa da adamianurobisa, radgan
                                                                      vWvretdi da repeticiebze mis imitacias vaxdendi... me ar
es qveyana sapyrobilea. `hamleti~ m. Cexovma dadga (reJ: smiSlaevi,
                                                                      vTamaSobdi, Cveulebrisamebr rogorc vakeTebT xolme msaxiobebi,
tatarinovi, Cebani) 1924 wels da amgvari koncefciiT
                                                                      aramed vakeTebdi saxis imitacias, romelic Cems warmosaxvaSi
iwinaswarmetyvela, Tu ra moeloda Tavis qveyanas momavalSi.
    1925 wels m. Cexovma iTamaSa ableuxovi andrei belis               Cem magivrad TamaSobda. am mcdelobiT scenaze muromskis
`peterburgSi~. es iyo maTi megobrobis periodi. mecadineobdnen         gamosvlisas garkveul xarisxSi misgan ganze vdgavar, TiTqos
ritmis, moZraobis da sityvis sferoSi, swavlobdnen poetikas            vuTvalTvaleb, (Tvalyurs vadevneb mas), mis TamaSs, mis cxovrebas
da literaturis Teorias. Cexovi da beli, rogorc m. knebeli             da es gverdidan dgoma me saSualebas maZlevs mivuaxlovde im
ixsenebs mecadinebdnen `evriTmiis~ SeswavlaSi. knebelis azriT,        mdgomareobas, romlis drosac mxatvari wmends da
swored a. belis gavleniT, ritmi gaxda erT-erTi mTavari                akeTilSobilebs Tavis saxeebs da masSi ar Seaqvs Tavisi
problema, romelsac m. Cexovi amuSavebda. isini anbanis yoveli         arasaWiro, piradi adamianuri xasiaTis Tvisebebi.~11
asos plastikur gamoxatulebas eZiebdnen, swavlobdnen Jestebis              `bunebisagan momadlebuli warmosaxvis saocari ZaliT, mas
`gramatikas~, gadadiodnen ra asodan marcvalze da Semdeg _             SeeZlo `imitacia~ ara mxolod gmiris garegnuli saqcielis,
frazaze, winadadebaze. isini JestebiT `kiTxulobdnen~ puSkinis         aramed SeeRwia xasiaTis Sinagan arsebiT nawilSi. `Cexoviseuli~
leqsebs, Seqspiris sonetebs, `faustidan~ qoros nawilebs.              imitacia _ garegnulis dacinva ki ar iyo, aramed gza Sinaganis
    Cexovi asoTa `plastikur~ enas srulyofilebamde flobda.             wvdomisa da saSualeba ganviTarebisTvis da warmosaxvis
xandaxan is ucnob teqsts nela akiTxebda da TiTqmis                    varjiSi~.12
sinqronulad moZraobda, plastikaSi Sifravda sityvaTa bgerebs.              Semdeg ufro daxvews formulirebas: samsaxiobo xelovnebis
mas nawarmoebis saerTo xasiaTis gadmocema sxeulis moZraobiT           specifika mdgomareobs imaSi, rom masala, romliTac sargeblobs
SeeZlo, Tan ise, rom misi atrmosfero da fsiqologiuri                  msaxiobi, is Tavadaa. Cexovi mivida daskvnamde, rom SemoqmedebiTi
feradovnebac gamoexata.                                               individualuroba rogorRac gancalkevebulia or `meze~, `or
110                                                                                                                                   111
manana turiaSvili                                                                                                aTasi saxis adamiani

cnobierze~. `dabali mes~ TandaTanobiT aviwrovebs `maRali            lunaCarskis mimarTa. es gastrolebi ar Sedga. `mxat 2~-Si
me~ da rom `maRali me~ badebs mesame `me~-s, `mesame cnobiers~,     konfliqtia da m. Cexovis Teatridan wasvla unda, radgan
romelic Seqmnil rols axasiaTebs.                                    dasis zogierTi nawilis mxatvruli miznebi mis amocanebs
     marTalia Tu ara Cexovi? stanislavskis azriT, ar aris           xelovnebaSi ar Seesabameboda. `Главискусство~-s sazRvargareT
marTali! m. Cexovis werili berlinidan, 1928 wels n. a.              erTwlian Svebulebas sTxovs (germanuli enisa da `evriTmiis~
podgornisadmi (mxatis msaxiobi, mxati-2 studiis erT-erTi            Sesaswavlad) _ romelsac akmayofileben. imave wels berlinidan
damfuZnebeli). `Cven sistemebs erTmaneTs vadarebdiT da movnaxeT     a. lunaCarskis sTxovda Teatrs da msaxiobebs, raTa Tavis
rogorc bevri saerTo, aseve bevri daumTxvevlobac~... `kostia         dakvirvebebi da aRmoCenebi speqtaklebSi ganexorcielebina. a.
rom daTanxmdes Tavisi sistemis zogierT cvlilebaze, Cven             lunaCarskim ar upasuxa.
SevZlebdiT erTad muSaobas da ufro mets gavakeTebdiT, vidre                im dros `misticizmisa~ da `simbolizmis~ wodeba
calk-calke.~13                                                      saxarbielo ar gaxldaT. albaT, rudolf SteinerTan Sexvedrasac
     `...Cemi meTodiT msaxiobi samuSaos dawyebidan mis              ar patiobdnen. Steineri xom Sepyrobili iyo gadaeqcia
dasrulebamde Seqmnili saxisadmi obieqturia. k. s.-s rogorc          abstraqtuli idealisturi Teoriebi cocxal rwmenaSi, mgznebare
meCveneba bevri momentia, roca msaxiobiAZalas atans pirad           swrafvaSi, romelic mowodebuli iyo adamianSi gaeRviZebina
nebas da sakuTari Tavidan pirad grZnobebs gamowuravs _ es           umaRlesi sulieri Zalebi.TeatrSi msaxiobad darCena, Cveulebriv,
rTulia, mtanjveli, ulamazo da arasiRrmiseuli. magaliTad,            rolebis saTamaSod, mas ar SeeZlo, radgan ukve didi xania
Cveneuli saxis Wvretas da Semdeg gamomdinare mis imitacias,         amowura calkeuli rolebiT gatacebis stadia. `me SesaZloa
k. s.-Tan Seesatyviseba SemoTavazebuli viTarebebis Wvreta, magram   gamitacos da SemoqmedebisTvis Semagulianos mxolod da mxolod
saxis nacvlad dgeba Tavad ganmWvreti, romlis amocanaa gasces        Teatris ideam, axali Teatraluri xelovnebis ideam~15 _ werda
pasuxi kiTxvas: `Tu rogor moiqceoda Cemi gmiri (am SemTxvevaSi      m. Cexovi.
me) mocemul SemoTavazebul viTarebebSi? es punqti cvlis                  im periodSi sabWoTa Teatrs sTxovdnen sarepertuaro
msaxiobis mTel fsiqologias da rogorc meCveneba, uneburad            politikas, sadac soc. mSenebloba da `axali adamianebi~ unda
sakuTar Rarib sulSi qeqvas aiZulebs. yoveli adamianis suli          asaxuliyvnen. es yovelive ewinaaRmdegeboda TeatrSi m. Cexovis
mdidari araa im saxeebTan SedarebiT, romelsac xandaxan              mxatvrul azrovnebas da `Tavisufali Semoqmedebis~ Ziebis
fantastikuri samyaro gvigzavnis xolme... msaxiobi stanislavskis     mizniT man datova samSoblo, sadac cenzura aRar Seawuxebda.
sistemis mixedviT iwyebs fizikuri amocaniT, amasTan asrulebs        1928 wlidan sicocxlis bolomde mixeil Cexovi sazRvargareT
Tavis Tavidan gamomdinare: dadgas magida, gaadgilos skami, aanTos   muSaobda.
asanTi da a. S. da es yvelaferi _ simarTlis grZnobis
arsagznebad. Cemi swavlebiT msaxiobs simarTlis SegrZneba ukve
saxeSi aqvs Cadebuli da masTanaa Serwymuli. Cems msaxiobs           1. p. a. markovi, Teatris Sesaxeb, t. I. 1974, gv. 395;
SeuZlia ganaviTaros Tavisi simarTlis grZnoba saxlSi _ es            2. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~,
misi saqmea, magram amiT repeticiis dawyeba ar SeiZleba. ratom?     моск..,искусство, 1986. ст. 67;
imitom, rom `dadgiT magida~ _ es pirdapiri gzaa sazareli            3. К.С. Саниславский, Моя жизнь в искусстве, 1983, стр. 415;
naturalisturi ganwyobilebisaken da yuradRebis mi pyroba Sens        4. m. knebeli `mTeli cxovreba.~ mosk. gv. 210. 1967;
araSemoqmedebiT pirovnebaze.~14                                     5. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~, моск,
       1928 wels `mxat 2~-s sagastrolod germaniaSi iwveven, m.      искусство, 1986. ст. 68;
Cexovma SuamdgomlobisTvis `Главискусство~-s da a. v.
112                                                                                                                              113
manana turiaSvili

6. abobda e. vaxtangovi Ï. А. Марков, О театре т.1, 1974, стр. 395                                                Tamar quTaTelaZe,
7. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~, моск,                                           wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli
искусство, 1986. ст. 82;
8. m. knebeli, mixeil Cexovi, literaturuli memkvidreoba,                     Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi
gamomc. xelovneba, 1986. gv. 34;
9. m. knebeli, mixeil Cexovi, literaturuli memkvidreoba, gamomc.     (s. Wiaurelis mier aRdgenili k. marjaniSvilis speqtaklis
xelovneba, 1986. gv.19;                                                              `uriel akostas~ mixedviT)
10. В, А, Громов, Михаил Чехов. 1970, стр. 333;
11. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~, Моск,                qarTuli Teatris reformatoris, meore saxelmwifo
искусство, т. 1.1986. ст. 129;                                       Teatris damfuZneblis kote marjaniSviliseuli SemoqmedebiTi
12. m. knebeli, mixeil Cexovi, literaturuli memkvidreoba, gamomc.    Sedevris `uriel akostas’’ kongenialuri restavrirebisaken
xelovneba, 1986. gv. 38;                                             mimarTuli mcdelobebi 1962, 1993, 2007 wlebSi mravalmxriv
13. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~, Моск,        saintereso movlenaa. rogorc irkveva, qarTuli Teatris
искусство, 1986. ст. 352;                                            moRvaweebSi ar qreba nostalgia qarTuli Teatraluri modernis
14. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, Моск, искусство, 1986.      am warmatebul dadgmaSi gacxadebuli, jer kidev Seucnobeli
ст. 352-353;                                                         Teatraluri faseulobebisadmi. `uriel akostasadmi’’
15. Коллективу МХАТ 2-го Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие,        marjaniSvilelTa daucxromeli interesi SesaZloa warmoadgens
Моск. искусство, т. 1. 1986. ст. 350.                                protests Tanamedrove Teatraluri procesebisadmi da
                                                                     ga ucnob ier ebel l to lva s m isi r efo rmebis ken. Tu
gamoyenebuli literatura:                                             gaviTvaliswinebT im faqtsac, rom Teatraluri modernis
                                                                     saukeTeso warmomadgenlebis (k. marjaniSvilis, s. axmetelis,
v. a. gromovi, `mixeil Cexovi~, mosk. 1970;                        v.meierholdis, e. vaxtangovis, a. Tairovis da a. S.) SemoqmedebiTi
p. a. markovi, Teatraluri kritikosis dRiuri, kreb. `Teatris        moRvaweoba xelovnurad Sewyda da Tavad modernuli xelovnebis
Sesaxeb~ mosk. 1-2-tomi, 1974;                                       ZiriTadi tendencia kvlavac ganagrZobs farul arsebobasa da
p. a. markovi, Teatraluri portretebi, kreb. `Teatris Sesaxeb~      ganviTarebas. amdenad, vfiqrob, yuradRebas imsaxurebs
t. 2, mosk. 1974;                                                    marjaniSvilelTa mier araerTgzis warmarTuli mcdeloba
p. a. markovi, Teatris simarTle, statiebi, mosk. 1965;             STawvdes qarTuli Teatraluri modernis am saxelovani
s. g. birmani, msaxiobis gza, mosk. 1959;                          warmomadgenlis miRwevebs, romelmac qarTuli sazogadoebis
n. efrosi, WriWina Rumelze, mxatis studia, peter. 1918;            araerT Taobaze moaxdina hi pnozuri zemoqmedeba. Tavad es
a. diki, moTxroba Teatralur siWabukeze, mosk. 1957;                faqti ki, rogorc cnobilia modernuli xelovnebis ZiriTad
 a. morovi, erTi cxovrebis istoria, Jur. `moskva~, 1970 # 9         mizans warmoadgenda. mas maradisobaSi unda Seenaxa ganaxlebuli
n. pankova, mixeil Cexovi, Jur. `sabWoTa xelovneba~ # 7, 1970      uZvelesi da myari faseulobebis primati, sazogadoebis azrovneba
m. knebeli, mTeli cxovreba, mosk. 1967;                            waremarTa am faseulobaTa wvdomisa da dacvisaken, xolo momdevno
k. s. stanislavski, Cemi cxovreba xelovnebaSi, mosk. 1983;          TaobebisTvis axali SemoqmedebiTi impulsebi mieniWebina. amjerd,
mixeil Cexovi, literaturuli memkvidreoba, 2 tomeuli, mosk.         marjaniSviliseuli `uriel akostas~-80 wlis saiubileo
gamomc iskustvo, 1989.                                               TariRTan dakavSirebiT vixileT s. Wiaurelis mier aRdgenili


114                                                                                                                                115
Tamar quTaTelaZe                                                                                        Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi

speqtakli. socialur-politikuri da kulturulogiuri garemo,           baletis, pantomimis, politikuri satiris elementebi. yuradReba
romlis wiaRSic iSva es ori warmodgena, radikalurad                 koncentrirebulia axali ti pis e.w. msaxiob-marionetis anu
gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan, Sesabamisad bunebrivia, rom            zemsaxiobis aRzrdaze, romelsac xelewifeboda sxeulisa da
gansxvavebuli miviReT Sedegic. sofiko Wiaurelis aRdgenil           xmis virtuozuli marTva. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom gamorCeuli
speqtaklSi gacxadda marjaniSviliseuli dadgmis vizualuri            funqcia eniWeboda saorkestro musikasac, romlisTvisac reJisori
partitura, romelic uxvad iyo gajerebuli yofiTi msaxiobis           arCevda saukeTeso musikosebs. marjaniSviliseul `uriel
intonaciebiTa da plastikuri naxaziT, rasac kategoriulad            akostaSi~ garkveulwilad warimarTa antikuri Teatris
gamoricxavda adreuli modernuli periodis Teatris esTetika,          texnikisa da msaxiobis xelovnebis reanimaciac, msaxiobis xmisa
romlis gaTvaliswinebiTac Seiqmna `uriel akostas~-                  da saxis mkafiod aRsaqmelad speqtakli mimdinareobda
marjaniSviliseuli warmodgena. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia isic, rom        prosceniumze, plastika daeqvemdebara musikalur ritms,
s. Wiaurelis mier Seqmnili speqtaklis vizualuri                    msaxiobisgan moiTxoves skulpturuli gamomsaxvelobiTi Jestebi.
partituridanac naTlad warmoCinda marjaniSvilis mier Seqmnili       msaxiobTa pozebi periodulad iyineboda srul uZraobaSi da
Teatraluri esTetikis, samsaxiobo skolisa da Tavad speqtaklis       qmnida bareliefebs mayureblisadmi profiliT. partituris
funqcia da faseulobebi, misi adgili Tanadrouli Teatraluri          zedmiwevniTi codna Semsrulebels aniWebda Sinagan simSvidesa
procesebis konteqsSi.                                              da Tavisuflebas.
      rogorc cnobilia, XX saukunis 20-iani wlebis miwuruli,            rogorc cnobilia, 1930 wlis gastrolebze marjaniSvilis
rodesac iqmneba marjaniSvilis aRniSnuli speqtakli modernuli        Teatri moskovma (es iyo Teatris pirveli gasvla respublikis
xelovnebis klasikuri periodia, naxevarsaukuneze xangrZlivi         sazRvrebs gareT) aRmoCenad aRiara, speqtakls uaRresad
SemoqmedebiTi miRwevebis Sedegi da novatorul tendenciaTa           nacionaluri da epoqis Tanaxmieri miRweva, xolo uSangi CxeiZes
Jami. TeatrSi kvlav aRdga Teatralizaciis procesi, msaxiobebis      didi tragikosi msaxiobi uwoda. Tumca k. marjaniSvilis
momajadovebeli intonaciebi, natifi Jestebi da pozebi.              sikvdilis Semdeg `uriel akosta~ formalistur dadgmad
reJisorebi rolebs, saopero partiebis msgavsad, xmebis mixedviT     gamoacxades, rogorc irkveva, misi uCveulod meamboxuri
anawilebdnen, sadac msaxiobis xma jados Zalas iZenda. es           revoluciuri paTosis gamo.
mistikur-poeturi Teatri mtrulad ganewyo cxovrebiseuli                  `uriel akostas~ petre ocxeliseuli dekoracia XX saukunis
prozisadmi da daupirispirda yofiTi Teatris ganpoeturebul           dasawyisis sxvadasxva mxatvruli mimdinareobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
esTetikas. wignSi `kote marjaniSvilis eqvsi speqtakli~1 Tamar      elementebis narevs warmoadgenda, konstruqtivizmiTa da
vaxvaxiSvili adasturebs, rom kote marjaniSvili rolebs              eqspresionizmiT dawyebuli, surealizmiT dasrulebuli. scenuri
msaxiobis temperamentis, xmis tembrisa da diapazonis mixedviT      garemo: kibeebi, svetebi, arqiteqturis pirveladi elementebi
anawilebda, xolo masobriv scenebSi msaxiobebis xmebis kontrasti    prioritets msaxiobis sxeulis gamomsaxvelobasa da
qmnida simfoniebs.                                                 plastiurobas uqmnida. personaJebis qmedebis, Jestikulaciisa
    modernuli periodis Teatraluri esTetikis fuZemdebelTa           da metyvelebis stils gansazRvravda. igi monumenturi da
Sesabamisad, romlebTanac k. marjaniSvils SemoqmedebiTi             haerovani, myari da elastiuri formebis sinTeziT aRibeWda.
megobrobac akavSirebda (mag.: g. kregi, m. reinhardti, a. sanini   speqtaklis dekoraciul garemos iseve, rogorc prioritetul
da sxv.), marjaniSvilic eswrafoda sinTezuri Teatris esTetikis      Sav sivrces an yviTeli da ruxi ferebis kombinacias musikalur-
formirebas. misi mizani iyo speqtaklSi erTian mxatvrul             filosofiuri Sinaarsic eniWeboda.
mTlianobaSi harmonizirebuliyo dramis, tragediis, operis,


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Tamar quTaTelaZe                                                                                    Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi

    `uriel-akostas~ marjaniSviliseuli premiera gaimarTa           akosta~ heroikuli da optimisturi tragedia iyo. am principiT
quTaisSi 1928 wlis dekemberSi. speqtaklma gaagrZela da            viTardeboda mkveTrad Teatralizebuli moqmedeba, sadac
ganaviTara qarTuli Teatraluri tradiciebi da ganicada 1906         gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeboda plastikasa da sityvas.
wlis l. mesxiSviliseuli Sedevris gavlenac. u. CxeiZis             msaxiobis xma bunebrivad unda gadasuliyo metyvelebidan mRerad
urielsac axasiaTebda l. mesxiSviliseuli scenuri gmirisaTvis       deklamaciaSi, sasceno moZraoba sacekvao plastikasa da JestSi.
damaxasiaTebeli gmiruli ieri, romantikuli paTosi, zeaweuli        speqtakli uaxlovdeboda antikur wminda xelovnebas, sadac
Teatraluroba iseve, rogorc u. CxeiZes, l. mesxiSvilsac Tavisi     dro ar arsebobda.
momajadovebeli baritoniTa da cecxlovani temperamentiT                 modernuli periodis xelovnebaSi cxovrebis mimbaZvelobiTi
mayurebeli egzeltaciamde mihyavda. v. garikis2 TqmiT, elinuri     xelovneba Seicvala poeturi dialogiT. radgan, damkvidrebuli
silamazis msaxiobi monologebSi namdvil musikalur simfonias        azris Tanaxmad, mxolod poetebs xelewifebodaT samyaros Secnoba,
qmnida. tragikosi msaxiob-poeti TiTqos mReroda, ise aJRerebda     xolo poeziis mwvervalad tragedia da musika gacxadda, romelic
Tavis jadosnur xmas da mayurebels ajadoebda Tavisi                samyaros nebis obieqtivacias warmoadgenda. kvlav aRorZinda
mravalmniSvnelovani intonaciebiT, msaxiob-tribunis Tvalebic       musikidan dabadebuli tragedia, Sesrulebis paTosi da jadosnuri
iseve cimcimebdnen scenidan, rogorc u. CxeiZis Sinagani cecxliT   xelovneba. musikaSi gacxadebuli samyaro warmoaCenda yvelaze
ganaTebuli sxiviani Tvalebi. simon Ciqovanis 3 TqmiT,             idumal sawyiss, sadac samyaro musikis, musika samyaros xati
u.CxeiZiseuli saSemsruleblo xelovneba gamoirCeoda gancdis         iyo. xolo aramusikaluri, evripides mier damkvidrebuli teqstis
siRrmiT, daxvewili intonaciiT, xolo misi maRali tembris           gagebis tendencia, kvlav Seicvala musikidan dabadebuli
Zlieri da mJReri xma zariviT rekavda scenidan. rogorc             tragediis esTetikuri msmenelis aRorZinebiT.
irkveva, marjaniSvilis speqtaklis centrSi kvlav amaRlebuli,           rogorc ukve aRvniSne, Tanamedroveni msaxiobis metyvelebas
sinamdvilis gardaqmnisa da Semecnebis JiniT anTebuli,             zaris rekvas adarebdnen. garkveulwilad msaxiobis xma
cecxlovani temperamentis romantikuli gmiri idga, xolo             warmoadgenda kidec musikalur instruments. poeturi
qarTuli Teatris istoriisaTvis yvelaze organuli da                 metyvelebis melodia teqstis Sinaarsisa da ganwyobis mixedviT
sicocxlisunariani, romantikuli saSemsruleblo xerxebi              iyo moZebnili. musika sametyvelo enis kolorits gansazRvravda
modernuli Teatris esTetikis damfuZneblebisTvisac yvelaze          da, piriqiT, poeturi metyveleba JRerda rogorc musika, romelic
optimaluri iyo (mag. a. apia). marjaniSviliseuli `uriel           erwymoda melodias.
akosta~ warmoadgenda iniciacias (gandobas), romelic mayurebels        marjaniSviliseuli speqtaklis musika ZiriTadad Seiqmna
ganacdevinebda TviTziarebis Zalas. saCino formebs miRma faruli    fleitisa da simebian sakravTa meSveobiT. franguli ganaTlebis
azri idga. speqtakli sazogadoebas ganumartavda totalitaruli       kompozitori T. vaxvaxiSvili qarTuli musikaluri tradiciebis
reJimis mmarTvelTa kanonebis logikas, yofierebis filosofiasa      gaazrebiTa da franguli sisadaviT qmnida evropuli mignebebis
da adamianuri cxovrebis azrs. igi amZafrebda pasuxismgeblis       Tanaxmier musikas. rogorc cnobilia, swored safrangeTs
rols da sazogadoebis gafxizlebas eswrafoda, xolo 1920-            (bodlers) ukavSideboda aRniSnuli periodis heroikuli
iani wlebi, rogorc cnobilia heroikuli modernis periodia.          modernisTvis damaxasiaTebeli individualuri xelovnebiseuli
Sesabamisad, k. marjaniSvili qmnida filosofiur tragedias,         formebis prioritetis dafuZneba. marjaniSviliseul speqtaklSi
mayurebels sTavazobda dramaturgiseuli nawarmoebis sakuTar         msaxiobis individualuri monacemebis, mis mier mignebuli
xedvas, anu koncefciur speqtakls, romelsac unda Seecvala          gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebis gaTvaliswinebiT iqmneboda da
realoba. T. vaxvaxiSvilis TqmiT4, k. marjaniSvilis `uriel         icvleboda musika da piriqiT. musika gansazRvravda msaxiobis


118                                                                                                                           119
Tamar quTaTelaZe                                                                                      Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi

poeturi metyvelebis ZiriTad aqcentebs, sasceno moZraobisa         esTetikur koncefcias emorCileba. Sesabamisad, scenazea ara
da speqtaklis mTel tempo-ritms. amrigad, cocxali orkestris,       xorcieli arseba, aramed idealisti, romelic unda mokvdes
musikalur-poeturi sityvisa da msaxiobis moZraobis harmoniul       imisTvis, rom ukeTesi da umetesi, ufro Zlieri iSvas. xolo
sinTezSi iqmneboda musikalur-simfoniuri warmodgenis               mis damdablebas, ara marto Semmusravi da uarmyofeli mnSvneloba
garkveuli Janri, samTa erTianobis kanoni, anu e. w. magiuri       aqvs, aramed dadebiTi. igi amaRorZinebeli da ambivalenturia.
samkuTxedis triada. am erTianobis ganviTarebisa da am kanonis         uSangi CxeiZis uriels msubuqad mohqonda mZime, Savi
srulyofili gacnobierebis safuZvelze warmoiqmneboda uZvelesi       wamosasxami, tiranuli reJimis pirobebSi, misive xvedris simbolo.
xelovnebiseuli formisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli nawarmoebi. aq         urielisve Sav samosze TeTri tilos sayelo, iseve rogorc
msaxiobis sxeulic musikisa da plastikis, musika-sityvisa da       ivdiTis qaTqaTa, TeTri samosi, natifad aqandakebda msaxiobTa
plastikis gamomsaxveli iyo, xolo ritmi organizebul sawyiss        keTilSobilur profils, maT kexian, aRmosavlur cxvirs.
warmoadgenda. amrigad, musikaluri melodiis ritmis, msaxiobis      k.marjaniSvili mkacri sizustiT mihyveboda damkvidrebul
moZraobis ritmis, metyvelebis ritmis da a.S. yvela am             modernul tendencias aristokratuli xelovnebis formirebis
mravalferovan ritmTa harmoniuli Tanaarsebobis safuZvelze          Taobaze. Sesabamisad, k. marjaniSviliseuli arCevani qarTuli
iqmneboda xelovnebis nawarmoebis hi pnozuri zemoqmedebis          gvaris or rCeul warmomadgenelze am mxrivac iyo motivirebuli.
winapiroba. erTmaneTs avsebdnen verikos-ivdiTis haerovani da          modernuli tendenciis Sesabamisad, k. marjaniSvilis
uSangis-urielis qariSxliseburi graciozulobiT Seqmnili             Teatraluri esTetikac gamoirCeva mkveTri ferebiT. speqtaklis
maneruli scenuri saxeebi. maTi yoveli sityva, moZraoba da         ganaTebaSi erTmaneTs enacvleboda sisxlisferi da
Jesti maTematikurad gaTvlili iyo. personaJis sulieri              TvalismomWreli oqrosferi, avismomaswavebel musikas zeimuroba
mdgomareoba JestSi gardaiqmneboda. aq apoloni individis           da silaRe. saSemsruleblo xelovnebaSi prioritetuli iyo
tanjvaze, silamaze cxovrebiseul gancdaze zeimobda. Tanamedrove    saopero, sabaleto da dramatuli Teatris msaxiobTa
TeatrSi SemoiWra ZvelberZnuli TeatrisaTvis prioritetuli           gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebi. speqtaklSi CarTuli pantomimuri
apolonur-dionisuri xelovnebis gadakveTa, anu harmonia da          scenebi amZafrebda arsebuli reJimis sisastikis saxier Cvenebas.
qaosi. SesamCnevi gaxda xelovnebis, rogorc TamaSisaken swrafvis       meamboxe urielisadmi mimarTuli wyevlis yoveli frazis
tendencia. modernul periodSi prioritetuli metaforuli              dasrulebisas de santosi (al. imedaSvili, g. CuguaSvili)
xelovneba ganerida yovelive realurs da Semusra adamianuri         kibis TiTo safexurze eSveboda. qedmoxrili ivdiTi (v.
aspeqti. scenaze damkvidrda adamiani-simbolo. marjaniSviliseul    anjafariZe, n. murvaniZe) uneblied ixevda urielisgan. es pasaJi
speqtaklSi urielic da ivdiTic swored aseT simbolizirebul          mkafiod asaxavda damkvidrebuli morCilebis momajadoebel Zalas.
saxeebs warmoadgendnen. orive maTgani sicocxlisa da adamianuri    mrevli iseTi simwvaviT reagirebda wyevlis yoveli frazis
arsebobis, misi funqciisa da faseulobebis ganmsazRvrel            dasasruls, TiTqos maTraxi dahkreso. tkivilisa Tu Tavdacvis
metaforul saxeebad iqcnen, sadac sicocxlis arseba swrafvaa,       instiqtiT welSi moxrilebsa da TavzexelebSemoWdobilebs
ltolvaa, raimes nebaa, cvla-ganaxlebis simboloa. igi              gminvisa da muqarismagvari bgerebi aRmoxdebodaT xolme. es
siyvarulicaa da Tavisuflebis dauokebeli wadilic, amitomac         pantomimuri scena sisxlisfrad iyo ganaTebuli, orkestric
iyo scenaze wyvilTa vneba-uvnebo, mistiuri da Seucnobeli.         avismomaswavebel musikas ukravda. mRelvareba piks aRwevda da
k.marjaniSvilis koncefciiT, urieli da ivdiTi orsxeuliani          samarisebul siCumes hkveTda ivdiTis mtkice amboxi. rabinTa
sxeulis Suaze gakveTili, realisturi koncefciis TviTkmari          jgufi mrisxane saxeebiT tovebdnen wyvils. sisxlisfer sinaTles
individualoba iyo. aq xorcieli sawyisi dakninebulia da            kvlav TvalismomWreli oqrosferi enacvleboda, JRerda


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Tamar quTaTelaZe                                                                                      Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi

`gamarjvebulTa laitmotivi~. amayi, bednieri da momRimari ivdiTi    Tanadroul sinamdvileSi warmoqmnil umTavres problemas -
urielisken xelebgawvdili kibis zeda baqnidan iwyebda sabaleto      brZolas sicocxlisTvis, gadarCenisTvis, realobidan gaqceva-
msaxiobis graciozulobiT Seqmnil saxelganTqmul monolog-             amaRlebisTvis. speqtaklis yvela komponenti mimarTul iqna
arias: `axla Cemi xar, Cemo uriel!~... u. CxeiZis urieli muxls     swored am ZiriTadi ideis warmosaCenad. am mxriv s. Wiaurelis
idrekda mamaci qalis winaSe da Tavadac ivdiTisaken                 mier aRdgenili dadgma distancirda rogorc modernuli, ise
xelebgawvdili neli nabijiT iwyebda svlas grZel kibeze.             Tanamedrove periodis social-politikuri garemosgan, moarul
    aRsaniSnavia isic, rom speqtaklis kostumebi moyvarulma         saTeatro esTetikasTan da saSemsruleblo skolasTan.
mkeravma, profesiiT operis momReralma ganaxorciela. Tavad
reJisoris TanaSemwe al. gvelesians ki diriJoroba daekisra.
igi warmodgenis reJisoruli partiturisa da TiToeuli
Semsruleblis individualurobis gaTvaliswinebiT marTavda
orkestrs
    marjaniSvilis mier modernulad iqna gaazrebuli
ZvelberZnuli qoros funqciac. ZaZiT mosili adamianebis jgufi
SiSiT aTrTolebuli moZraobda scenaze. maTi haerSi molivlive
xelis mtevnebi Tu mravaltanjuli mzera, warmoaCenda urielis
samarTliani amboxis Tanamoazre da sakuTari umweobiT
sasowarkveTili sazogadoebis ganwyobas. usamarTlo realobasTan
uSedego brZolis Semdeg, adamianuri Rirsebis xelmyof reJimTan
amboxis erTaderT alternatiul saSualebad misgan ganridebaRa
rCeboda. T. vaxvaxiSvilis5 cnobiT, TviTmkvlelobis scenaSi v.
anjafariZis scenuri gmiri welgamarTuli, didebuli da mSvidi
ieriT pirqve emxoboda petre ocxeliseul egzotikur
savarZelSi. Tavs iklavda urielic. wamieri pauzis Semdeg ki
scenas sazeimo musika da TvalismomWreli mzis sxivebi avsebda.
rogorc cnobilia, dionisuri xelovanisaTvis sikvdili
maradiuli ganaxlebaa. igi ambivalenturia, uaryofs da amkvidrebs.
amitomac iyo marjaniSviliseuli speqtaklis finali uCveulod
zeimuri, xolo zeimoba (yovelgvari) mix. baxtinis ganmartebiT,
kulturis pirveladi formaa, dakavSirebuli adamianuri
cxovrebis krizisuli gardatexis - sikvdilisa da aRorZinebis,
                                                                   1. T vaxvaxiSvili, kote marjaniSvilis eqvsi speqtakli, Tbilisi,
cvlisa da ganaxlebis momentebTan. aq gmiri kvdeba, ibadeba da
                                                                   1968;
axldeba. swored am ambivalentobaSia misi zeimuroba. mas            2. v. gariki, Teatri, Tbilisi, 1958;
akvdineben da Tesaven kidec, raTa iSvas ukeTesi da ufro            3. v. anjafariZe ,,uSangi CxeiZe’’, Tbilisi, 1979, gv-29;
Zlieri.                                                            4. T vaxvaxiSvili, kote marjaniSvilis eqvsi speqtakli, Tbilisi,
    amrigad, k. marjaniSvilis `uriel akostas~ saxiT qarTuli        1968 w;
Teatris istoriaSi Seiqmna maRali tragedia, romelic gaamxelda       5. ix. zemoT dasaxelebuli wigni.


122                                                                                                                             123
                                              lamara RonRaZe,          reJisuras maSin axalgazrda, SemdgomSi msofliloSi
                                      asocirebuli profesori        saxelganTqmuli reJisori, giorgi tovstonogovi aswavlida.
                                                                   msaxiobis ostatobas, imxanad TbilisSi evakuirebuli samxatvro
             reJisori, dro, speqtakli                              Teatris msaxiobi, olRa iakubovskaia. Tavis am did
           (lili ioselianis pirveli speqtakli)                     maswavleblebTan eziara igi stanislavskis qmediTi analizis
                                                                   meTods. maTTan daeufla msaxiobTan muSaobis im gansakuTrebul
    lili ioseliani gamorCeuli adamiani, pirovneba, reJisori        xerxebsa da saSualebebs, mogvianebiT lilis skolis saxeliT
da pedagogia. es gamorCeuloba yovelTvis imdenad TvalSisacemi       rom gaxda cnobili.
iyo, rom TiTqos, mis Semoqmedebasac ki uwevda metoqeobas! –            sainteresoa qarTuli Teatrmcodneobis erT-erTi gamorCeuli
rasac, albaT, yvelaze metad misi saxelis gansakuTrebuli            avtoritetis, naTela uruSaZis mosazrebac, misi msaxioburi
legendiTmosileba ganapirobebda. es legendaruli areali xSirad       niWierebis Sesaxeb – `lili ioselianis aqtiorul niWierebaSi
imasac sarwmunos xdida, rom, vTqvaT, misi ganuxorcielebeli         eWvis Setana SeuZlebeli iyo. amitom, rodesac g. tovstonogovi
Canafiqric ki, gacilebiT mniSvnelovani iyo, vidre sxva reJisoris   anawilebda rolebs, samsaxiobo fakultetis meoTxe kursis
warmatebuli speqtakli. Tumca gamorCeuloba lili ioselianisTvis      sadiplomo warmodgenisaTvis pristlis piesaSi `dro da konveis
RvTis saCuqarze ufro umZimesi jvari iyo yovelTvis. jvari,          ojaxi~, medea CaxavasTan erTad lilic daniSna kerolis rolze.
romelic sxvebze metis atanasa da gausaZlisis gaZlebas moiTxovda    rodesac lili pirvelad gamocxadda repeticiaze...             g.
misgan. misi gamorCeuloba Tavdapirvelad mis iseT sisustesa da      tovstonogovma maSinve samuSaod gaixmo. uceb Seaxsena mocemuli
daucvelobaSi gamoixata, romelic TandaTanobiT, liliseuli            viTarebani... swrafad Caeba lili mxiarulebis ritmsa da
daTmeniTa da nebiT, sakuTar siZliered aqcia.                       ganwyobilebaSi... parteridan moisma g. tovstonogovis: `yoCaR~.
    pirveli Seudrekeli neba ki maSin gamoamJRavna, roca            arc Tu ise advili iyo misgan am sityvis gagoneba~.1
reJisoroba, esoden `mamakacuri saqme~ airCia profesiad da              lili ioselianisTvisac arasodes araferi yofila advili.
veRaravin aTqmevina uari masze. mSoblebis aqtiur                   arc yofaSi, arc SemoqmedebaSi. Tavis mtkivneulad sust
winaaRmdegobasac sZlia da mravalTa skepticizmsac – am              janmrTelobasTan erTad yofas gausaZlisad umZimebda misia,
sifrifana qalma artistebis marTvis Zala da gamZleoba saidan        romelic TiTqmis bavSvobidan ergo. `pigmalionis qmnadobis~
unda i povos sakuTar TavSio?! – gamZleobasac miakvlia da           am misias ki igi maSin Seudga, rodesac Tavisi gzasacdenili Zma
gabedulebasac – erT mSvenier dRes uyoymanod miatova Tbilisis       jaba jer sasikvdilo ganaCenisagan ixsna, Semdeg ki Taviseburi
saxelmwifo universitetis filologiuri fakultetis                    utexi daJinebiT Seudga misi pirovnebis im miTosuri suraTxatis
germanuli enis ganyofileba da moskovSi, Teatraluri                 srulqmna-damkvidrebas, aseTi TavdaviwyebiT rom aRazeva me-20
institutis sareJisoro fakultetze Casabareblad gaemgzavra.          saukunis miwurulis weraatanil qarTvelTa aRgznebulma
Caabara kidec! – misi utexoba ki ufro metad gaxdeba sacnauri,      gonebam!... samarTlianoba moiTxovs iTqvas, rom lili ioseliani
Tu davsZen, rom es 1941 wels xdeboda!...                           am qmnadobaSic      iseTive did simaRleebs Sewvda, rogorc
    marTalia, swavlis dawyebidan sul raRac sami Tvis Semdeg,       Teatralur xelovnebaS i, rogorc Teatr alur
mamam – konstantine ioselianma _ CaakiTxa da acremlebuli           pedagogikaSi.@`lili ioseliani qarTuli reJisuris didostatia.
saxlSi wamoabrZana, magram es daTmoba ki ara, mtkiced arCeuli      misi pedagogiuri monacemebi unikaluria. lili ioseliani
gzis gagrZeleba iyo. gzisa, romelmac 1939 w. aRdgenil              skolaa~. sxvaTa qebisas friad TavSekavebuli mixeil
saqarTvelos saxelmwifo Teatralur institutSi moRvawe                TumaniSvilis am sityvebis Semdeg SemiZlia, ufro Tamamad
didostatebTan miiyvana.
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lamara RonRaZe                                                                                               reJisori, dro, speqtakli

gavimeoro dasawyisSi naTqvami _ lili ioseliani gamorCeulia         gavlili, Tavis damkvidrebis garda, albaT im dros, arc ioselians
imiT rom lili ioseliania!                                          eqneboda metis pretenzia, miT ufro, rom xmauriani meamboxeoba
    Tumca, im gardasul, ukve saukunis miRmier 1952 wels, rodesac   da wingaWrilis Tavdaviwyeba, arc Semdeg yofila misi stili.
igi marjaniSvilis TeatrSi mivida, yvelaze TvalSi sacemi, rac       igi ufro Cumad ukmayaofilo adamiani gaxldaT. ukmayofilo
mis gamorCeulobas ganapirobebda, albaT, jer mxolod misi            ki marTlac yovelTvis iyo. Tanac yvelaTi da yvelafriT!
umweo da dasacavad momxmobi garegnoba iyo. anu g. tovstonogovis    magram Tavis romelime speqtaklSi es arc arasdros ganucxadebia.
frTian Sedarebas Tu movixmob _ `mudam naxevrad qalisa da           mTeli misi epataJi da janyi misi Zma jaba iyo! speqtaklebSi ki
naxevrad gogonas STabeWdilebis momxdeni garegnoba~.                igi, SeiZleba iTqvas, ufro TavisTvis buzRunebda. iqneb fiqrSi
    marjaniSvilis TeatrSi lili ioseliani damdgmel reJisorad        apirebda kidec yvelasTvis yvelaferi pirSi miexala da erTi
miiRes. mTavari reJisori vaxtang tabliaSvili iyo. gacilebiT        kargad moeoxebina guli, magram?! rac marTalia marTalia, mis
zusti iqneba Tu vityvi _ sakadro nusxis Sesabamisi Tanamdeboba     pirovnebaSi amis ganzraxulobis xazgasma yovelTvis ikiTxeboda,
vaxtang tabliaSvils ekava meTqi! – radgan namdvili mTavrebi        da albaT, yvelaze `xmamaRali~ masSi swored ganzraxuloba da
da Zalian mTavrebic scenaze idgnen.                                kidev moridebulobis gamokveTilad gamomwvevi demonstrireba
       da mere vin idgnen?! _ lado asaTianis ar iyos, sxvebi       gaxldaT.
rom ara, veriko anjafariZe kmaroda. magram sxvebic iyvnen da           Tumca, saeWvoa, amas maSin vinmeze raime efeqti moexdina.
Tanac isini, romlebic TviT marjaniSvilsac ki manamde itanden       lili ioselianis, dRes ukve yvelasTvis ase nacnobi
(verikosTan erTad), sanam misi mxardWeriT TavianT Tavisuflebas     uflebawarTmeulobis gamomwvevi xazgasma, angariSgasawev Zalas
alaRebdnen. sanam kmaroda axmetelTan gajibrebis Jini da            mere da mere SeiZens, Torem maSin marjaniSvilis TeatrSi
marjaniSvilis geniiT Seqmnili ukvdavi speqtaklebis xibli,          damxdurTaTvis es axalgazrda reJisoris arsebobis bunebrivi
saxel-didebas rom uxveWda maT. sanam iyo maTiT da mxolod           forma iyo.
maTiT aRtacebuli marjaniSvilis sxivmfinari Tvalebi! sakmarisi          zraxvebi da imedebi, yvela damwyebis msgavsad, rasakvirvelia,
iyo, am TvalebSi maTiT aRtacebis garda, damoukidebeli nebis,       masac diadi eqneboda, magram iluziebisadmi gansakuTrebulad
Tundac umniSvnelo Crdilic ki gaciagebuliyo, am misgan              Tavmicemuli rom ar yofila, amas misi, ase vTqvaT, yovlad
xeldasxmulma artistebma TavianTi ganaCeni ise Rrmad                udavidarabo da uwyinari arCevanic cxadhyofs.
dautriales gulSi did maswavlebels, rom, axmetelisgan                   pirveli piesa, romelic ioselianma marjaniSvilis TeatrSi
gansxvavebiT, sistemis represiuli manqanis gamoyeneba aRar         dadga, imdroisaTvis sakmaod gaxmaurebuli saxelis mqone poetisa
dasWirvebiaT, ise gauCerda igi!...                                 da dramaturgis viqtor gabeskirias piesa `gazafxulis dila~
    amdenad, ar iyo gasakviri, rom swored isini, oci-ocdaaTiani-   iyo, anu, is nawarmoebi, romelic zedmiwevniT Seesabameboda
ormociani wlebis codo-brals naziarebi da represiebs                sabWouri wyobis ideologiur kliSes da omaxianad exmianeboda
TavdaRweuli artistebi moiazrebdnen Tavs 50-iani wlebis             sistemis TviTkritikuli paTosis imxanad aSlil saRerRels
qarTuli Teatris liderebadac. realuradac isini qmnidnen im          _ `sabWoTa kavSiris komunisturi partiis 1946 wlis 26
periodis Cveni Teatris ganumeorebel saxes. amitomac iyo, rom       agvistos istoriulma dadgenilebam `dramatuli Teatrebis~
isini arc mmarTvels eZebdnen da arc gzis maCvenebels. reJisors     repertuarisa da misi gaumjobesebaTa RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb~.
speqtakli unda daedga, maTTvis sasurveli da maT didebaze           dramaturgebsa da Teatris muSakebs amocanad dausaxa Seqmnan
morgebuli... am TvalsazrisiT verc lili ioseliani iqneboda          mkafio da mxatvrulad srulfasovani nawarmoebebi sabWoTa
gamonaklisi. daostatebis rogori skolac ar unda hqoneboda           sazogadoebis cxovrebis Sesaxeb, sabWoTa adamianis Sesaxeb.


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roca am amocanis TvalsazrisiT vudgebiT viqtor gabeskirias            estumreba. direqtor longinozs yvelaferi rigze ver aaqvs.
piesas `gazafxulis dila~, aseT daskvnamde mivdivarT, igi uTuod       revizorebs SeuZliaT mis mier moparulis, arc Tu kargad
did daxmarebas gauwevs mayurebelSi mowinave, sabWoTa                 dafarul, kvals miagnon. Tanac icis rom, maT am saqmeSi didi
ideologiisa da moralis danergvis saqmes, ufro metad                  siamovnebiT daexmareba mtkice komunisti Salva. maSasadame, Salvas
gaamaxvilebs Cvens yuradRebas im naklovanebebze, rac jer kidev       Camocilebaa saWiro! da longinozi abriyvebs, ase vTqvaT,
mTlianad ar aris aRmofxvrili yofidan~.2                              gulubryvilo da gamoucdel mZRols eliozs da Caagonebs
    v. gabeskirias piesis mixedviT, `yofidan jer kidev               moparos sabuTebi Salvas. amiT braleuloba masze gadainacvlebs,
aRmoufxvreli naklovaneba~ e. w. saerTo-saxalxo sakuTrebidan          longinozi ki gamoZvreba.
metis miTvisebisa da metis dauflebis survili gaxldaT.                    mZRoli marTlac i paravs sabuTebs, radgan TavdaviwyebiT
mayurebelSi mowinave sabWoTa ideologiisa da moralis                  uyvars da eWvianobs lilize, romelsac Tavis mxriv patiosani
danergvisaTvis SemarTuli dramamturgi didi mowadinebiT                komunisti Salva uyvars. longinozis fandi gaWris _ dakarguli
cdilobda, Tavisi gmirebis magaliTiT daegmo da gaekicxa is            sabuTebis kvals gamodevnebuli revizorebi Salvas miadgebian.
adamianebi, ukeT cxovrebis `yovlad mankieri~ midrekilebebis          Salvas daWeris safrTxe daemuqreba, magram am dros siyvarulis
gamo `xalxis qonebas~ rom i paravdnen!                               diadi Zala imZlavrebs. patiosani eliozi mixvdeba, rom, rac ar
    sazogadoebis mTavari xorcmeti, rogorc maSin uwodebdnen,          unda moxdes, lilis mainc Salva eyvareba. bedsSerigebuli da
piesaSi Saqris qarxnis direqtori longinozia, momxveWeli da           sindisis qenjna aRZruli eliozi SalvasTan miva, yvelaferSi
cxovrebis komunisturi princi pis damrRvevi. sazogadoebis             gamoutydeba da moparul sabuTebs ukan daubrunebs.
meorexarisxovan wylulad, piesis avtors, misi moadgile titiko             samarTali zeimobs.
miaCnia, romelic Tavisdasamarcxvinod didi gemos CatanebiT                finali Salvas oTaxSi TamaSdeba. oTaxSi Salva da lili
ilokavs im TiTebs, xalxis kuTvnil Taflian kasrSi rom aqvs            arian.
Cayofili?!                                                               `Salva _ lamazi dila Tendeba. (moismis simRera) _ zambaxsac
    dramatuli konfliqti swored am uwesoebisa da Tavdadebuli          gaRviZeboda da Tavs uxrida niavsa... bavSvobaSi dauweria da
komunistis, qarxnis DinJiner Salvas urTierTdapirispirebazea          mainc ramdeni Zala aqvs... aq vrCebi, erTad viqnebiT, erTad
agebuli. piesis avtoris ideologiuri gulmodgineba rom                 vimuSavebT. iseTi dila gaTenda, rogoric Sen daxate, Cveni
SeumCeveli ar darCenila, amas imdroindeli presa Zalze naTlad         qveyana, Cveni cxovrebac mas hgavs, Cvenc yvelani misi sispetakis,
adasturebs: _ `viqtor gabeskiriam Tavis piesaSi erTmaneTs mkveTrad   misi sidiadis Sesaferisni unda viyoT~.
daupirispira, erTi mxriv, gadagvarebuli, egoisti longinozi da            aseTi paTosiT egebeboda v. gabeskirias patiosani komunisti
titiko, romelTa sazogadoebrivi da saxelmwifoebrivi interesi          Salva, gazafxulis dilas, romelic mayurebels, rasakvirvelia,
arafrad ar miaCniaT, yvelafers mxolod piradi keTildReobis            ise unda mieRo, rogorc komunistebis mier dapirebuli is
TvalsazrisiT uyureben, Tanamdebobas borotad iyeneben da              nanatri dila, romelic gaciskrovnebul dRed da netari
saxelmwifo qonebas aniaveben; meore mxriv _ patiosani, uaRresad      cxovrebis dasawyisad unda qceuliyo!...
keTilSobili, mtkice, brZolaSi Seupovari, xalxisa da                      dramaturgis an reJisoris mimarT raimes SeniSvnamde, vfiqrob,
saxelmwifosTvis Tavdadebuli komunisti _ inJineri Salva,              kargi iqneba, Tu gavixsenebT piesis dawerisa da dadgmis dros.
romelic xalxis siyvaruliTa da pativiscemiT sargeblobs~.3                 speqtaklis premiera Sedga 1952 wlis 19 noembers. es aris
    konfliqtis ganviTareba da kvanZis gaxsna qarxanaSi               dro, rodesac sabWoTa sistema garegnulad mainc Tavisi zeobis
Tbilisidan Camosuli revizorebis Semowmebis fonze xdeba.              mwvervalze imyofeba. lamis ukidegano qveyana SepyobiliviT
konkretuli situacia aseTia _ Saqris qarxanas revizia
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Sescicinebs `vards gaefurCqna kokoris~ kremlSi davanebul              `iSviaTi warmateba xvda speqtaklSi ak. kvantalians. aq
avtors da yvelafridan ise Cans, TiTqos gulwrfelad xarobs          erTxel kidev mTeli ZaliT gamoCnda msaxiobis aqtioruli
naTeli `gazafxulis dilis~ ideiT!... amJamad SeiZleba vTqvaT:      ostatoba da xalasi niWi. ak. kvantalianma ostaturad gaaSiSvla
Tavs aCvenebdao, magram am moCvenebiTobaSi iseTi ganwiruli        da gakicxa saxelmwifo qonebis gamniavebeli, uqnara adamianis
mowadineba igrZnoboda, rom simarTlemde TiTqmis aRarc araferi      ti pi. msaxiobs metad marjved aqvs monaxuli Jestebi, moZraobis
aklda!.. is mowadineba, gabeskirias damtkbar-dasaTnoebuli         manera. metyvelebis mkveTri Tavisebureba. misi yoveli gamosvla
gmirisagan gansxvavebuli realuri Salvebis daundobeli              scenaze, ubralo gavla Tu sityvis warmoTqma mayurebelSi
sisastikiT rom caxcaxebda!...                                     gulwrfel sicils iwvevs... maSinac, roca titiko gamomJRavnebuli
    dRes vin gaamtyunebs im patara, sifrifana gogonas, romelic    da moxsnilia, msaxiobi misdami sibralulis grZnobas ki ar
verc TeatrSi daxvedril msaxiobTa moZalebul diqtatsa da            aRZravs, Seubraleblad dascinis da bolomde anadgurebs mas~.4
rutinas Seeba da verc wyobis represiul manqanas. anda mas             winaswarganzraxuli ganwyobis Seqmnis gamiznulobis
maSin saidan unda scodnoda rom sul male iq, kremlSi,              deficiti arc sxva rolebis SerCevisas Cans. iseTi ganwyobisa,
dasasrulis dasawyisis mauwyebeli zari Camohkravda?!               roca ginda, esa Tu is gmiri danaxvisTanave moewonos, ufro
    man ubralod is gza airCia, romelsac yvela miuyveboda da       metic, danaxvisTanave Seuyvardes mayurebels. personaJi, romliTac
sistemis winaaRmdeg uperspeqttivo janys, speqtaklSi Salvasa       darbazi, ase vTqvaT, programis wakiTxvisTanave unda moxibluliyo,
da lilis siyvarulis lirikuli xazis win wamoweva da                piesaSi, `diad stalinur epoqaSi aRzrdili da gamowrTobili
longinozis msgavs `cud warmonaqmnebze~ ukmayofileba amjobina.     ti piuri gmiri~ Salva gaxldaT. reJisors am rolze, marTlac
    reJisoris kompromisuli ganwyoba rolebis ganawilebidanac       rom gamorCeuli xibliT dajildoebuli ostati, pier kobaxiZe
                                                                  hyavda daniSnuli. cxovrebiseuli, Tu scenuri mimzidveloba,
Cans. `gadagvarebulsa da saxelmwifo qonebis gamniavebel
                                                                  arc mis axalgazrda dubliors, ediSer maRalaSvils aklda.
longinozs~ vaso goZiaSvili TamaSobda, xolo masze aranakleb
                                                                  Tumca, obieqturoba moiTxovs iTqvas, rom reJisoris
`mavne elements~ titikos _ akaki kvantaliani. komediuri da
                                                                  gulmodginebas, rac SeiZleba saukeTeso scenuri gansxeuleba
saxasiaTo rolebis Semsrulebeli am ori gamoCenili ostatis
                                                                  moeZebna Salvas saxisaTvis, albaT, isic ganapirobebda, rom
arCevani, vfiqrob, mravlismetyvelad cxadhyofs axalgazrda
                                                                  cdilobda am gziT mainc gaexada damajerebeli piesiseuli
reJisoris damokidebulebas dasagmobi, sazogadoebisagan
                                                                  Salvas sakmaod sqematuri saxe.
uarsayofad ganwiruli personaJebisadmi. swored maTi, am ori            reJisoris mowadineba aqac Sedegiani aRmoCnda _ `pier
didi artistis saSemsruleblo palitraSi uxvad moZalebul             kobaxiZe Salvas saxes ise gvixatavs, rom mayurebeli masSi
komediur ferebs unda gaemasxrebina, gaekicxa d,a ase vTqvaT,      xedavs da grZnobs mowinave sabWoTa adamians, amitomac sjera misi
satiris geenisaTvis gadaeca `idealuri sazogadoebis~ mSenebelTa    simarTlisa... TavdaWerili, mtkice, pirdapiri, principuli komunistia
Semarcxvenelni.                                                   pier kobaxiZis Salva. igi ver urigdeba longinozisa da misi
    imdroindeli presa gvimowmebs, rom v. goZiaSvilsa da           wris uxamsobas, maqinaciebs, saxelmwifo qonebis datacebas, ulmoblad
ak.kvantalians brwyinvaled SeusrulebiaT es diadi misia! _         amxels maT borotmoqmedebas, saaSkaraoze gamoaqvs igi~.
`v. goZiaSvilis longinozi swored gagebuli da mxatvrulad               calkeuli Semsruleblebis msgavs Sefasebebs dRes is
dasrulebuli xasiaTia – msaxiobi Rrmad Cawvda uaryofiTi            mniSvnelobac aqvs, rom isini msaxiobTa TamaSis maRali xarisxis
gmiris bunebas, mkveTrad gamoavlina misi konkretuli Tvisebebi,    Sesaxebac gvamcnoben da speqtakllis ideologiuri paTosis
qcevis Taviseburebani... man mSvenivrad monaxa rolis Sesatyvisi   wakiTxvis saSualebasac gvaZleven. paTosisa, romelic sabWoTa
scenuri ferebi da longinozi uaryofiTi ti pis ganzogadebul         adamianisaTvis ukadrisi da mankieri midrekilebebis dagmobaSi
saxed aqcia~...                                                   unda gamoxatuliyo.
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    Tumca piesaSi da cxadia, speqtaklSic, ar SeiZleboda Tavi       saxeebi Seiqmna, sruliad moulodneli saRebavebiT aJRerdnen _
ar eCina im Sinagan winaaRmdegobebs e. w. socialisturi realizmis   elene yifSiZe, vaxtang ninua, SaSo gomelauri da sxvebi~.
principebze Seqmnili nawarmoebebisTvis rom iyo damaxasiaTebeli         elene yifSiZe _ `lilis repeticiebi saocreba iyo. yvelani
_ roca iwereboda erTi da ikiTxeboda meore. roca mxatvruli          monusxulebi viyaviT. _ `repeticiebi sakmarisi ar aris imisaTvis,
simarTlis siRrmiseuli logika usxlteboda Tavsmoxveul                rom sxva adamianad iqce, dRis ganmavlobaSi, rasac ar unda
xelovnurobas da imas warmoaCenda, rac sinamdvileSi xdeboda.        akeTebde, rolze fiqri ar unda gtovebdes~, _ gvaswavlida
    amas verc Cveni sakvlevi speqtaklis avtorebi acden. viqtor     lili. maxsovs, repeticiaze mimavalni troleibusSi avediT da
gabeskirias piesaSi, misi arc Tu faseuli mxatvruli Rirebulebis     me TiTqmis viyvire _ `ori!~ _ uceb lilim xeli wamatana da
miuxedavad, mainc Canda, rom rac ar unda ilaparakos partiam        wamCurCula: `ase ara, ase ara, lili rogor aiRebda bileTs?!.~
Tanabari cxovrebis wessa da saerTo saxalxo sakuTrebis Sesaxeb,     mivxvdi, rom me lena aRar var!... davwvrildi, avituze da Zlivs
Saqari mainc Saqris qarxnis direqtoris ufro iqneba, vidre im       wamoviluRluRe _ Tu SeiZleba, qalbatono, ori bileTi~. SevediT
muSis, qarxanaSi SaqriT savse tomrebs rom ezideba... anu,          TeatrSi. moriges Zlivs gasagonad, gaubedavad mivesalme. qurTuks
Tavisdauneburad, magram mainc Canda, komunizmis am mSenebelTa      rom vkidebdi, morigem aRelvebulma mkiTxa _ avad xom ar
wiaRSi rogor ibadeboda da Zalas ikrebda mqonebelTa axali           xaro?!. lilim Cem magivrad upasuxa: ara, Zalian kargad aris,
fena, ase ubodiSod rom uTxrida Zirs Tanabari cxovrebis             swored ise, rogorc unda iyoso da kmayofilma gaiRima~...
TavisTavad mSvenier ideas.                                             elene yifSiZe, im dros Tavadac axalgazrda msaxiobi, qarxnis
    cxadia, is, rac am sakmaod sust piesaSi gacxadda, lili         buRalteriaSi momuSave gogonas _ lilis, TamaSobda. mxiaruls,
ioselianis daxvewili, maRalprofesiuli ostatobiT dadgmul            magram morcxvsa da moridebuls, umweobamde moridebuls,
speqtaklSic ver damalavda Tavs. da Sesabamisad, albaT, swored      romelsac TavdaviwyebiT uyvarda Salva. erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba
es gaxldaT akrZalulTan Sexebis is siTamame, moqalaqeobriv          moulodneli mogeCvenos reJisoris gadawyvetileba aseTi
gabedulebad rom CaeTvala mis Semqmnels.                            grZnobaTa bunebis gmiris gansaxiereba miendo ukiduresad mkveTri,
    Tavad reJisori Tvlis rom `im dros, roca simarTlis Tqma         gabeduli, SeiZleba iTqvas, kvimati saxasiaTo Strixebisken
akrZaluli iyo, Cven raRac wamoviwri pineT!.. amis miuxedavad       midrekili msaxiobisaTvis. magram arss Tu CavwvdebiT, mivxvdebiT,
speqtaklma manc gaiJRera. Teatris istoriaSic iTamaSa garkveuli     rom es moulodneloba ki ara, reJisoris xelweris im
roli. yvelaze mniSvnelovani ki is aris, rom me maswavla rom        damaxasiaTebel niSanTagania, romelmac misi gzis dasawyisSive
_ reJisoris bednierebaa gaugos avtors! Cawvdes mis saTqmels!       iCina Tavi. rac imaSi mdgomareobs, rom misTvis msaxiobis
me gancdis reJisori var! reJisori, romelic ganicdis avtors!        fsiqofizikuri samyaro, mxolod `saSeni masala~ ki ara, rolis
gancdas ki maSin vaRwev, roca vxvdebi ris Tqma undoda avtors,      axleburi interpretaciis saSualebaa.
roca mis suls vwvdebi!~                                                am TvalsazrisiT, vfiqrob, yvelaze ti puri magaliTi, mis
    diax, albaT, mnaxvelTa mexsierebaSi, swored imitomac darCa     mier mogvianebiT dadgmuli d. kldiaSvilis `darispanis gasaWiri~
es speqtakli, rogorc erT-erTi dauviwyari STabeWdileba, rom         da ulamazesi medea jafariZis arCevania karoJnas Semsruleblad!...
lili ioselianma SeZlo avtoris sulsac Cawvdomoda da                 _ arCevani, romelic ara mxolod moulodneli, bevrisTvis, albaT
msaxiobebic axali xerxebiTa da saSualebebiT aemetyvelebina.        Sokis momgvrelic ki iyo. Tumca m. jafariZis karoJnamac da
    giga lorTqifaniZe _ `speqtakli brwyinvale gamovida. masSi      saerTod, l. ioeselianis mTelma Semoqmedebam cxadyo, rom msgavs
organulad iyo Serwymuli reJisoris realisturi, fsiqologiuri,        gadawyvetilebas zedapiruli efeqtebis moyvareoba ki ara,
magram amasTan erTad amaRlebuli, lirikuli samyaro... SesaniSnavi   siRrmiseul wiaRsvlebze orientirebuli Semoqmedis xedva
                                                                   ganapirobebda. amitomac iqca mayureblisaTvis, rogorc
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lamara RonRaZe

m.jafariZec gvimowmebs, `gazafxulis dila~ dauviwyar                                                           giorgi cqitiSvili,
speqtaklad. amitomac iyo, rom scenidan, reJisoris mier Seqmnili                                          asocirebuli profesori
wminda da marTali atmosferos wyalobiT, ara raRac komunistur-
zepaTosuri miraJi, aramed Cveulebrivi, adamianuri, namdvili                        „kaci viyav, adamiani...~
gazafxulis surneli ifrqveoda. im dilisa, Tu im gazafxulisa,
ori mSvenieri axalgazrdis: elene yifSiZis lilisa da pier                                    „liri _ Sen an vin iyav? an ra iyav?
kobaxiZisa, Tu ediSer maRalaSvilis - Salvas siyvarulisTvis                                    edgari _ kaci viyav, adamiani, gul-
rom damdgariyo.                                                                                               zviadi, Wkva amayi...~
    axalgazrda reJisoris niWiereba da Tavisi saqmis Rrma                                         uiliam Seqspiri _ `mefe liri~1
codna msgavs scenebSi, rasakvirvelia, Warbad iCenda Tavs. iseT
scenebSi sadac ideologiuri rifebis SiSs aridebuls mSvidad              adamianTa sacxovrisi rom idealuri araa, es yvelasaTvis
SeeZlo gasaqani mieca Tavisi SesaZleblobebisaTvis. mTeli           kargad cnobili WeSmaritebaa. kacobrioba dasabamidan ibrZoda
misi Semoqmedeba ki imis dasturia, rom iq, sadac saqme wminda      mis gasaumjobeseblad. garkveul etapze, TiTqos, odnav
Semoqmedebas exeba, lili ioseliani Seudarebelia.                   warmatebasac aRwevda, magram srulyofilebamde maSinac ise
    vfiqrob, rogorc saTesle marcvalSi moiazreba is mcenare,        Sors iyo, rogorc dRes... da, rac mTavaria, samwuxarod,
romelic misgan unda amoizardos, rogorc jer kidev norCi             mravalsaukunovani istoriis yovel monakveTSi, ganviTarebis
nergisagan imzireba is mZlavri xe, drosa da qariSxlebs rom         yvela safexurze, erTsa da imave Secdomas uSvebda... TiTqos,
unda gauZlos, ise moCans, am speqtaklSi, is l. ioseliani,          misi mexsiereba gangeb iviwyebda warsuls, wlebis manZilze
romlis Sesaxebac Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas: _ igi swored imiT        dagrovebul gamocdilebas, Wkuis saswavlebel gakveTilebs...
aris gamorCeuli, rom lili ioseliania!...                           arada, miuxedavad drois borblis ulmobeli, swrafi brunvisa,
                                                                   yvela drosa Tu epoqaSi, yvelaferi ciklurad, jiutad
                                                                   meordeboda... uzenaesis, qveynis gamriges ironiuli nebiT, kvlav
                                                                   da kvlav xdeboda is, rac araerTxel momxdara... Tumc, Cven
                                                                   yovelTvis mainc brmad, umecrad vimeorebdiT erTsa da imave
                                                                   Secdomas... mudam windauxedavni, ara SorsmWvretelni, gulmaviwyni
                                                                   viyaviT... amitomac, vimkidiT imas, rasac vTesdiT...
                                                                       kacobriobis istoria savsea mZafri qartexilebiT, sastiki
                                                                   gardaqmnebiTa, Tu ngrevis momtani kataklizmebiT... did
1. d. xvTisiaSvili, lili ioseliani (krebuli), Tb., 2002, gv. 24;   socialur-politikur Zvrebs, romlebic, ra Tqma unda, xalxis
2. gazeTi `komunisti~, # 806, 1952;                                sakeTildReod, cxovrebis, Tundac materialuri pirobebis
3. iqve;                                                           gaumjobesebisaTvis xdeba (yovel SemTxvevaSi, lozungebi da
4. iqve.                                                           dapirebebi, mudam am Sinaarsisaa), xSirad, ufro swori iqneba,
                                                                   yovelTvis, Tan axlavs tyupiscaliviT msgavsi procesebi... amis
gamoyenebuli literatura:                                           dasturad Soreul saukuneTa qronikebis qeqva ar dagvWirdeba...
                                                                   erT saukuneze odnav naklebi xnis win ruseTSi e. w. didi
lili ioselianis Sesaxeb marjaniSvilis Teatris muzeumSi daculi
masalebi.                                                          oqtombris socialisturi revolucia moxda...


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giorgi cqitiSvili                                                                                                 kaci viyav, adamiani...~

    axali qveynis, saxelmwifo-politikuri sistemis mSeneblebma,       sulieri drama da is, Tu ra saxiT, ra xerxebiT warmoCnda
romelTa deklarirebul mizans, xalxisaTvis naTeli momavlis             yovelive es qarTul scenaze... amitom vecdebi lakonuri,
mopoveba warmoadgenda, sakmaod mtkivneuli reformebis gatareba        konkretuli viyo... Tqvens yuradRebas SevaCereb XX saukunis
daiwyes... maT aqamde arsebulis Zirfesvianad Secvla ganizraxes...    80-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi dadgmul or speqtaklze...
energiulad, Seupovrad Seudgnen kidec saqmes... maTi Canafiqris       ufro swored, or warmodgenaSi naCveneb yofil adamianebze...
Tanaxmad, savsebiT unda Secvliliyo yvelaferi... es exeboda,              naxevradCabnelebul, iisfrad mkrTalad ganaTebul scenaze,
rogorc saxelmwifo mowyobas, ise Tavad adamians...                    mayureblis Tvali jer kidev mkafiod ver aRiqvamda dekoraciis
marTlmadidebluri rwmena aTeizmiT Caanacvles; kerZo sakuTreba         konturebs... Cven Tvalwin erTdroulad Zveli, warsulSi didi
koleqtiuriT; manamde arsebul kulturas burJuaziuli uwodes             tradiciebis, saxelovani istoriis mqone ojaxis sacxovrisi,
da mis nacvlad proletarulis Seqmnas mihyves xeli... rac              samxedro kreiseris gembani da zRvispira qalaqis, navsayudlis
yvelaze mTavaria, axladgamomcxvarma ideologebma Tavad adamianis,     siaxloves mdebare quCac iyo warmodgenili... mTel scenur
maTTvis sasurvel qmnilebad gardaqmna ganizraxes...                   garemoSi (mxatvari _ mixeil WavWavaZe), dominantis rols
    viRac damorCilda am process... Seegua... dayabulda azrovnebis    fotoebi asrulebdnen... isini TiTqmis yvelgan ekida... TiTqos,
rwmenis, cxovrebis wesis, mentalitetis, erovnuli                     warCinebuli ojaxis winaparTa, mTeli maTi genealogiis
TviTmyofadobis daTmobas, mis axliT Canacvlebas... aseTebi cotani     eqspozicia moewyo uxilav xels... raRac darbaisluri, sevdiani,
rodi iyvnen... isini ricxobriv umravlesobas warmoadgendnen...        mowiwebaSereuli ganwyobileba isadgurebda mayurebelTa
ai, vinc sakuTar konstitucias, Tavis Tavs, princi pebs ar            darbazSi... yovelive amas ki samxedro kreiseris qvemexidan
uRalata, ar damorCilda sxvis nebas, umciresobaSi aRmoCnda...         yurTasmenis damxSobi gasrolis Soreuli eqo myis spobda...
amitom, isini xalxis anu masis mtrebadac iolad gamocxaddnen...       TandaTan, Semodgomis foTolcvenasaviT Zirs cviodnen
isini zedmet adamianebad iqcnen... ufro iRblianebma, emigracias      fotosuraTebi... scenas odnav emateboda momwvano Suqi da
miaSures... umetesi maTgani ki represiebs emsxverpla... aseTebs      mxolod axla aRmovaCendiT, rom zogierTi foto pirdapir
absurduli braldebebi waeyenaT... maT ZiriTadad samSoblos             gemis anZaze ekida CamoxrCobiliviT... aCaCul-daCaCuli, naxevrad
RalatSi dasdes brali...                                              mezRvauris samosiT mosili mefarne (vladimer meqvabiSvili),
    albaT, sityva gamigrZelda, radgan Cemi naSromis mizani           swrafad wamokrefda Zirs Camocvenil suraTebs da udierad
sulac araa istoriis kvleva, gardasul dReTa mogonebebis               yrida sanagve yuTSi...
kvlav win wamoweva... ubralod, e. w. zedmeti adamianebis, uxeSad         amgvari eqspozicia hqonda reJisor Salva gawerelias mier
rom vTqvaT _ yofilTa Tema, yovelTvis aqtualur da maradiul            mozardmayurebelTa qarTul TeatrSi dadgmul boris lavrenevis
problemad mimaCnia... amitom, ar unda daviviwyoT istoriuli           `rRvevas~...
magaliTebi, mexsiereba ar unda mivaZinoT... Torem, rac TiTqmis           es piesa XX saukunis 20-an wlebSi axali qveynis mSenebelTa
saukunis win moxda, didi albaTobiT dResac SesaZlebelia               ideologiis Tanxmieri iyo. Zvelis ulmobeli ngreva, rRveva,
ganmeordes...                                                        ganadgureba... mefis flotis aristokrat, brwyinvale
    Cem mier zemoaRniSnul problemas, xelovnebis araerTi              warmomavlobis, TavadTa adgilis ubralo mezRvaurTa mier
nawarmoebi mieZRvna. gamonaklisi, bunebrivia, verc qarTuli Teatri    dakaveba... yofilTa axali saxeebiT Canacvleba... ai, is
iqneboda... am Temis mizani ramdenime magaliTis warmoCenaa, radgan   problematika, romlis gamoc `rRveva~ imJamindel sabWoTa
formatiT mcire naSromSi SeuZlebelia srulad, yovlismomcvelad          kavSirSi TiTqmis yvela respublikis uamrav scenaze daidga...
gaaanalizo, mimoixilo e. w. yofilTa pirovnuli tragedia, maTi


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giorgi cqitiSvili                                                                                                 kaci viyav, adamiani...~

1928 wels es piesa rusTavelis TeatrSi sandro axmetelma             patroni... rogorc macxovari ambobs: `magram bevrni pirvelni
didi warmatebiT dadga...                                           ukanasknelni iqnebian, xolo ukanasknelni _ pirvelni~...2
    XX saukunis 80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi ki Salva gawereliam          leopold fon Stubes ara mxolod coli an samsaxuri,
sruliad axleburad gaiazra lamis sabWoTa Teatris                    aramed sicocxlis uflebac waarTves, radgan is yofilTa
qrestomaTiad qceuli piesa... mozardmayurebelTa Teatris             rigebidanaa da axladmosulT igi araferSi WirdebaT... mefis
warmodgenaSi veRar SexvdebodiT revoluciur heroikas... axali,       armiis flotis naoficralis dasja reJisors Semdegnairad
gamarjvebuli klasis aRzevebas aristokratTa anu yofilTa,            hqonda SeTxzuli... daxvretis win, mezRvaurebi mundirs gaxdian
amitom gasanadgureblad uciloblad ganwirulTa mimarT...              Stubes... JRerda rusuli saeklesio sagalobeli da goCa
    Sav mundirebSi, gaqaTqaTebul TeTr perangebSi lazaTianad        cxvariaSvilis fermkrTali, gamxdari, TeTrperangiani scenuri
gamowyobil, daxvewili manerebis, brwyinvale warmomavlobisa         gmiri, macxovris msgavsad golgoTas gzas adgeboda... Salva
Tu Cinebuli ganaTlebis mqone mefis armiis flotis oficrebs,         gawerelia am sakmaod Tamami, saxieri mizansceniT, TiTqos, pirdapir
romelTa Soris gamoirCeodnen bersenevi (nodar cercvaZe) da          mimarTavda mayurebelTa darbazs... saTqmeli naTlad ikveTeboda
fon Stube (goCa cxvariaSvili), qvesknelidan movardnili bneli       _ leopold fon Stube mowameobrivad aResrula, asparezi ki
ZalasaviT walekavda mezRvaurTa Tavxedurad agresiuli brbo...        mis jalaT artiom godunsa da mis xrovas darCa... Zalauneburad
wamis win, oficrebis mier iZulebiT datovebul asparezs,             ibadeboda asociacia mixeil bulgakovis piesebTan: `turbinTa
ficarnags, TavaSvebuli, naxevradmTvrali, Sav, nacrisfer samosSi    dReebi~, `srbola~...
ulazaTod Camjdari, naxevradveluri, bogano brbo stveniT,                sasceno Cacmulobisagan TiTqmis mTlianad gaSiSvlebuli
xmamaRali SeZaxiliT ikavebda da isakuTrebda... TavianTi beladis,   scena i pyrobda Cvens mzeras... aguris kedlebi, teqnikuri
ar tiom go dunis ( oTa r ba RaTuri a) w amx edu robi T,            aRWurvilobis detalebi daufaravad gadaSliliyo mayurebelTa
Zalauflebamopovebuli mezRvaurebi raRac amazrzen, naxevradvelur,    darbazis Tvalwin... SuagulSi, bedaurebSeubmeli Savi etli
mouTokavi, aulagmavi pirvelyofili instinqtebiT aRsavse rokvas      bediswerasaviT avismauwyeblad garinduliyo... mis zeviT, mTel
asrulebdnen... es gaxldaT gemis yvelaze bneli, binZuri             scenas uzarmazari WaRiviT ekida hi perbolizirebuli
kuTxe_kunWulebidan dRis sinaTleze amosulTa, triumidan              parametrebisa, Tu moculobis boRCa (mxatvrebi: aleqsandre
amomZvral-amobobRebulTa, gamarjvebulTa rokva... dRes, es samyaro   slovinski, oleg qoCakiZe, iuri CikvaiZe)... rogorc simbolo,
maT xelT iyo, Tu fexqveS morCilad garTxmuliyo...                   boSebiviT marad gzadagza mowanwale, moxetiale bogano xalxis
    bersenevTan stumrad mosuli goduni (o. baRaTuria),              cxovrebis wesisa... am uzarmazari boRCidan gamoCrili iyo
xazgasmulad Tavxedurad, ganzrax gamomwvevad iqceoda...             ramdenime detali: gitara, mezRvauris zoliani maisuriT Semosi
mzesumziras mourideblad aknatunebda ojaxis ufrosTan, mis           li manekeni... iseTi SegrZneba geuflebodaT, TiTqos damokles
qaliSvilebTan Tu fon StubesTan Sexvedrisas... o. baRaTurias        maxviliviT avismomaswaveblad dakiduli fuTa, viRacas
scenur gmirs, gamoCenisTanave, xmis amoRebamde, mxolod sakuTari    saxeldaxelod Seekra morigi mgzavrobis win...
mentalitetiT mZafrad TvalSisacemi disonansi Semohqonda                 yvav-yoranTa avismauwyebeli yrantalis fonze ganaTebis susti
bersenevis rafinirebul ojaxur garemoSi... igi, Tavisi arsiT,       sxivi ubedauro etlis siaxloves daCoqil TeTrCoxian mefis
mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda iq myofTagan... grZnobda ra amas, o.       armiis oficris brWyviala epoletebian, mkerdze jvris ordenian
baRaTurias goduni, xazgasmulad Tavisuflad, TavaSvebulad            ujuS emxas (oTar meRvineTuxucesi) gamohyofda... kote
iqceoda... urcxvad, mourideblad earSiyeboda tatianas... TiTqos     marjaniSvilis saxelobis Teatris scenaze leo qiaCelis `haki
surda yvelas egrZno, rom swored igia dRes am qveynis baton-        aZbas~ damdgmeli reJisori Temur CxeiZe, TiTqos speqtaklis


138                                                                                                                                  139
giorgi cqitiSvili                                                                                                     kaci viyav, adamiani...~

prologSive xazgasmiT mianiSnebda mayurebels am scenuri gmiris         amayad SemarTuli dgas Souhari (Tamar sxirtlaZe)... o.
gardauvali daRupvisaken... marTlac, ramdenad mtkivneulic ar           meRvineTuxucesis scenuri gmiri, mowiwebiT iCoqebs dedis winaSe...
unda iyos, logikuria, rom leopold fon Stubesa da ujuS                 kocniT odnav exeba mis xels... TiTqos, ar surs mezRvauris
emxas msgavsi adamianebi Tavisi drois, epoqis zedmet bargad           sisxlSi gasvrili, codviani xeli Seaxos mSobels...
qceulan... isini imJamindel realobaSi aravis sWirdeba... piriqiT,         ganiaraRebuli, saxarebiT xelSi amayad, dinjad, mSvidad,
upirobod sZulT... maT keTrovanTa msgavsad sdevnian iqamde,            sakuTari nebiT adis samsxverploze... Tavad Cabardeba samxedro
sanam qancgawyvetilT saboloo ganaCens ar gamoutanen...                kreiseris ekipaJs... mezRvaurTa Sav-nacrisfrad Semosil figurebs
    Temur CxeiZis `haki aZba~ Salva gawerelias `rRvevas~ maleve       Soris TeTraxaluxiani ujuS emxa wmindans Camohgavs... zneobrivad,
mohyva... am or warmodgenas erTmaneTisgan drois mcire monakveTi       moralurad, adamianurad igi aSkarad aRemateba Tavis
aSorebs... erTi SexedviT, sxvadasxva avtoris absoluturad              mowinaaRmdegeebs... o. meRvineTuxucesis gmirs Rirseba gaaCnia,
gansxvavebuli nawarmoebebia, magram... orma qarTvelma reJisorma,      amayia, vaJkaci, uSiSari... sakuTar Tavs ar Ralatobs... Tu garemoeba
TiTqmis erTdroulad suliT monaTesave scenuri gmirebi, maTi             moiTxovs, Tavisi nebiT golgoTaze asvlac xelewifeba...
dramatuli bedi warudgina mayurebels...                                    irakli uCaneiSvilis kuzma kilgasaTvis ujuS emxa mxolod
    da kvlav revoluciuri ideebiT ganmsWvaluli, rusuli                 klasobrivi mteri rodia... bolSevikuri kreiseris kapitnisaTvis
samxedro kreiseri... amjerad `Smidti~... isev gembanze gamofenil      mefis armiis oficeri mTeli arsiT miuRebelia... mas aRizianebs
TavaSvebul mezRvaurTa xrova, romelmac veluri JiniTa Tu                emxas cxovrebis wesi, princi pebi, Sexedulebebi... rogorc
mouridebeli, xmamaRali yiJiniT, yviriliT, stveniT, lamisaa            `rRvevaSi~, aqac ujuSis msgavsi pirovneba ganwirulia... asparezi
walekos qalaqi soxumi...                                              kuzma kilgasa da mis mezRvaurTa xrovas ekuTvnis...
    avanscenis marjvena kuTxeSi xmauriT iReba triumis liTonis         gamarjvebulni asamarTleben damarcxebulT...
sarqveli... stvenis xmaze iqidan mezRvauris quds viRac mTeli              im triumis Wrilidan, saidanac adre kreiser `Smidtis~
ZaliT amoagdebs qalaq soxumis mmarTvelobis sagangebod                 kapitani gamoecxada mayurebels, axla ujuS emxas figura moCans
Sekrebili, nirwamxdari, SiSiT erTmaneTs akruli delegaciis             sanaxevrod... saxarebis fragments warmosTqvams mSvidad,
fexebTan... triumidan, viT qvesknelidan sanaxevrod gamoCndeba         auRelveblad, moaxloebuli aRsasrulis winaSe qeduxreli...
saxenaiarevi kaci _ kuzma kilga (irakli uCaneiSvili)... kreiser       sakuTari bedisweris ganaCens, xvedrs damorCilebul-Seguebuli...
`Smidtis~ kapitani...                                                 xelT locvani upyria... veeba proJeqtoris mZlavri, kaSkaSa,
    bedaurSeubmeli Savi etlis saxiT Cven Tvalwin gacxadebuli          TvalismomWreli sxivi zemodan naTlis svetiviT daadgeba
bediswera urTierTSeyris ujuS emxasa da mezRvaur vaska                 ujuSs... locvani scenaze ecema... emxas figura triumSi
xritaniuks (mixeil maRalaSvili)... gasrolis xmas, romelmac            uCinardeba... i. uCaneiSvilis kuzma kilga xmauriT xuravs triumis
TeTrCoxiani oficris Rirseba, Tavmoyvareoba daicva, magram             liTonis sarqvels... xelebs kmayofilebiT moifSvnets da im
qalaqis simSvide ki gangmira, raRac wamiT win uswrebs kvlav           adgils fexqveS gaTelavs, sadac wamis win, mefis armiis oficris
yvav-yoranTa avbediTi Cxavili...                                      landi gauCinarda...
    mTeli qalaqi fexze dgas... SiSma mteri Tu moyvare erTad               amaoeba amaoebaTa... amqveynad yovelive warmavalia... dro da
Seyara... yvela sakuTari Tavisa da qonebis gadarCenaze zrunavs...     istoria, rogorc erTaderTi piruTvneli, mousyidveli msajuli,
sisxliT naTesavnic zvarakiviT imeteben ujuS emxas...                  Tavad ukeT gansjis mtyuansa da marTals... yvelas sakadris
    isic xvdeba, rom yvelasagan ganwirulia... TavSekavebiT, sakuTar   adgils miuCens... RirseulT aamaRlebs, uRirsT sircxvilisa
TavSi Cakluli gancdiT emSvidobeba dedas... saxegaqvavebuli,           da samudamo miviwyebis, SeCvenebis sanagveze moisvris... bedi


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giorgi cqitiSvili


mdevari yvela Cvengans wamogveweva gansazRvrul Jams... magram,                                                 guliko javaSvili,
miuxedavad istoriuli mexsierebis arsebobisa, Cven, adamianebi,                                       mTavari mecnierTanamSromeli
samwuxarod, momavalSi kvlav davuSvebT erTsa da imave
sabediswero Secdomas...                                                                msaxiobis erTi roli
                                                                                 (g. berikaSvili speqtaklSi `berikoni~)

                                                                        m. elioziSvilis piesa `berikoni~ marjaniSvilis TeatrSi
                                                                    1977 wels reJisorma l. mircxulavam dadga (mxatvrebi: sameuli
                                                                    _ o. qoCakiZe, al. slovinski, i. CikvaiZe; komp. v. azaraSvili;
                                                                    qoreografi g. odikaZe). speqtakli upirvelesad sainteresoa
                                                                    imiT, rom es iyo xalxuri Teatris _ berikaobis _ scenaze
                                                                    ganxorcielebis pirveli cda. miuxedavad imisa, rom amis mcdeloba
                                                                    ara erTxel yofila. jer kidev k. marjaniSvili da s. axmeteli
                                                                    xalxur saxiobaSi _ berikaobasa da yeenobaSi _ uaRresad
                                                                    Teatralur da orginalur erovnul sawyisebs xedavdnen, romelTa
                                                                    Seswavla da gamoyeneba aucileblad miaCndaT Teatris Semdgomi
                                                                    ganviTarebisaTvis. marjaniSvilis azriT, aucilebeli iyo im
                                                                    sawyisebis Zieba, romliTac viTardeboda qarTuli Teatraluri
                                                                    sanaxaoba XIX s.-mde, anu mis evropizaciamde. mas miaCnda, rom
                                                                    saWiroa orginaluri gzebis Zieba, radgan amiT ufro Rirebuli
                                                                    iqneba qarTuli kulturis roli kacobriobis saerTo
                                                                    monapovarSi. TviTon ara erTxel gamoiyena sanaxaobiTi elementebi
                                                                    Tavis speqtaklebSi (z. antonovis `mzis dabneleba saqarTveloSi~,
                                                                    `arsenas leqsi~ _ xalxuri). marjaniSvili imdenad iyo am
                                                                    ideiT dainteresebuli, rom dramaturg i. mWedliSvils piesa
                                                                    daukveTa cnobili berikis ioana-buianas Sesaxeb. piesa daiwera,
                                                                    mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi Catarda, l. gudiaSvilma Seqmna
                                                                    brwyinvale eskizebi, ganawilda rolebi, magram samwuxarod didma
                                                                    reJisorma Tavis Canafiqris ganxorcieleba ver moaswro.
                                                                        al. axmetelma erovnuli Teatris Seqmnis sakuTari
1. uiliam Seqspiri _ tragediebi, wigni meore, `mefe liri~,          Tvalsazrisi swored xalxur sawyisebze dayrdnobiT SeimuSava.
inglisuridan gadmoRebuli ivane maCablisa da ilia WavWavaZis         igi yovelTvis aRniSnavda, rom erovnuli, karnavaluri sanaxaoba
mier, III moqmedeba, IV suraTi, gverdi 102, gamomcemloba `sabWoTa   unda iyos Tanamedrove Teatraluri formis sawyisi. orive
saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi, 1987 weli;                                    maTgans upirvelesad xalxuri sanaxaobis forma, orginaluri
2. axali aRTqma da fsalmunebi, maTes saxareba, 19, 30, gverdi 42,   gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebani izidavda.
bibliis Targmnis instituti, stokholmi, 1991 weli.                       SemdgomSic Zveli xalxuri sanaxaobis elementebi ara erTma
                                                                    reJisorma gamoiyena Teatrsa Tu kinoSi (l. goTuas `mefe
142                                                                                                                            143
guliko javaSvili                                                                                                   msaxiobis erTi roli

erekle~ _ reJ. v. yuSitaSvili, da `samsaxeoba raindisa~ _             romelic xan Tavadis sasaxle da xan dilegi, xan kubo da xan
reJ. g. laRiZe, p. kakabaZis `kaxaberis xmali~ _ reJ. g.              akvani, xan sazidari da xan berikaT samRerali gaxldaT.
lorTqifaniZe, j. ioselianis `eTeriani~ _ reJ. m. kuWuxiZe da              Tavberika lales rols givi berikaSvili asrulebda, mis
sxv.), magram es iyo speqtaklis gadawyvetis xerxi, `berikoni~         satrfo ianos _ sofiko Wiaureli. swored lale da iano
ki uSualod berikebis cxovrebas asaxavda, xelovanis bedze, mis         iyvnen speqtaklSi patiosnebis, gonierebis, samSoblosa da xalxis
daniSnulebaze mogviTxrobda.                                           erTgulebis, xelovnebis ukvdavebis simboloebi.
    m. elioziSvilma Seqmna xalxur sawyisebze agebuli                      orive msaxiobi gvaocebda xalxuri sanaxaobisaTvis
sadResaswaulo saxilveli, romlis Janric ase gansazRvra _               damaxasiaTebeli pirobiTobisa da Tanamedrove artistizmis
`saxioba~, rac imas niSnavda, rom qarTul dramatul Semoqmedebas        SerwymiT. sicocxlis damamkvidrebeli xalisiT, elvare ritmiT
sakuTari Zirebi da sawyisebi gaaCnia. piesisa da speqtaklis           TamaSdeboda yoveli monakveTi. gansakuTrebiT brwyinvale iyo
mTavari Rirseba berikaobis imitacia ki ara, aramed Tanamedrove        maTi ostatoba e.w. Svilobanas scenaSi, `rodesac s. Wiaurelis
dramaturgiuli azrovnebiTa da mxatvruli saxierebiT                     iano da g. berikaSvilis lale jarasaviT datrialdebian da
warmosaxuli cxovreba gaxldaT. speqtaklSi erovnuli, xalxuri            mravalSvilianobiT, Zeobis gabmuli dResaswauliT mayurebelTa
da zogadsakacobrio problemebi iyo wamoWrili. Tavberikas               darbazs axareben. es scena Tavisi ucnauri moulodnelobiT,
tragikomikur bedukuRmarTobaSi saerTod xelovanis bedi                  STamagonebeli ZaliT, maimedebeli sixalisiT avtoris, reJisoris
moiazreboda.                                                          da msaxiobebis, mTeli Teatris namdvili gamarjveba _
    speqtaklSi xalxuri Teatris tradiciebi organulad                   dResaswaulebrivi warmodgenis Seqmnisaken winwadgmuli nabijia~
erwymoda Tanamedroveobas. es iyo fiqri warsulze                       _ werda d. janeliZe.
dRevandelobis Tvalsawieridan. avtorebisaTvis mTavari iyo                  berikaSvilis lale upirvelesad xelovani iyo _ berika,
am formiT warmoeCina maradiuli Rirebulebani _ simarTle,               romelic ibrZoda simarTlisaTvis, radgan simarTle ase sWirdeba
patiosneba, moyvasis siyvaruli, movaleobis grZnoba samSoblosa         xalxs. lalem icis, rom nar-ekliT aris simarTlis gza mofenili,
da adamianebis winaSe.                                                magram es misi gzaa, misi arCevania. igi mzadaa gauZlos yvela
    reJisorma l. mircxulavam speqtakls Taviseburi gadawyveta          gansacdels, RimiliT xvdeba sikvdilsac ki, radgan igi ukvdavia,
mounaxa _ es iyo Teatri TeatrSi, rac msaxiobebisagan TamaSis          igi xalxia, sibrZnea, siyvarulia, romelic arasodes moispoba.
garkveul wess moiTxovda. isini warmogvidgendnen niRbebs,              lales klaven da igi kvlav aRorZindeba, akvnidan axali lale
romelTac garkveuli simbolika gaaCndaT _ Tavberika, taxberika,         wamodgeba. saxeze keTili Rimili dasTamaSebs, magram gamoxedva
virberika, mRvdeli, Tavadi... yoveli maTgani sikeTesa Tu borotebas,   kvlav mkacri da jiuti aqvs, arc is uRalatebs Tavberikas
cbierebasa Tu patiosnebas ganasaxierebdnen. TiToeuli msaxiobi         mZime xvedrs.
or da sam saxes TamaSobda da berikas niRabSi Camjdari, xalxuri            lale brZenia, rogorc xalxi, samarTliania, rogorc xalxi,
sanaxaobis ZiriTad arss warmoaCenda. warmodgena, SeiZleba iTqvas,     radgan Tavadaa xalxis RviZli Svili.
orplastiani iyo: erTi _ berikuli garemos cxovrebiseuli                    givi berikaSvili ostaturad warmogvidgenda sxvadasxva
sinamdvilis asaxva, meore ki _ TviT berikuli sanaxaobis               niRabs. is enakvimatic aris da laRic, jiutic da nazi
gaTamaSeba.                                                           Seyvarebulic, mebrZolic da ojaxis alersiani mamac. igi Zlieri
    warmodgena morRveuli, damwvari taZris ezoSi TamaSdeba.            muxasaviTaa, romelsac fesvebi mSobel miwaSi, xalxis tradiciaSi,
freskebi fergadasulia, angelozebs Tavebi aRar SerCeniaT,              mis mravalsaukunovan kulturaSi Cazrdia. msaxiobs bunebiT
kedlebs aSkarad etyoba natyviarebi. iqve uremi iyo migdebuli,         aqvs boZebuli `xalxuroba~, igi yovelTvis bunebrivia,
                                                                      TavisTavadia, miwieria da amaSia swored misi lales warmatebis
144                                                                                                                               145
guliko javaSvili

mizezi. pirvelyofili cxovelmyofeloba, mkveTri garegani
monaxazi, daxvewili plastika, gadamdebi sixalise da azris         kinomcodneoba
simZafre anaTesavebs lales Zvel berikebTan. iqmneboda
STabeWdileba, rom msaxiobi Tavis winaparTa ambavs mogviTxrobda.
maT saqmes agrZelebda.
    givi berikaSvili saocrad marTali, TviTmyofadi iyo am
rolSi. is misi roli gaxldaT, romelSic mkafiod warmoCinda
misi aqtioruli individualoba. Rrma azri da laRi iumori,
pirdapiroba da momxiblavi eSmakoba, miznisken swrafvis
Seupovroba da Cveulebrivi adamianuri sisuste organulad
iyo lales saxeSi Sesisxlxorcebuli.
    berikaSvili-pirovneba naTlad Canda lales rolSi. aq
mkveTrad ikiTxeboda msaxiobis damokidebuleba gmirisadmi,
Tanamedrove msaxiobis damokidebuleba xelovnisadmi, romelmac
aTasi gansacdeli da Wir-varami gamoiara da mainc saTuTad
Semoinaxa siwminde da patiosneba. swored es pozicia xdida
ase sainteresos Tavberika lales saxes.
    `berikonma~ didi warmateba moutana Teatrs da es warmateba
mniSvnelovanwilad swored givi berikaSvilis lalem da sofiko
Wiaurelis ianom ganapirobes. `am speqtaklSi ori brwyinvale
aqtioruli gamarjvebaa. is, rasac akeTebs g. berikaSvili, Rrma
msaxioburi Sesrulebis nimuSia usaSvelod rTul piesaSi. aq
yvelaferi Tavberikazea damokidebuli. igi didi filosofiuri
Sinaarsis matarebelia. unaklod, SesaniSnavad asrulebs am
amocanas msaxiobi da es xelovnebis maRali klasis donea, rac
saqarTvelos sazRvrebs scildeba~, _ werda moskovis
gastrolebis Semdeg presa (`Teatraluri moambe~, #5, 1978, gv.
60).
    speqtakli `berikoni~ da Tavberika lale _ g. berikaSvilis
SesrulebiT uTuod RirsSesaniSnavi movlenaa qarTul TeatrSi
swored erovnuli, xalxuri sanaxaobrivi formis Tanamedrove
gaazrebiT.



`Teatraluri moambe~, #5, 1978, gv. 60.


146                                                                               147
                                           irina demetraZe,      Serwymuli. am SemTxvevaSi saopero, epikuri stilis elementebia
                             xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,       gamoyenebuli, magram epikuri struqtura yovelgvar xelovnur
                                    asocirebuli profesori        paTossa da paTetikasaa moklebuli. es xazi galina viSnevskaias
                                                                 figurasTan da mis gmirTanaa dakavSirebuli. es sakulto figura
              sublimirebuli rasizmi                              miTs Tavis TavSi moiazrebs _ igi sabWouri istoriis mTel
                                                                 epoqas aerTianebs da rusi          qalis arqeti pul saxesTanac
    Cems mier SerCeuli filmebis _ `12~ (nikita mixalkovi),       asocirdeba (saopero repertuaridan gamomdinare). es ganapirobebs
`aleqsandra~ (aleqsandre sokurovi), “rusuli samkuTxedi”          gmirisa da zogadad filmis miTo-epikur Sres. filmis
(aleko cabaZe) kavkasiis eTnomiTis problemis garSemo             originaluri musikac (kompozitori a. sigle), erTi mxriv,
gaerTianeba, erTi SexedviT, zedapiruli xasiaTisaa da ZiriTadad   samamulo omis cnobili melodiebis maneraSia stilizebuli,
Tematuri diskursis (CeCneTis omi) xarjze xdeba SesaZlebeli.      da amave dros alfred Snitkes Semoqmedebiskenac ixreba.
CemTvis sainteresoa is, Tu ra socio-ideologiuri faqtorebi            mTavari mainc is prizmaa, ris miRmac aleqsandre sokurovi
axdens gavlenas am reJisorebze da maT filmebze, rac, Tavis       uyurebs movlenebs. galina viSnevskaias gmiri groznoSi Cadis
mxriv, Janrul transformaciasa da mxatvruli sivrcis               SviliSvilis, rusi oficris mosanaxuleblad. aq gatarebuli
struqturirebis Taviseburebebs ganapirobebs.                      ramdenime dRe mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens mis identurobaze.
    Cemi azriT, nikita mixalkovi da aleko cabaZe ver ascdnen     Tavad omi, ase vTqvaT, kadrs miRma rCeba. reJisori yuradRebas
(anda ganzrax ver acdnen) `aqtualuri Temis~ sworxazovan,         amaxvilebs Cveulebriv YyofiT realiebze, rigiTi jariskacebisa
tendenciur da ideologiurad angaJirebul, mizanmimarTul            da bazarSi movaWre Suaxnis CeCeni qalbatonebis yoveldRiur
interpretirebas. imavdroulad, es ori filmi ori antagonisturi     cxovrebaze, maT Cveul yofaze am araordinarul, eqstremalur
ideologiuri modelis reprezentaciis nimuSia. Jan-liuk godari      garemoSi. sainteresodaa gadaRebuli TviTon grozno _
ambobda, rom sakoncetracio banakze filmis gadaReba uzneobaa,     Seulamazebeli sinamdvile, dangreul-gapartaxebuli urbanistuli
vinaidan am movlenis pirdapiri asaxva imTaviTve spekulatiuria.   sivrce, rac amave dros, grandiozuli saopero dekoraciis
da Tuki am movlenas Seexe, maSin es komedia unda iyos.           asociacias iwvevs. am adamianebis `Cveul~ yofaSi, swored es
    aleqsandre sokurovis filmi uSualod groznoSia                 uCveulo `dekoraciebi~ iWreba disonansurad da maTi sulieri
gadaRebuli. reJisori qronikalur-dokumenturi stilis               Tu fsiqikuri tramvebis gamoxatulebad iqceva.
mimikriasac axdens. firi specialur `sepiis~ teqnikaSia               sainteresoa kidev erTi detali. CeCeni qali ambobs, rom es
damuSavebuli, rac gamosaxulebas siZvelisa da mzisgan             rusis jariskacebi, jer sul pirtitvela biWebi arian, magram
gaxunebuli fotos efeqts aZlevs. es xerxi sokurovis               ukve kacuri suni asdiT. viSnevSkaias gmiric SviliSvilis
reJisoruli xelwerisTvis damaxasiaTebelia (Tanac misi             moralur-fsiqologiur degradacias sunTan identificirebiT
SemoqmedebiTi biografiiTacaa ganpirobebuli. igi Tavidan swored   axdens. aq erTgvari taqtiluri SegrZnebebi Semodis _ am biWebis
samecniero-popularul da dokumentur kinoSi muSaobda) da           sxeulze da zogadad garesamyaroSi omis suni isadgurebs. erT-
am SemTxvevaSi, faqturis specifikidan gamomdinarec,              erTi CeCeni ymawvili viSnevskaias gmirs sTxovs: dagvanebeT Tavi,
gamarTlebulia. misTvis arc stilisturi ekleqtizmia ucxo           gagviSviT, ise, TiTqos mis uflebamosilebaSi eWvic ar epareba.
_ iqneba es bernard Sousa Tu platonovis ekranizaciebi, anda          sainteresoa dedis (siuJeturad is mTavari gmiris bebiaa,
istoriuli beladebisadmi miZRvnili filmebi, sadac qronikaluri     magram avtorebis interpretaciiT igi eris `dedis~ krebiTi
manera mkveTrad pirobiT, absurdis an siurealistur xerxebTanaa    saxea), am SemTxvevaSi Tavad avtoris da, imedia, rusi inteligenciis
                                                                 mcire nawilis pozicia. Zala araa fizikur ZalmomreobaSi,
148                                                                                                                             149
      irina demetraZe                                                                                           sublimirebuli rasizmi

Zala gonierebaSia da rodesac goniereba ar arsebobs, zeobs            garemoebiT ganpirobebuli gansxvavebuli ideologiuri mimarTeba.
Zalmomreoba. ase rom, esaa ara eris nebiT, aramed misi ugunurebis    bibliuri aluziebic, imTaviTve Cadebuli rejinald rouzis
gamoisobiT gamowveuli tragedia. albaT, aq kacobriobis                nawarmoebSi, mixalkovis redaqciaSi sagrZnob `revizias~
ugunurebac igulisxmeba, vinaidan eTnokonfliqtebi am erTi             eqvemdebareba. Tuki sidni liumetis filmSi socialuri
cxeli wertiliT ar amoiwureba.                                        diskursia aqtualuri _ anu socialuri warmomavloba, ar
    samwuxarod, gmiric uSualo empiriuli gamocdilebiT iRebs           igivdeba damnaSaveobasTan da filmi mimarTulia swored amgvari
yovelive imas, rac aq dasadgurebula. adamianur TanagrZnobasa         socialuri diskriminaciis winaaRmdeg, nikita mixalkovTan
da mxardaWeras iRebs ubralo CeCeni qalbatonebisgan. filmSi           qsenofobia, nacionalisturi ideologiaa aqcentirebuli. misi,
aqcentirebulia am adamianebis Rirseba, rac, Cemi azriT, XIX          `marTlmadideblobiT~ gamyarebuli didaqtikur-mentoruli
saukunis rusul literaturul trdiciasTanaa mimarTebaSi                 pozicia obol CeCen ymawvilSi, obol ers moiazrebs. amave
(`haji murati~).                                                     dros, avtori `Tanamedrove rusuli realobis enciklopediis
    sokurovisTvis ucxo da miuRebeli araa e.w. `gansxvavebulobis~     Seqmnazec acxadebs pretenzias.~ mixalkovis leqsikonSi
problema.DEdeda SviliSvilis kvaldakval tankSic miZvreba da           `marTlmadideblobac~ egreT wodebul `derJavul~ interesebTan
avtomatsac iRebs xelSi – swored am bronirebuli manqanis              asocirdeba. xolo Tavad mTavari msajulis, demiurgisa da
SigniT moqceuli akvirdeba igi sinamdviles, saidanac samyaro          `RmerTkacis~ rolsac ki asrulebs.
specifikuri rakursiT aRiqmeba. kino, xelovneba sokurovisTvisac            liumetTan axali droebis 12 mociquli ymawvils Seiwyalebs.
realobis specifikuri Wvretis saSualebaa da misTvis organulia         mixalkovis ganaCeni gansxvavebulia. vinaidan `cixeSi is ufro
ara egreT wodebuli registrirebis meTodi, aramed                      did xans icocxlebs~. Tavdapirvelad, daoblebuli CeCeni
sinamdvilisadmi dialeqtikuri damokidebuleba, ara konkretuli          ymawvili (anu eri) `mamobils~ rusi oficris saxiT poulobs,
faqti, movlena, aramed ganzogadeba, epizacia, yofierebis Sris        xolo Semdeg `mamis rols~ kvlav rusi, magram ara oficeri,
wamoweva.                                                            aramed demiurgi-RmerTkaci nikita mixalkovis gmiri kisrulobs.
    nikita mixalkovis `12~ sidni liumetis `12 ganrisxebuli           `oboli CeCeni eri~ rusi `mamobilis~ gareSe `ganwirulia~ da
mamakacis~ motivebzea agebuli. Tavad avtori sakuTar films            ruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi ufro did xans icocxlebs,
rimeiqad ar miiCnevs, rac, princi pSi, misaRebicaa _ liumetis        vidre damoukideblad. mixalkovis H~humanuroba~ marTlac
filmi `dramaa~, xolo mixalkovma `fsiqologiuri Trileri~               usazRvroa.
gadaiRo. liumetTan filmis daaxloebiT 365 scena operator                   avtori fokusirebas kidev erT aforizmamde dayvanil pasaJze
boris kaufmanis mier sxvadasxva rakursiTaa gadaRebuli. aqedan        axdens: rusi yviris: _ movklav, CeCeni _ dums, xolo mere modis
gamomdinare, kameruli istoria saocrad kinematografiul                iaraRiT da uswordeba mas. da kidev, is, rac slavianofilebis
xorcSesxmas poulobs, miuxedavad imisa, rom es reJisoris              cnobierebaSi kavkasiis arqeti ps, ufro swored, stereoti ps
kinodebiutia. samsaxiobo namuSevrebic Teatralurobis efeqts           ukavSirdeba. erT-erTi msajuli, e. w. `Curka~ (sxvaTa Soris,
ar axdens.                                                           qarTveli), warmatebuli qirurgia, magram am iarliys ver ascda.
    marTalia, nikita mixalkovTan saintereso samsaxiobo               ai, ukve 3-4 aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi es stereoti pi aqtualuria
ansamblia Sekrebili da ramdenime maTgani (s. makovecki, s.garmaSi)   socialur realobaSi. termini `sublimirebuli rasizmi~ swored
saintereso saxes qmnis _ kinos magia, rogorc aseTi, ar arsebobs.     am movlenas gulisxmobs. momwifda erTgvari ararefleqsirebuli
am filmebze aisaxa epoqisa Tu zogadad rusul-amerikuli                situacia, anu koleqtiur aracnobiersa da leqsikaSi damkvidrdda
kulturisa da socialuri sivrcis Taviseburebani. da am                 iseTi sityvebi rogoricaa `Curka~, `Savukanaliani~ da ase Semdeg,


150                                                                                                                              151
      irina demetraZe                                                                                        sublimirebuli rasizmi

rac kavkasieli xalxis krebiT saxelad iqca. da kidev              igi rusia, bebia qarTveli hyavda, xolo habitusiT ebraels
nacionaloba igivdeboda garkveul socialur kuTvnilebasTanac        waagavs. anu `arsiT~ da `garegnuladac~ internacionaluri
_ mwvanilis an mixakebis gamyidvelTan. bolo dros, rac            hibridia.
qsenofobia da patriotizmi, ukve ara aracnobieris, aramed             meore gmiri, rusuli enis yofili maswavlebeli groznodan
oficialuri saxelmwifo ideologiis doneze gaigivebuli              fexmZime colis daRupvisTanave islams iRebs da boevikebs
Sinaarsis matarebeli cnebebia – mwvanilis gamyidveli             uerTdeba. magram `samarTals~ iqac ver poulobs... erTaderTi
teroristma Caanacvla. rusul da qarTul sivrceSi patriotizmi,      nivTi, rac dabombili skolidan gamoitana da Tan daatarebs,
erovnuli idea, umTavresad, omTan, sisxlisRvrasTan igivdeba.      dostoevskis `eSmaknia~. avtorebis es Sablonuri, sworxazovani
saWiroa mtris xati – rusis an qarTvelis, afxazis an osis         aluzia imis maniSnebelia, rom dostoevskis geniiT ganWvretili
saxiT, raTa saxelmwifoebrivi Tu socio-kulturuli                  movlenebi dResac aqtualuria. sakuTari `inteleqtiT~ mTavari
identifikaciis meqanizmi amoqmeddes. omi da qsenofobia           gmiric gvaocebs _ igi erT–erT `opers~ azazelos amsgavsebs.
arajansaRi fobiebisa da kompleqsebis kompensirebis saukeTeso     mokled, svidrigailovisa da volandis prototi pebi Tanamedrove
saSualebad iqca. xolo frustrirebuli masis, ararealizebuli        rusul realobaSic daiarebian...
da socialurad umweo fenis cnobierebis mani pulirebisas               am Triler-deteqtiur-kriminaluri filmis kidev erTi
zeefeqturi saSualeba gaxda. anu erTgvari opiumia sakuTari        siuJeturi xazi konstanrine xabenskis gmirs ukavSirdeba.
arasrulfasovnebis kompleqsis CasaxSobad.                         uaxlesi rusuli kinos seqs-simbolo aleko cabaZesTan
    da marTlac, raSia saqme, ra mentalobis matarebelia es        aseqsualuria. albaT, reJisors gmiris `rTul~ fsiqo-sulier
xalxi, Tundac CeCnebi? rogoria sxvadasxva erebis                 tramvebze surda mayureblis yuradRebis fokusireba. igi omis
anTropologiuri da konfesionaluri orientirebi? ra udevs           invalidia, am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT, ufro msxverpli,
safuZvlad islamur eqstremizmsa Tu rusul imperiul                 vidre jalaTi an sulac orive erTad. epizodi, sadac CeCneTisa
Sovinizms? mTavari, albaT, mainc isaa, rom eqstremizmi ar iyos   da avRaneTis sulierad da fizikurad xeibari veteranebis
gaigivebuli nacionalobasTan da `mtris xati~ ar iyos eris         Rreobaa naCvenebi – yvelaze amazrzeni da araesTeturia filmSi.
socio-kulturuli identurobis ganmapirobebeli aucilebeli           esaa mayurebelze mimarTuli pirdapiri zewola, agresia,
faqtori.                                                         mxatvruli spekulacia. Tanac am epizods `saTqmelis mxatvruli
    aleko cabaZis `rusuli samkuTxedi~ kriminaluri dramis,        ganzogadebis~ ambiciac aqvs. esaa araa mxolod CeCneTis omi,
deteqtivisa da Trileris Janrul elementebs aerTianebs.            aramed masSi afxazeTi, avRaneTi da sxva cxeli wertilebic
poliJanruli struqtura dramaturgiulad saTanadod araa              moiazreba.
gamyarebuli. siuJetis dinamikuri ganviTareba xSirad avtorebis        finalSi yvela gmiri Tu antigmiri iRupeba, mTavari personaJis
gadametebul ambiciebs ewireba. CemTvis saintereso, mainc is      garda. ufro metic, morwmuneTa Tu urwmunoTa, mterTa Tu
stereoti pebi da axali arqeti pebia, rac Tanamedrove socio-      moyvareTa sisxliT SeRebili (pirdapiri da gadataniTi
politikur koniunqturas esadageba.                                mniSvnelobiT) igebs, rom misi megobari gogonas saSoSi axali
    mTavari gmiri axali drois Serlok holmsi, don kixoti da       sicocxle Caisaxa. da Cvenc SvebiT amovisunTqavT, vinaidan
supermenia erTdroulad. is mTeli arsebiT erTveba `CeCnuri         SesaZloa, es axali genetikuri hibridi postsabWouri sivrcis
kvanZis~ gaxlarTul qselSi: seriuli mkvlelobebi, iaraRiTa         xsnis `garantic~ iyos...
da tyveebiT vaWroba, anu yvela is movlena, rac am konfliqtis         verc aleko cabaZe ascda sworxazovnebasa da didaqtikur-
Tanmdevi iyo. sainteresoa, aseve gmiris eTnikuri warmoSoba –     mentorul tons, magram mixalkovisgan gansxvavebiT, misi pozicia


152                                                                                                                           153
      irina demetraZe


bevrad `humanuri~ da `politkoreqtulia~. mokled, mixalkovis                                                             nana doliZe,
`poCvenikuri~ filosofia cabaZesTan postmodernul                                                     xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,
dekonstruqcias ganicdis. me ki am situacias nasesxeb termins                                                  mecnier TanamSromeli
`Sizofreniul diskurss~ davarqmevdi (postsabWouri
sivrcisTvis damaxasiaTebeli socio-politikuri atmosfero                arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis
maqvs mxedvelobaSi). am qaosidn, albaT, odesRac wesrigi daibadeba,                     politika
Tu, ra Tqma unda, amisi keTili neba iqneba, manamde ki sisxls
sisxliT CamovibanT da amiT sakuTar `patriotul~ egos                          (2008 wlis saparlamento arCevnebis Sesaxeb)
davikmayofilebT.
                                                                         televizia yvelaze masobrivi da informaciis miRebis yvelaze
                                                                     popularuli saSualebaa. amasTan mZlavri politikuri
                                                                     zemoqmedebis instrumenti, rasac obieqturi teqnikuri xerxebic
                                                                     emateba. teqstis, musikisa da moZravi gamosaxulebis fenomens
                                                                     yuradRebis mobilizebis, gafantvis an gadarTvis, emociebis marTvis,
                                                                     sazogadoebrivi azrisa da ganwyobis formirebaSi mniSvnelovani
                                                                     roli akisria da arc is aris SemTxveviTi, rom masobrivi
                                                                     komunikaciis saSualebebs meoTxe xelisuflebad naTlaven.
                                                                     televiziiT mowodebuli informacia yovelTvis ufro
                                                                     damajerebelia auditoriisaTvis, vidre Teoriuli an
                                                                     ideologiuri xasiaTis argumentebi.
                                                                         saqarTveloSi warmoebuli satelevizio saarCevno politika
                                                                     gansakuTrebuli TaviseburebebiT gamoirCeoda, romelic
                                                                     postsabWouri qveynisTvis damaxasiaTebeli, warsulidan
                                                                     aRorZinebuli tradiciisa da importirebuli axladSeZenili
                                                                     maRalprofesiuli teqnologiebis sinTezs warmoadgens. sabWouri
                                                                     tradicia, upirvelesad, satelevizio sivrcis marTvis meTodebis,
                                                                     saarCevno Sedegebis daTvlisa da dadgomis gacxadebaSi, xolo
                                                                     importirebuli, yvela im danarCeni satelevizio teqnologiis
                                                                     gamoyenebaSi gamovlinda, romelic aqtiurad iyo CarTuli
                                                                     winasaarCevno procesebSi. nebismieri Zalaufleba im resursebis
lela oCiauri, rusuli samkuTxedi, saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa          sistemaa, romlis saSualebiTac saerTo mizani miiRweva. saarCevno
Ziebani, #3(32);                                                     kampania, Sesabamisad, sxva araferia, Tu ara am resursebis
aleqsandr sokurovi rCeba mxolod kultura, iskustvo kino #7,         SenarCuneba an gadanawileba, an kidev dapyroba, rogorc,
2002;                                                                materialuri, aseve Zalovani, inteleqtualuri, adamianuri da
m. iampolski qairosi da istoria sokurovTan. kinovedCeskie
                                                                     rac mTavaria sainformacio resursebis.
zapiski. www.kinozapiski.ru/article/182.
                                                                         saxelisuflo struqturebs kolosaluri sainformacio
                                                                     resursebis mobilizeba SeuZliaT da maTi saSualebiT arCevnebSi
154                                                                                                                                155
nana doliZe                                                                         arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis politika

yovelTvis mimarTaven im teqnologiebs, rac maT momgebian          saSualebebSi saarCevno Sou, romlis Semadgeneli nawili xdeba
poziciaSi Caayenebs. mayureblis cnobierebis dacva                satelevizio axali ambebis politika, politikuri Toq Sous
propagandistuli teqnologiebisgan sakmaod rTulia.                 saxesxvaobebi da satelevizio politikuri reklamis industria.
    winasaarCevnod rusul internet-saitebze specialuri            mayurebeli televiziisgan garTobas elodeba da amitomac
proeqtic ki gaCnda `interneti teleekranis winaaRmdeg~,1          movlenebis SerCeva martivi, ubralo struqturiT xdeba, anu
romelic mkiTxvelisTvis, swored im sqemebis gaxsna-gaSifrvas      iseTis, romlis centrSic konfliqtia. politikac ekranidan ubralo,
isaxavda miznad, romelsac rogorc adgilobrivi, aseve ucxoeli      iol saqmed aRiqmeba, romlis warmoebac TvalisdaxamxamebaSia
piarteqnologebi manipulirebisaTvis iyeneben. Tumca, nebismieri   SesaZlebeli. amgvari iluzoruli midgomisTvis ki `idealuri~
amgvari, calkeuli proeqti am problemas ver gadadawyvets,         garemoa aucilebeli, romelsac qarTulma satelevizio sivrcem
vinaidan tyuili yovelTvis iwyeba iq, sadac wesebis axsnas        `warmatebiT~ gaarTva Tavi _ adresati mayurebeli izolirebuli
iwyeben. amasTan, mani pulirebis xarisxi pirdapir kavSirSia      unda iyos gare gavlenisgan. idealuri iqneboda totalitaruli
auditoriis garkveul jgufebad daxarisxebis sakiTxTan. aq,         zemoqmedebis modeli _ anu alternatiuli arakontrolirebadi
SeiZleba gamovyoT ganaTleba, asaki, profesia, sqesi da a. S.     wyaroebis sruli ararseboba.2 Tumca, am wesis dacva dRevandel
    SesaZlebelia, YTu ara, adamianebis garkveuli jgufi           sainformacio garemoSi SeuZlebelia internetisa da beWduri
gansazRvruli saxiT moqmedebisaTvis ganawyo anu daaprogramo       mediis wyalobiT, romelsac Tavisuflebis xarisxis gacilebiT
maTi qceva? amisTvis upirvelesi da aucilebeli princi pi          maRali niSnuli aqvs, vidre televizias. amitom, aucilebeli
satelevizio sivrcis mowyobis gansakuTrebuli meTodis SerCevaa.    gaxda mayureblisTvis damoukideblobis iluziis Seqmna
    winasaarCevno vnebebis dasacxromad `idealuri~ garemoa,       mravalarxianobis, mravalferovnebis, Sesabamisad, Tavisufali arCevnis
rodesac politikuri istebliSmenti cdilobs demokratiis             SesaZleblobis, mxolod garegnuli niSnebis damkvidrebiT.
Zireuli princi pebis sityvis Tavisuflebisa da informaciis        realurad ki, mTeli es sistema wamyvan ideologias eqvemdebareba,
Tavisufali gavrcelebis dacvas. Tumca, qarTul satelevizio         xolo informaciis mowodebis erTaderT, radikalurad
sivrceSi calkeuli televiziebis roli iqamde davida, rasac         opoziciuri wyaros arseboba, rogoric telekompania `kavkasiaa~,
Tavis droze sabWoTa propaganda asrulebda. nebismieri mcdeloba    mauwyeblobis SezRuduli SesaZleblobebiT, am fonze
ki, oficialuri sainformacio politikisagan gansxvavebuli          ,,demokratiuli xmauris~ elfers iZens.
politika ewarmoebinaT, mkacrad daisaja. amis magaliTia               amave mizans emsaxureboda winasaarCevnod `rusTavi 2-is~
telekompania `maestro~-saTvis licenziis modificirebaze uaris     arxze Seqmnili ori Toq Sou `upasuxe xalxs~ da `samkuTxedi~,
Tqma. mauwyeblobis SezRuduli formisa da teqnikuri                sadac Tavisufali diskusiis garegnul formas                 mkacrad
saSualebebis simwiris miuxedavad, qarTul satelevizio sivrceSi    gansazRvruli, parametrebSi moqceuli politikuri pozicia
`maestro~ Seecada movlenebi komentaris gareSe eCvenebina.        iyo amofarebuli, sadac gauTavebeli SekiTxva da moulodneli
amasTan, Toq Sou `Jurnalisti~, romelic analitikuri ti pis        informaciis gaJRereba, rac Toq SousTvis tradiciuladaa
gadacema iyo, eTeridan moixsna (rasac boikotis uprecedento       damaxasiaTebeli, SeuZlebeli iyo. politikuri Toq Sou yvelaze
forma mohyva _ klasikuri musikiT respondentebis saubris          reitingul telegadacemaTa rigs ganekuTvneba, masSi politikuri
gadafarva).                                                      reklamis ganTavsebis Rirebulebac maRalia, Sesabamisad, fasiani
    dRes ukve naTelia, rom arCevnebSi warmateba ara imdenad      reklama `rusTavi 2~-is arxze, mxolod xelisuflebas hqonda.
imazea damokidebuli, Tu ramdenad damajerebelia an gamarTulia     saqarTvelos satelevizio bazarze politikuri reklamis amgvari
ama Tu im politikuri Zalis ideologiuri programa, aramed          fasic (mag.: `praimtaimSi~ 30 wm.-iani reklama 16000 dolari
imaze, Tu ramdenad kargad aris organizebuli sainformacio
156                                                                                                                              157
nana doliZe                                                                           arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis politika

Rirda) blokirebis iribi meTodia, fasebi reitings mieba, reitingi    `saqme laparakis nacvlad~ faruli laitmotivi. amomrCeveli
ki propagandistul iaraRad iqca.                                     unda darwmunebuliyo imaSi, rom xedavda imas, risi danaxvac
    Tu rogor Suqdeboda winasaarCevno kampania satelevizio           surda, miiRebda imas, risi miRebac surda.
arxebiT, monitoringis erT-erTi umartivesi meTodi _ rodesac               politikurma figuram, partiam an winasaarCevno gaerTianebam
iTvleba ama Tu im subieqtisaTvis daTmobili drois jamuri             unda moi povos xalxis interesebis gamomxatvelis tituli. am
raodenoba, naTlad miuTiTebs disbalansze. mag.: arCevnebis bolo      titulis mosapoveblad aucilebelia kandidatisa Tu partiis
kviras, `nacionalur moZraobas~ 3 saaTi, mTel opoziciur speqtrs      kritikis praqtikuli SeuZlebloba, kandidatis pozitiuri imiji
ki ori saaTi daeTmo. Tumca, monitoringis es meTodi                  da sainformacio resursebi. saxelisuflebo partiam am
arasrulyofilia da srulad ver asaxavs im obieqtur realobas,          SemTxvevaSic momgebiani satelevizio strategia SeimuSava, rodesac
romlis demonstrirebac sruli sisavsiT, Tundac 20 maisis 3            maJoritari kandidatebis sareklamo kampania moculobiT bevrad
saaTiani `kurieris~ gamoSvebaSi Sedga. 12 siuJeti, rac 40           aRemateboda partiis sareklamo kampanias. politikosisTvis
wuTamde dros moicavda `nacionaluri moZraobis~ saqmianobas           prioritetulia ekranze gamoCenis faqti da `saxis~ mayureblis
mieZRvna, 3 ki, _ opoziciisas, romlis saerTo dro 4 wuTs ar          cnobierebaSi CabeWdva, rac maTi ekranze Cvenebis sixSiris
aRemateboda. is, rom politikuri partiebi araTanabar pirobebSi       pirdapirproporciulia. amitom ufaso politikur sareklamo
iyvnen Cayenebulni, arc politikuri liderebi Suqdeboda               rgolebs daemata fasiani sareklamo rgolebic, romelzec
erTgvarovnad, TvalSisacemi realoba iyo. Tumca, esec                 rTulad ikiTxeboda an saerTod ar figurirebda partiis
winasaarCevno mizanmimarTuli strategiis mxolod Semadgeneli          saxelwodeba. wina planze wamoiwia saarCevno nomerma _ 5,
nawilia. axali ambebis samsaxuri, reklama _ rogorc fasiani,         romelTanac warmatebuli mSeneblebis, bankirebis, meRvineebisa
aseve ufaso, rogorc politikuri, aseve socialuri,                    Tu eqimebis `pozitiuri saxe-simboloebi~ dakavSirda.
arapolitikuri gadacemebis saarCevno subieqtebis interesebSi         cnobierebaSi xdeboda _ nomeri xuTis, 50 dRis, 50 Tvis, 5
gamoyeneba, mag.: `Wadrakis dafa~, `videopatruli~, `pulsi~, `mzis   nabiji socialuri stabilurobisken, 5 nabiji dasaqmebisaken, 5
dartyma~, opoziciuri arxebis simwirem da maT mierve arasworad       nabiji mosaxleobis dasasaqmeblad _ `Camagreba~. erT-erTi
SerCeulma sareklamo taqtikam, romelic ZiriTadad negativze           kandidatis saarCevno Stabis satelefono nomeric ki xuTi
iyo agebuli, satelevizio bazris monopoliis pirobebSi, saarCevno     xuTianisagan Sedgeboda. analogiuri meTodi, nawilobriv
teqnologiebidan satelevizio mani pulirebis meTodebi ufro            `respublikuri partiis~ sareklamo rgolSic gamoiyenes: ,,30
efeqturi gaxada da praqtikulad momgebian poziciaSi Caayena.         kanonproeqti pirvelive 30 dReSi~, romelic `respublikuri
    TvalSisacemia, rom Cveni sazogadoebrivi cxovrebidan             partiis~ 30 wlis iubileze gacxadda, Tumca, am Setyobinebis
gandevnilia ideebis Sepirispirebis saSualebiT politikuri            `Casamagreblad~ arc mowodebis sixSire, anu materialuri
arCevnis gakeTebis SesaZlebloba. satelevizio sivrce aRmoCnda        resursi da arc `idealuri garemo~, romelic pirvel SemTxvevaSi
is adgili, sadac winasaarCevno programa, problemebis dasma, Tu      arsebobda _ maT ar gaaCndaT.
maTi gadawyvetis alternatiuli gzebis dasaxva Seicvala                   winasaarCevnod gacemuli dapirebebi mani pulirebis
calkeuli politikosebis imijTa konkurenciiT, romelic aseve           mniSvnelovani xerxia. Sinaarsobrivi erTferovnebis miuxedavad,
sareklamo biznesis princi piT igeba.                                romelic kandidatebis Tu mTlianad partiis sareklamo
    rodesac 1960 wels jon kenedim saarCevno kampaniisTvis           rgolebSi ikiTxeboda, yoveli maTgani mimarTuli iyo amomrCevlis
mTeli sareklamo saagento daiqirava, wamyvani formula iyo _          yofiTi problemebis mogvarebisken, xolo sakiTxi, Tu ramdenad
`Tu Sen ar miReb me aseTs, rogoric var, maSin gavxdebi iseTi,       iyo SesaZlebeli am dapirebebis Sesruleba, dRis wesrigidan
rogoric ginda, rom daminaxo~.3 es formula gaxda lozungis _          ixsneboda, vinaidan axali ambebis nebismier SetyobinebaSi formula:
158                                                                                                                                159
nana doliZe                                                                        arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis politika

problema-momentaluri gadawyveta - efeqturad muSaobda. amgvari    damokidebuleba, rodesac, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, `axali ambebis~
iyo skverebis, moednebis, samarSruto xazebis gaxsnis,            struqturaSi maTi Setyobineba mexuTe, meeqvse adgilze
sadarbazoebis SeRebvisa da sazeimo gaxsnis ceremoniebi. mwvave   inacvlebda.
socialuri problemebidan yuradRebis gadatanam da `ubralo              2008 wlis saparlamento arCevnebis obieqturad gaSuqebis
adamianis~ anu `Cvenianebis~ ampluaSi TamaSma, Cvenive yofiTi    mizniT urTierTgagebis memorandumsac moewera xeli, romelic,
problemebis mosagvareblad, arsebuli sinamdvile xelovnurad        Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobda satelevizio arxebis politikuri
Seqmnili satelevizio realobiT Caanacvla.                         Zalebisgan Tavisuflebas da neitralobas. Tumca gvaviwydeba,
    sazogadoebis cnobierebiT mani pulireba teqnologiad iqca      rom isini saqmian sawarmoebs warmoadgenen, romlebic Semosavals
da Cvens sinamdvileSic gaCndnen profesionalebi, romlebic         sakuTari droisa da striqonis gayidviT iReben, es ki niSnavs,
misi ganxorcielebis meTodebs srulad an nawilobriv floben.        rom maTi mousyidveloba mxolod miTia. erTaderTi arxi
maTi mTavari mizani adamianebze zemoqmedeba da maTi qcevis       sazogadoebrivi mauwyebelia, romlis funqcionirebac sareklamo
marTvaa,4 ganxorcielebis taqtika _ faruli, faqti _ yovelTvis     Semosavalze ar aris mibmuli, Tumca, sakmarisia axali ambebis
SefuTulia da ise mowodebuli, vinaidan misi gamJRavnebis          politikas mivadevnoT Tvali, rom savalalo obieqtur suraTad
SemTxvevaSi aqcia CaSlilad iTvleba. amgvari iyo xurCaSi          saxelisuflebo komerciuli arxebis `axali ambebis~
momxdari incidentis satelevizio versia, romelmac arCevnebis      SetyobinebaTa ara mxolod politikuri orientirebi, Sinaarsic
dRes bevri kiTxva Riad datova. magaliTad: megruli teqsti,        da rigiTobac ki identuria.
romelic Semdgom sainformacio gamoSvebaSi aRar figurirebda            aris Tu ara sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli sazogadoebis
(`didi madloba, rom momkaliT~). saRamos, axali ambebis           samsaxurSi? akmayofilebs Tu ara is im moTxovnebs, romelsac
gamoSvebebidan siuJeti saerTod iyo amoRebuli. Tumca, am          sazogadoeba uyenebs? am kiTxvaze pasuxi erTmniSvnelovania _
SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovani ara Sinaarsis namdviloba, aramed       uaryofiTi (rac calke ganxilvis Temaa). imis erT-erTi naTeli
auditoriis fsiqologiuri mobilizebis efeqti iyo, rasac            magaliTi, rom mauwyebeli `Rirseulad~ agrZelebs sabWour-
saarCevno ubnebze xelisuflebis mxardamWerTa ricxvis mateba       totalitarul tradicias da is, rom mas sazogadoebis samsaxurSi
mohyva, rogorc mosalodnel safrTxeze adeqvaturi zomebis           moRvaweobis aranairi `survili~ ar gaaCnia, 26 maiss
mimRebis garantze.                                               gaerTianebuli opoziciis mier gamarTul saprotesto aqciisadmi
    Tanamedrove etapze Cven vuyurebT imis Canacvlebas, rasac     damokidebulebaSic gamJRavnda. saprotesto aqciis translireba
politika hqvia, simboluri politikiT. rodesac politikuri          pirdapir eTerSi mxolod telekompania `kavkasiaze~
procesebi ara racionaluri kriteriumebiT, aramed maTi             ganxorcielda. miuxedavad imisa, rom `moambis~ yovel gamoSvebaSi
sanaxaobrivi mimzidvelobiT fasdeba. Setyobinebaze fsiqologiuri   CarTuli iyo mitingis amsaxveli reportaJi, sazogadoebis
operaciis ganxorcielebiT, informaciaze kontrolis dawesebiT,      ukmayofileba da protesti faqtis gaumniSvnelovnebam gamoiwvia.
dezinformaciis, faqtebis gadafarvis, SerCevis, sainformacio      iseve, rogorc damoukideblobis dRisadmi miZRvnili aRlumi,
racionis gansazRvriT, arasaWiro informaciis miCumaTebiT da       mitingic 26 maisis dRis mniSvnelovani niusi unda yofiliyo.
sinamdvilis obieqturi suraTis sanacvlod virtualuri               sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis pirdapiri eTeri ki jgufi `molokos~
realobis SeqmniT, Cveni satelevizio sivrce demokratiuli          mier gamarTul koncerts daeTmo, am faqtis logikuri gagrZeleba
xmauris princi pebs iyenebs, xolo im Setyobinebas, romlis        ki sazogadoebis protesti iyo, romelic 27 maiss
gaJonvasac Tavs ver daaRwevs, mravalricxovani informaciis        `sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis~ Senobis win gamarTul aqciaSi
dinebaSi, SeumCnevel poziciaze gadaisvris. amgvari iyo           gamoixata.
opoziciuri partiebis mier mowyobili aqciebisadmi
160                                                                                                                             161
nana doliZe

    im pirobebSi, rodesac mravalmilioniani sazogadoeba,                                                                   lia kalandariSvili,
ekonomikuri da teqnologiuri bazrebi, saxelmwifosa da                                                           xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,
ekonomikis mWidro kavSiri obieqturi realobaa, masobrivi                                                           wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli
komunikaciebis saSualebebiT sazogadoebis azris kontroli
da marTva aranaklebmniSvnelovani faqtoria.5 magram politikis                 qalis saxe samocdaaTiani wlebis inglisur
trankvilizatorad gadaqceva mxolod garkveuli droiT axdens                                      kinoSi
sazogadoebis loialobas xelisuflebis mimarT. Tu problema
realurad ar wydeba, situacia adre, Tu gvian mainc Semotrialdeba                  70-ian wlebis inglisur kinoSi postmodernistuli epoqis
socio-ekonomikur krizisad da maSin, komunikaciis saSualebaTa                gavleniT xdeba mraval tradiciul ideaTa Tu saxeTa
Zlevamosilebis miuxedavad, obieqtur realobasa da virtualur                  fundamenturi gadafaseba. am process ukavSireba jozef louzis
realobas Soris arsebuli napralis Sevseba SeuZlebelia, rac                   filmi `romantikuli ingliseli qalic~, msgavsi azrovnebisTvis
metad amoqmedebulia simboluri politikis meqanizmebi, miT                    d a m a x a s i a T eb e l i i r o n i i T , i n t e r ku l t u r u l i T u
ufro mZafria adamianebisaTvis mware sinamdvilesTan Sejaxeba.                interteqstualuri sivrciT, asociaciebiT, aluziebiT, sarkeebiT,
    da bolos, amerikis arasamTavrobo organizaciam `Tavisufalma              labirinTebiT, motiv-fragmentebad daSlili da kolaJurad
saxlma~ 2007 wlis angariSi saparlamento arCevnebamde ramdenime              ganfenili siuJetiT.
TviT adre gamoaqveyna, sadac mediis Tavisuflebis mxriv                           filmis Tema, TavisTavad, bevrismomcvelia. igi eZRvneba
saqarTvelo 128-e adgilzea da aqcenti mediagaremos                           literaturaSi da xelovnebaSi kargad damuSavebul romantikul
politizebaze, prosamTavrobo arxebze xelisuflebis pozitiur                   qalis saxe-xats. es, erTi SexedviT, msubuqi, `romanuli~ elferis
imijze, damoukidebeli satelevizio ambebis gavrcelebisa da                   mqone Tema aerTianebs kulturul, nacionalur, socialur,
gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis SezRudvaze, mediamflobelebis Sesaxeb                fsiqologiur, esTetikur, SemoqmedebiT da kidev mraval aspeqts,
informaciis gaumWvirvalebaze miuTiTebdnen. situacia arsebiTad               romelic gansazRvravs da garkveuli saxiT warmoadgens
ar Secvlila, garda imisa, rom saparlamento arCevnebmac,                     nawarmoebSi mTlianad drois suraTs, cvlilebebs da mis gavlenas
mediaTavisuflebis TvalsazrisiT, CamonaTvals ramdenime                       adamianze, qalze, romelic samyaros romantikulad, poetis TvaliT
gamuqebuli Strixi Semata, ramac sabolood Seqmna, swored is                  uWvrets, eswrafvis damoukideblobas, izidavs idumali, sasworze
`idealuri garemo~, romelmac sruli gamarjveba garantirebulad                 agdebs mravali qalisTvis saocnebo keTildReobas, raTa Tavisi
gadasca sainformacio resursebis erTmniSvnelovnad                            cxovrebiT icxovros da romelsac survili aqvs `ifrinos~,
makontrolebel Zalas.                                                        Tundac TviTmfrinaviT...
                                                                                 idea sarkiseburad irekleba siuJetSi: mxolod filmis
                                                                            avtorebi ki ar muSaoben am Temaze, aramed personaJebic1: personaJi,
                                                                            mwerali luis fildingi muSaobs scenarze, romlis gmiri
1. www.patriotica.ru/actual/vahitov_5methods.html                           Tanamedrove ingliseli romantikuli qalia, magram misTvis es
2. Р. Харрис. `Психология массовых коммуникаций~, Еврознак, 2001, с. 128;   Tema bundovani da xelovnuria. nacnobi, irgvliv arsebuli
3. www.pr-sp.ru/main/publications/public12.html;                            qalebi am niSniT ar gamoirCevian, piriqiT, sabeWd manqanasTan
4. Шиллер Г. Манипуляторы сознанием. - М.: `Мысль~, 1980. с. 204;           SemoqmedebiTi aRmafrenisTvis gamzadebul mwerals mudam
5. Кара-Мурза Власть манипуляции С.Г. 2007 г. с. 83;                        `ufrTxoben muzas~ sarecxi manqanebis raxraxiT, mtversasrutebis
20.05.-05.06.2008 wlis perioduli presa (`rezonansi~, `alia~),               bzuiliT, yoveldRiuri xmauriani, uintereso da wvrilmani
internet resursi. www.media.ge.

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`yofiTobiT~. problema mis winaSe mTeli simZafriT dgeba: vin       Tavisi sakuTrebis simZime awuxebs: saxli, Zvirfaseuloba, coli...~
aris, rogoria Tanamedrove ingliseli qali, rogorc Rirebuleba,      aseve, romantikuli azrebisgan `icavs~: tradiciebi, sakuTari
rogoria axali idealis masStabebi? riTi gansxvavdeba igi           SezRuduli Sexedulebebi, ojaxuri simyudrove da meuRlis
wina Taobebisgan an Tundac sakuTari Tanamedrove Tavisufali        yuradReba _ yvelaferi, risi xelidan gaSvebac ar surs, rac
ucxoeli qalbatonebisgan? iqneb romantikuli qalis ideali           mis keTildReobas safrTxes uqmnis. misTvis romantikuli qali
frangi mirandaa? damoukidebeli, saocrad mSvenieri,                misi meojaxe colia, romelsac saxlidan gasvlis SiSi aqvs,
srulyofileba! ufro metic, inteleqtualuri – garegnobiT             rom mis aryofnaSi raime ubeduri SemTxveva ar moxdes.
xom natali delonia da amasTan, sorbonis filosofiis                    luis fildings `Tavisufali qali~ mxolod diskomforts
profesoric, meti raRa unda iyos!                                  ki ar uqmnis, mxolod ki ar `Rlis~, misi arsebobac ki
    restornis wveulebis scenaSi, SemTvrali luis fildingi          anerviulebs. igi gaafTrebuli esxmis Tavs `Tavisufal~ izabels,
ukve imeddakarguli, ironiulad mimarTavs mirandas, axali drois     miuTiTebs, rom qmris sacvlebis recxva misTvis swored
romantikul ideals: `rogoria masStabi calkeuli adamianisa          zedgamoWrili saqmea! magram xvdeba, rom scenarSi, yofiT
im samyaroSi, romelSic Cven vcxovrobT, miTumetes aseT             problemebSi gabmuli colis adgili, samwuxarod, ar aris.
adgilebSi?...~ Semdeg es ironia ufro damcinavi xdeba, roca        elizabeti romantikas gaurbis, `ver grZnobs, rom amis ufleba
laparaki grZeldeba papebis droindel fasebze da dRevandelze...     aqvs!~. arc luiss emeteba igi romantikuli TavgadasavlebisTvis,
is Rirebulebebi, romlebsac adamianebi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi    Tumca ubiZgebs da elodeba, ra moxdeba! iwyeba siuJetis jiuti
mieCvivnen, tradiciebad daadgines da `cxovreba dailages~,         Zieba, romelic luisis mier winaswar gamzadebul, sasurvel
Tanamedroveobas `ver iyidis~, ukve miuRebelia. Tumca, drois       finals moergeba. magram luis fildings misi, realobas acdenili,
cvlilebebTan erTad, franguli idealic Zalian gansxvavdeba          Tumca myarad fesvgadgmuli Sexedulebebi xels uSlian, erTi
inglisurisgan, rogori srulyofilic ar unda iyos igi.               mxriv, sinamdvilis da meore mxriv, ideis danaxvaSi: dasaxati
    `sorbonaSi es sxvavgvarad xdeba~ _ ambobs miranda, romelic,   qalis saxe mainc sakuTari colisas emTxveva da mwerali qmari
yvelaferTan erTad, arc baden-badenSia namyofi, im sivrceSi,       saSinel eWvianobas iwyebs. saxe wydeba realobas da gaucxoebul,
sadac luisis azriT, romantikul arseba ibadeba.                    gazviadebul uaryofiT niSnebs iZens. misi Txzuleba TandaTan
    mweral luis fildingis SemoqmedebiTi `wvis~ istoria            gardaiqmneba ambad `yalb, umadur qalze, romelic wesier,
asociaciebsa da aluziebs iwvevs XVIII saukunis mweral henri       brwyinvale kacs hyavs colad, Tumca amis danaxvis unari ar
fildingis SemoqmedebasTan, mis epoqasTan, stilTan, mis mier       gaaCnia, romelic, erTxelac, miemgzavreba sakuTari Tavis mosaZebnad,
asaxul qalTa ti pebTan. aq xazgasmulia drois niSani, luisi        poulobs kidec, magram Camova misi keTilSobili qmari da
romanebs, tragediebs da dRiurebs ki ar Txzavs, rogorc misi        saxlSi mihyavs. maSin ki xvdeba igi, Tu ra araCveulebrivi kaci
saxelovani mogvare, aramed scenars wers megobari reJisoris,       hyolia gverdiT~. swored movlenaTa amgvari ganviTarebiTvis
hermanis, filmisTvis, romelic, rogorc hermani ambobs, aris        ibrZvis gaorebuli luisi.
`fsiqologiuri moTxroba axali yaidis qalze~. magram garemo,            filmSi fantazias TiTqos msgavsi, magram arsobrivad
ti paJebi, yofa, stili da yvelaferi, rasTan fardobiTobaSic        gansxvavebuli realoba cvlis. teqstebi erTmaneTSi ireva,
unda gamJRavndes saxe-xatis Tavisebureba, mwerlisTvis ukve        erTimeoreSi irekleba da ironiul sivrces ayalibebs: es xom
araerTel gatkepnili, stereoti pebis gzaa, `yvelaferi saSinlad     is mweralia, romelmac personaJi ver daimorCila, gausxlta
mosawyeni, pretenziuli da usicocxlo~. Tumca, grZnobs, rom         xelidan iseve, rogorc sakuTari coli. es tolstois ambavs
aseTi SeboWilobis mizezi TviTonaa da aRiarebs: `mesakuTres        hgavs, romelsac ana kareninas moulodnelma qcevam Tavzari


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dasca. Tumca, luis fildings Tavisi SeTxzuli finali ar                 atyobinebs, albaT, safrangeTis mxares mjdomi mgzavri, xolo,
Seucvlia. mxolod misi JReradoba, misi arsi Seicvala TavisTavad        savaraudod, germaniis mxares mjdomi dabejiTebiT pasuxobs,
konteqstebis sarkeebSi.                                               rom germaniaSi.
    kadri, romelSic elizabeti pirvelad Cndeba, ar aris ubralod            anu qali, romelic mogzaurobs realurad, mogzaurobs
istoriis dasawyisi. rasakvirvelia, siuJeti aqedan iwyeba. igi         irealuradac, rogorc daumuSavebeli personaJi, jer kidev
miemgzavreba baden-badenSi, magram es mxolod Txrobis erTi             ganuviTarebeli idea, mwerlisa da reJisoris `mSrali~ samuSao
Srea. mayurebeli aRiqvams saxe-koncepts, xedavs qals, romelic         gegmis masala. es personaJi arsebobas iwyebs zustad filmis
martodmarto gaunZrevlad zis, fiqrebSia wasuli. erTi mxriv,            dasawyisSi da TandaTan ufro da ufro Rrmad uerTdeba da
elizabeti matarebliT mogzaurobs, es garkveviT aris naCvenebi,         erwymis fildingis colis elizabetis saxes. msgavsebas
meore mxriv, igi, gamWvirvale, rogorc msubuqi eTeri, rogorc           reJisoric (hermani) poulobs. Tumca, am faqts fildingi wyobidan
molandeba micuravs matareblis miRma ulamazes, zRaprul                 gamohyavs da gaRizianebuli, kategoriulad uaryofs maT Soris
sivrceSi. ase mas vagonis sarkmeli ireklavs. igi ufro iq              raime msgavsebas. mamakacTa saubari, imis kategoriuli mtkiceba,
aris, swored im sivrceSi, vidre matarebelSi. es metaforaa,            rom coli mxolod ojaxis saqmeebiT aris dainteresebuli da
ulamazesi, poeturi kinometafora romelic filmis saxelwodebas           saxlidan gasvla saerTod ar unda - damatebiT migvaniSnebs
ganmartavs. swored amitom adevs am kadrebs titrebi, anu SesaZloa,     isev henri fildingis Semoqmedebaze: konkretulad, am SemTxvevaSi,
es amgvarad aRsaqmeli saxe uSualod mxolod saxelwodebas                gvaxsendeba `migdebuli werilebi, anu colis saxlSi dakavebis
ganmartavdes. meore mxriv, sadRac gamgzavreba, miTumetes, amgvarad    axali saSualeba~, sadac, `rqebisgan~ Tavis dasazRvevad, ingliseli
ganzogadebuli, rodesac ar ici mgzavrobis arc mizezi da arc            qmrebi yvela Rones xmaroben, colebis saxlebSi Casaketad.
mgzavrze gaqvs jerjerobiT raime konkretuli informacia,                rodesac erT-erTi personaJi, softli, Civis colis Wkuaze,
tradiciulad migvamrTavs im azrisken, rom igi mogzaurobs               rogorc ubedurebaze; meore, bediT kmayofili uizdomi, gamudmebiT
Tavis samyaroSi, sakuTari sulis ucnob sirceebSi, swored am            madlobas swiravs RmerTs, rom misi coli aseTi ar aris.
azrs adastureben reJisori hermani da mwerali luis fildingi            `madloba RmerTs, Wkua qalisTvis udidesi borotebaa~. saukuneebs
saubarSi, rom maTi personaJi qali miemgzavreba sadRac sxvagan,        TiTqos arc gauvlia!
safrangeTSi, germaniaSi... (ara aqvs mniSvneloba sad!) raTa Seicnos       meTvramete saukunis fildingi xatavs qalTa Tu mamakacTa
sakuTari Tavi. am daukonkretebel detals, imas, rom `mniSvneloba       ti pebs, inglisur tradiciebs, realurad arsebul situaciasa
rom ara aqvs~ konkretul kulturul, Tu geografiul adgils,               da ocnebebs, rac jozef louzis filmSi isev da isev kiTxvis
filmSi interkulturuli, asociaciebis Tavisufali, gaSlili               niSnis qveS dgas: gaurkvevelia, aris marTlac sasurveli
sivrce Semoaqvs, asparezi kulturaTa mimarTebebisaTvis.                `sakuTari cxovrebiT cxovreba~, Tu, piriqiT, es aris ocneba
    mayurebeli erTi aluziidan meoreze gadadis, sarkidan _             imaze, rac araviTar SemTxvevaSi, sinamdvileSi aravis unda!
sarkeze, asociaciidan _ asociaciaze. adgili rCeba avtorTa                 amgvarad, rogorc eqspoziciaSia, filmis gmiri: qali-idea,
TviTironiisaTvisac. rodesac mwerlisa da reJisoris                     coli da personaJi, realuri da fsiqologiuri, Tanamedrove
daukonkretebel, bundovan detalebze msjelobas vismenT, vxvdebiT,       da tradiciuli, miemgzavreba baden-badenSi da paralelurad,
Tu ra gauTvaliswinebel viTarebaSi Cacvivdnen aseTi zerele             mogzaurobs sakuTari sulis siRrmeebSi. coli midis, raTa
damokidebulebis gamo maTi personaJebi: gvaxsendeba ukve Cavlili       daubrundes sakuTar Tavs, personaJi - kulturas. intuiturad
kadri, vagonis scena, sadac personaJ kerolainTan gaigivebuli          igi imeorebs dabrunebis simbolur gzas `dakargul samoTxis
realuri elizabeti uecrad iRviZebs da kiTxulobs: sad varTo?,           baRSi~ da erTgvarad, asociacias qmnis jon miltonis
razec igi ormag pasuxs iRebs: safrangeTSi, _ Tavazianad               SemoqmedebasTan, inglisuri literaturis tradiciebTan. am
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motivs filmSi gamorCeuli adgili ukavia. es aris `romantikuli       gaumarTlebel detalze, ufro metad ki, colis gamo, romelic,
ingliseli qalis~ gamWoli motivi, romelsac louzi filmSi             vin icis, marTlac romelime `badSia~... `aaa, baden-badenSi! albaT,
araerTxel, sxvadasxva mimarTebiT citirebs: es iqneba inglisuri     wylis procedurebze?!
`zamTris baRis~ pavilioni, sadac realoba, fantazia da simboluri        isev abazanis      mniSvneloba! swored abazanaSi CaZinebas
mTlian gamoxatvas iRebs, Tu meuRleTa Sexvedris scena sakuTari      imizezebs elizabeti, roca eWvianobiT gaRizianebuli qmari
saxlis win, ezoSi - mxolod yofiTi realoba ironiul                  urekavs. `warmodgena ara maqvs! xom ici elizabetis xasiaTi,
konteqstSi, sadac elizabeti _ `eva~ iZulebuli xdeba SiSvelma       raRaca rom wamouvlis~. es sasacilo dialogi sxvadasxva
datovos `samoTxe~, xolo luisi _ `adami~, namdvili inglisuri,       asociacias iwvevs. maT Soris, ikiTxeba aluzia herman fildingis
zogjer zedmetad damTrgunveli tradiciebis `msxverplia~.             `lisabonSi mogzaurobis dRiurze~. visac axsovs mwvaved
    aqedan gamomdinare, louzi elizabetis saxes kidev erTi          satiruli, Tu simwriT dawerili dRiuri, sityva `badis~
SriT aRrmavebs _ qalis arsobrivi, arqeti puli ganzomilebiT,        gagonebaze, im epoqis saSineli, gawvalebuli mogzaurobis suraTebi
rogorc SiSveli idea – qali zogadad, rogorc aseTi. louzis           warmoudgeba, rodesac, yovelmxriv, yvelaorganodaavadebul
azriT, Tanamedrove qalma-evam dakarga Tavisi arsi, igi ZiebaSia,   mweral-mosamarTles, romelsac ganzraxuli aqvs saxelganTqmul
konkretulad ki, cdilobs `aRadginos~, ipovos Tavisi `samoTxis       balneologiur kurortze gamgzavreba, rom `iqneb samkurnalo
baRi~. gmirebs filmSi aseT adgilad baden-badeni egulebaT. es       wyalma mainc argos~, mZarcvelebisgan da yaCaRebisgan inglisis
metad ironiulad JRers, radgan realurad arsebuli baden-             gaTavisuflebis gegmis ganxorcieleba ise gaugrZelda da Tan,
badeni mxolod geografiuli adgili ar aris. igi TavisTavad           ise cota gadauxades, rom saocnebo `badSi~ veRar CaaRwia da
moicavs garkveul asociaciaTa ares: zRapruli kurorti cnobili        lisabonSi gamtanjvel mogzaurobas Seudga. badenSi gamgzavrebis
gamajansaRebeli wylebiT, mdidar, xandazmul da mosawyen             idea, rogorc ganuxorcielebeli ocneba! da misi ganxorcieleba
aristokratTa samyofeli, genialur mweralTa nawarmoebebis            ki jozef louzis filmis personaJs, luis fildingis cols,
sivrce... saocnebo adgili, magram gaaCnia, visTvis! am adgilis     elizabets gadauloca.
mTavari Rirseba xom samkurnalo wylebi da procedurebia,                 rogorc aRvniSneT, nebismier gaJRerebul sityvas, ekranze
TavisTavad, sakmaod araromantikuli.                                warmodgenil sruliad uniSvnelo detalsac ki Tan mohyveba
    gmiris iq gamgzavrebis ucnaur axirebaze mwerali da             miniSnebebis, asociaciebis, aluziebis uzarmazari sivrce, romelic
reJisori sakmaod dabneulebi saubroben. filmSi xSirad meordeba      erTmaneTTan ironiul damokidebulebebs qmnis. filmi
kiTxva: ra unda mas aseT dros baden-badenSi? elizabeti xom         daxlarTul-daqselilia, mTlianad labirinTis formaSia
janmrTeli, axalgazrda qalia. ori ingliseli inteleqtualis,          gadawyvetili. aris es semantikuri mxare, Tu vizualuri. aq
erTi SexedviT, seriozul tonalobaSi, yovelgvar gadametebas          Zalian nacnob sivrces, sakuTar saxlsac ki, uamravi gasasvleli
moklebuli dialogi _ erTi mxriv, momavali romanis Tu filmis         aqvs, realuri Tu uamrav sarkeSi areklili, gamravlebuli da
personaJze da, meore mxriv, mwerlis colis zrdilobiani mokiTxva     sxvadasxva mxares mimarTuli irealuri, rTuli labirinTis
_ kalamburis masala xdeba, romelic filmis simbolur Sres            gasasvlelebi. am sivrceSi gmirebs sruliad moulodneli
uerTdeba: `ra unda badSi?~ – ukvirs hermans. sinonimebis           rakursebidan vxedavT. isini gamodian sarkis CarCoebidan da
sityvaTa TamaSi sxvadasxva ironiul JReradobaSi izrdeba.            gadadian realur sivrceSi, an piriqiT, sadRac sarkeebSi ikargebian.
erTi mxriv, es aris `cudi~, meore mxriv _ `abazana~, `sawoli~,     iSviaTad, rom sakuTari oreulis gareSe gamoCnden, romlebic
`magram~... aseT araerTmniSvnelovanebas luisi moTminebidan         maT Tvals adevneben an zurgs aqceven, toveben, isev modian...
gamohyavs. `ara, is badSi ki ara, baden-badenSia!~, _ xmas uwevs       louzisTan sarke kadris kompoziciis centria. reJisori
igi. mas, rogorc avtors, ar moswons megobari reJisoris miniSneba   swored am sarkeebis anareklSi warmogvidgens personaJTa
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lia kalandariSvili                                                                     qalis saxe samocdaaTiani wlebis inglisur kinoSi

portretebs, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan fsiqologiur Tu sxva        oreulebTan erTad da iqidan gamosasvlels daeZeben, Tumca es
yvelaze sayuradRebo momentebs, xSirad mTel kadrs, romelsac        arc ise iolia, radgan irgvliv mxolod labiriTia. labirinTi,
iseTive sruli saoperatoro palitriT iRebs, rogorc realur           romelic pirvelive kadrebidan matareblis sivrceSi Semodis
sivrces. kamera TiTqos Tavisuflad moZraobs sarkis miRma           da romelic ufro TvalsaCino xdeba, rodesac baden-badenSi
arsebul usasrulo gafarToebul samyaroSi da aucileblad              Casuli elizabeti Zvelebur uniformaSi gamowyobili msaxuris
giCndeba asociacia kidev erT did ingliselze: TiTqos araviTari     etlSi jdeba da sastumrosken miemgazvreba.
winaaRmdegoba ar arsebobs, Cveulebrivad Sedixar da gamodixar          saocrad mSvenieri sivrce, romliTac romantikuli qali
luis kerolis jadosnur, sarkis miRma, sxva, axal SesaZleblobaTa    tkbeba, namdvili labirinTis suraTSi izrdeba daxveuli,
samyaroSi. zogjer sarkis CarCoSi moqceuli scena citataa,          dagrZelebuli bilikebiT; aq TiTqos droc deformirebulia,
hi perrealoba, romelsac ormagi azrobrivi datvirTvaa aqvs da       radgan mas fexiT mimavali Tomasi samjer dauxvdeba win, daaswrebs
kadrs konceptualurad kravs. magaliTad, elizabeti `brundeba        gzaSi sxvadasxva bilikze da bolos, sastumros holSic xvdeba.
saxlSi~ (saxlSi dabrunebis motivi, iseve, rogorc `samoTxis        igi yvelgan Cndeba, yvelgan aris, radgan es is `minotavria~,
baRSi~, filmSi gamudmebiT figurirebs). uwyveti kadris gadaRebis   romelmac unda gamoiwvios elizabetSi transformacia. germaneli
wertilia meore sarTulze kibisTavi, saidanac moCans, erTi          poeti, Jigolo, avanturisti, menamcece, damxmare, mdivani,
mxriv, ezos xedi sarkmlidan, da meore mxriv, kibis ujredi,        narkotikebis gadamtani da a. S., germanuli literaturis
romlis mopirdapire mxares, kedelze sarkea da romelSic             tradiciuli, eleganturi demoni... mas mravali idumali saxe
holis sivrcis fragmenti irekleba.                                 aqvs, magram maTgan mTavari isaa, rom misTvis araviTari
    kamera daxrilia da zemodan pirvel sarTuls akvirdeba.          winaaRmdegoba ar arsebobs: rogorc luisi ambobs, seriozuli
Tavidan sarkmlidan moCans, rogor Cerdeba manqana da elizabeti     winaaRmdegoba arasdros Sexvedria. akeTebs imas, rac surs da
saxls rogor uaxlovdeba. kamera mas horizontalurad mihyveba.       nebismier momentSi Tavisufalia.
kadri, rogorc vTqviT, uwyvetia da elizabeti pirdapir sarkeSi          Tomasi, es saocrad mimzidveli macduri, filmSi sazRvris
Sedis, rogorc saxlSi. misi gaucxoebuli moZraoba, simartove        Slagbaumis TemasTan erTad Cndeba, jadosnuri samyaros
didi carieli saxlis CarCoian sarkeSi gansakuTrebiT saxierad       sazRvarTan, sadac igi damRupvel Trobisa da tkbobis sagnebs
ikiTxeba. amasTan, aSkaraa aluzia godaris qalTa saxeebTan         farulad aparebs. narkotikebi matareblis tualetSi, parkSi
(`cxovreba sakuTari cxovrebiT~, `SeSlili piero~), sadac godari    aqvs damaluli. kompozitori (hartli) mas disonansuri, mdore
ana karinas gansakuTrebiT TavisTavSi wasulad, dabneulad da        da gabmuli simebiani JReradobiT axasiaTebs. labirinTebis
bedsmindobil martosulad warmoadgens maSin, rodesac gmiri          xveulebSi igi swrafad ikvlevs gzas, nebismier daketil kars
Sinaganad sruliad carielia da ar icis, Semdeg ra moxdeba.         uceremoniod, mourideblad aRebs. misi socialuri mdgomareoba
aseTi mdgomareobidan gamosasvlelad elizabeti pirdapir sarkis      aristokrati da SeZlebuli ingliselisTvis niSnavs, `aravin~-s
zedapirisken miemarTeba saxiT mayureblisken, aRmasvliT da         Tumca es aris `aravin, iv sen loranis kostumSi~. am rols
Cven vxedavT, rogor gadmodis igi sarkidan, anu sarkis             louzTan helmut bergeri SemTxveviT ar asrulebs. mas filmSi
gamosaxuleba rogor uerTdeba realurs.                              ara mxolod germanuli kulturis sivrce Semoaqvs, aramed _
    filmSi TiTqos realizebulia miSel fukos Tvalsazrisi            viskontis filmebSi mis mier naTamaSebi saxeebis aspeqtic.
labirinTze, rogorc metamorfozaze, romlis SuagulSi myofi           `RmerTebis daRupva~, `ludvigi~ da, rasakvirvelia, `ojaxuri
minotavri – transformaciis ganxorcielebas warmoadgens.            portreti interierSi~. louzi am kavSirs gansakuTrebiT usvams
fildingis momavali scenaris personaJebi, iseve, rogorc Tavad      xazs, es is sarkea, romelic Tomasis saxes ganzomilebas matebs.
avtori, daexetebian aseT usasrulo labirinTSi sakuTar
170                                                                                                                               171
lia kalandariSvili

    fildingi, elizabeti da Tomasi bolos da bolos Sejerdebian                                                       irina kuWuxiZe,
`romantikuli istoriis~ finalze. `samoTxis baRis~ patara                                             xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori
samyaro ezos SuagulSi, gamWvirvale oranJereaSi imeorebs                                                         sruli profesori
`codvad dacemas~ da cdunebas ayolili elizabeti TomasTan
erTad tovebs `samoTxes~. es poetis versiaa, filmis finalis                    kinematografis konturebi axali
dawera ki, scenaristis saqmea! luisi akiTxavs elizabets da                         teqnologiebis epoqaSi
isini, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi ambobs `aras!~, mainc erTad
arian. Tumca, ukanaskneli kadri - `dabruneba Sin~, xmauriT
asaxvs yvela im transformacias, rac labirinTis gzam moitana:              gasuli saukunis 40-ian wlebSi andre bazeni Tavis SesaniSnav
luisi da elizabeti sxedan manqanaSi da sibneleSi uyureben             statiaSi `totaluri kinos miTi~ werda: `kino idealisturi
sakuTar saxls – sakuTar Sinagan samyaros, sruliad gaucxoebuls,        fenomenia. misi idea savsebiT mza saxiT arsebobda adamianis
ucnob deformirebul saxeebs, usmenen mouridebel sicils,                gonebaSi _ rogorc platoniseul caze... winamorbedebis
avxorcul drostarebas, romelic maT saxlSi Sesvlis survils              warmosaxvebi kinematografiul ideas aigivebdnen realobis
akargvinebs. oranJereac isev ise anaTebs, rogorc im sabediswro        totalur da erTmTlian reproducirebasTan... advili SesamCnevia,
`gandevnis~ Rames! Tumca, vin icis, rogori finalis imedi              rom kinos gamogonebis yvela ZiriTadi etapi ganvlili iyo
SeiZleboda gvqonoda! es, ubralod, realobaa, Tu irealoba...            manamde, vidre teqnikuri pirobebi Seiqmneboda. amis Semdeg bazeni
70-iani wlebis kinoTxrobaSi amas saerTod ara aqvs mniSvneloba.        dasZens: `kino TiTqmis arafriTaa davalebuli mecnieruli
                                                                      gamokvlevebisgan.~1 Tuki pirveli Teza sakamaTo ar aris da
                                                                      ukve sayovelTaod aRiarebulia, maSin mecnierul-teqnikuri
                                                                      ganviTarebis da SesaZleblobebis mimarT erTgvari skepticizmi,
                                                                      cota ar iyos, ucnaurad JRers. sainteresoa, ra Sefasebas
                                                                      miscemda dRevandeli teqnologiebis epoqas kinos fotografiuli
                                                                      bunebis     da realobisadmi ndobis apologeti? cxadia, es
                                                                      ritorikuli SekiTxvaa da masze pasuxs arc veliT, Tumca
                                                                      erTis Tqma ki danamdvilebiT SeiZleba: uniWieresi da
henri fildingi. farsi, `migdebuli werilebi anu colis saxlSi         kinematografSi uzomod Seyvarebuli mkvlevari mimdinare
dakavebis axali saSualeba~, moskovi `iskustvo~, 1980 (rusul enaze);   araerTmniSvnelovan procesebis zust da saintereso analizs
miniSneba J. l. godaris filmze `sakuTari cxovrebiT cxovreba~.       SemogvTavazebda. me ki Sevecdebi am movlenis zogierT aspeqtze
h.fildingi. rCeuli Txzulebani, `lisabonSi mogzaurobis dRiuri~,      Cemi mokrZalebuli mosazrebebi gagacnoT.
moskovi, `xudoJestv. lit-ra~, 1989 w. (rusul enaze);
                                                                          kinematografis gamogonebis momentidan teqnika da
 miSel fuko, `sityvebi da sagnebi: humanitarul mecnierebaTa
                                                                      kinoSemoqmedeba ganuyofeli aRmoCnda. es kavSiri TiTqos or
arqeologia~. spb., 1994 w. (rusul enaze).
                                                                      mimarTulebas Seicavs: ayenebs ra Tavis winaSe mxatvrul amocanebs,
gamoyenebuli literatura:                                              kinoxelovneba, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, `SekveTas aZlevs~ teqnikur
                                                                      azrs, da piriqiT _ winmswrebi teqnikuri azri kinoenis
1
 SeniSvna: am sarkeSi uSualod ikiTxeba louzis                         ganviTarebis inspirirebas axdens. `kinoteqnika da kinoxelovnebis
TviTiroinia.                                                          gamomsaxveli saSualebebi~ _ es Tema ama Tu im formiT yovelTvis


172                                                                                                                                173
irina kuWuxiZe                                                                    kinematografis konturebi axali teqnologiebis epoqaSi

idga dRis wesrigSi, xolo calkeul periodebSi gansakuTrebul         naklovanad gamoiyureba, vinaidan is moklebulia tradiciuli
aqtualobasa da simwvaves iZenda. dRes uTuod amgvar                kinogamosaxulebis magiur siRrmesa da Zalas. Znelia uarhyo,
situaciasTan gvaqvs saqme: kinoteqnikaSi ramdenime aTwleulis      rom gansxvaveba marTlac arsebobs, Tumca axali teqnologiis
win dawyebuli eleqtronuli teqnologiis CarTva XX saukunis          mimdevrebi amboben, rom gamosaxuleba ubralod sxvagvari da
bolo aTwleulSi mTlianad cifrul teqnikaze gadasvliT                ara naklovania. am kamaTSi CarTva umaduri saqmea, erTi ram ki
dagvirgvinda da am, rogorc mas uwodeben, teqnologiurma            aSkaraa: digitaluri gamosaxuleba xasiaTdeba raRac ucnauri
revoluciam xelovnebaTmcodneobaSi `digitaluri kinos~ da            realizmiT, rac ufro civ da mwvave SegrZnebebs iwvevs klasikur
fotorealizmis stilis cnebebi daamkvidra. ismis kiTxva: raSia      filmTan SedarebiT, romelic, marTlac, magiis garkveul wils
ZiriTadi gansxvaveba (ara marto teqnikuri, aramed, albaT,         flobs. Tumca, ar unda dagvaviwydes aRqmis wminda fsiqologiuri
esTetikuric) tradiciul, fotografiulad registrirebul               momenti _ SeCvevis faqtori da Tu davukvirdebiT, sakiTxis es
kinogamomsaxvelobasa da digitalur saxovnebas Soris? am            aspeqti ukve Zalas ikrebs da aSkarad saxezea. isic cnobilia,
ukanasknels yovelive isic xelewifeba, rac klasikur                rom araerTi gamoCenili reJisori ubralod loialobas ki ar
kinematografs, anu ekranze sinamdvilis kvlavwarmoqmna, realobis   iCens axali teqnologiis mimarT, aramed Tavadac mimarTavs mas
firze dafiqsireba. magram amasTanave is qmnis realurisa da        da Sehyavs Tavisi Semoqmedebis orbitaSi. bevrs gadaReba firze,
xelovnuris anu sxvagvarad _ sinTezirebulis erTmaneTTan            teqnikuri montaJi ukve anaqronizmadac eCveneba, eleqtronuli
organulad Serwymul realobas. da mesame: qmnis sruliad axal,       montaJis gamocdilebiT uWirs firTan muSaoba, Riziandeba, roca
obieqturad ararsebul virtualur realobas.                          gadaRebuls maSinve ver naxulobs... igive xdeba TviT fiqsaciis
    cnobili bulgareli mkvlevari boJedar manovi Tvlis, rom         procesTan mimarTebaSi: magaliTad videoze gadaReba bevrad
es fenomeni ara imdenad teqnikuri da Tundac esTetikuri            ufro mosaxerxebelia, kamerebi msubuqi, zomiT patara, cal xelSi
xasiaTisaa, aramed ufro filosofiuri mniSvnelobis problemad        daWera rom SeiZleba. aqedan gamomdinare, kinoenis Seqmnis
warmoCindeba, exeba ra obieqturi realobis damorCilebas Tu         TvalsazrisiTac meti Tavisuflebaa: ar xar damokidebuli mZime
mis meorad kvlavwarmoqmnas raRac subieqtur realobad, romelic      aparaturaze, ganaTebasa da firis xarisxze. xolo gamosaxulebis
damokidebulia ara marto Semqmnelis saavtoro nebaze, aramed        cifruli damuSaveba specefeqtebisTvis ganusazRvrel
mniSvnelovanwilad agreTve kompiuteruli programirebis              SesaZleblobas iZleva. video da cifruli teqnologiis gareSe
SesaZleblobebze. digitaluri teqnologiis gamoCenam da              ver warmoiSveboda iseTi kinomimarTuleba, rogoric iyo `dogma~.
ganviTarebam kidev ufro maRal xarisxSi moaxdina aqtualizireba     misi erT-erTi TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli Tomas vinterbergi
sakiTxis audiovizualuri saxe-xatis obieqturi bunebis Sesaxeb,     Tavis gaxmaurebul, kanSi premirebul filmTan `dResaswauli~
rac fotografiis wyalobiT absoluturi utyuarobiT                    dakavSirebiT aRniSnavda im upiratesobebs, rasac Semoqmeds
xorcieldeboda. mkvlevari askvnis, rom Tuki klasikuri              digitaluri kamera aniWebs _ es aris simsubuqe, sivrceSi
kinematografiuli Teoriis kategoriebs gamoviyenebT, procesi        Seuferxebeli da advili moZraoba-gadaadgileba, rogorc ityvian,
moZraobs Semdegnairi paraboliT _ bazenis fotografiulobidan        msaxiobisTvis kudSi devna, Ria cis qveS damatebiTi atributebis
gaivlis `danagvianebas~ sxvadasxvagvari teqnikuri subieqtur-      gareSe gadaRebis SesaZlebloba da gansakuTrebiT bunebriv
avtoriseuli SeWrebiT, axal sinTezur (Tu sinTetikur)               xmaurian garemoSi nebismieri dialogis Cawera. yovelive es,
fotografiulobis digitalur saxe-xatisken.2                         rogorc viciT, `dogmis~ manifestis ZiriTadi punqtebia da am
    araerTi gamocdili kinematografisti Civis da amtkicebs,        mimarTulebis farglebSi gadaRebuli filmebis esTetikisa da
rom ekranze videogamosaxuleba (Tundac digitaluri)                 stilis maxasiaTeblebs warmoadgens.


174                                                                                                                               175
irina kuWuxiZe                                                                       kinematografis konturebi axali teqnologiebis epoqaSi

    avtorebi, romlebic digitalur teqnologiaSi gatacebiT            zooparkSi, vakvirdebodiT da vswavlobdiT cxovelTa moZraobis
muSaoben Tvlian, rom cifruli teqnikiT Seqmnili filmebi             Ta vi s ebu r ebeb s , ko ns u l ta c i ebi s Tvi s mi v m ar Ta vdi T
sulac ar uaryofen kinogamosaxulebis tradiciulad aRiarebul          arqeozoologebs _ da yvelaferi es imisTvis, raTa udidesi
erT-erT specifikur niSans _ utyuarobas, ubralod Taviseburad        realizmisTvis migveRwia.~3
axdenen am utyuarobis realizacias da es aramc Tu                       me ramdenimejer vaxsene Tu rogor gaiolda eleqtronuli
winaaRmdegobaSi Sedis bazeniseuli Teoriis Zireul                   teqnikiT ekranze specefeqtebis Seqmna. misi areali marTlac
postulatTan, anu `realobisadmi ndobasTan~, aramed axal             saocrad gafarTovda. axalma teqnikam Secvala ra tradiciuli
xarisxSi ahyavs es ndoba, oRond ukve digitaluri realobisadmi.      kombinirebuli kinogadaRebebi, SesaZlebeli gaxada yvelaze
    Cems mier ukve naxsenebi boJedar manovi SeniSnavs, rom amaSi   daujerebeli efeqtebis miRweva: wyaldidobebi, xanZrebi,
simarTlis marcvali devs, vinaidan maSinac ki, roca digitaluri      miwisZvrebi, afeTqebebi, sxva planetebi...Yyovelive es da kidev
teqnologiis daxmarebiT iqmneba axali, xelovnuri virtualuri         bevri sxva ram araerTxel gvixilavs `holivudis~ produqciaSi.
sinamdvile, romelic obieqtur samyaroSi ar arsebobs, avtorebi       sainteresoa agreTve sxva ti pis efeqtebi: e. w. `kompouzingis~
eZeben da iswrafvian utyuarobis idealisken, romelic axal           xerxiT miiRweva obieqtebis erTmaneTSi uwyveti gadasvlis
xedvas obieqtur sinamdvilesTan daaaxlovebda. amasTan               xilvadoba yovelgvari `nakerebis~ gareSe; organzomilebiani
dakavSirebiT sainteresoa Tu rogor ixseneben kompiuteruli           ob ieq tis s amg anz omi leb ianSi ga day vana; ob ieq teb is
damuSavebis specialistebi muSaobis process stiven spilbergis       dematerializaciis Seqmna, maTi konturis gaoreba,
filmze `iuruli periodis parki~. es filmi, gadaRebuli 1992          gaumWvirvalobis dakargva da sxva mravali mani pulaciis
wels, cifruli teqnologiis aTvisebis da axali stilis _              warmoudgeneli Sedegi. sakmarisia gavixsenoT vaCovskebis
e.w. fotorealizmis Camoyalibebis procesSi Semobrunebis             gaxmaurebuli `matrica~, sadac sakmaodaa Tavmoyrili CamoTvlili
punqtad, Tu etapad aris miCneuli. manamde kompiuteruli teqnikis    efeqtebi, da naTeli xdeba, rom tradiciuli kinoteqnikiT maTi
gamoyeneba kinoSi ZiriTadad rTuli specefeqtebis SeqmniT da         meaTedis miRwevac SeuZlebeli iqneboda. farTod gamoiyeneba
fantastikuri triukebis damuSavebiT ifargleboda. swored             cifruli teqnikis SesaZlebloba nebismieri interieris Tu
`iuruli periodis parki~ iyo pirveli, romelmac erT mTlianobad       eqsterieris warmosaxvisTvis. es gansakuTrebiT aiolebs
organulad Serwya realuri da xelovnuri, sinTezirebuli               istoriul filmebze muSaobas, rodesac ZviradRirebuli
elementebi da fotorealizmi anu axali ti pis utyuaroba              dekoraciebis ageba aRar xdeba saWiro. magaliTisTvis ikmarebs
axal xarisxSi aiyvana. axla ki ai, ras ixsenebs kompiuteruli       Tundac ridli skotis `gladiatorSi~ cifrulad Seqmnili
damuSavebis specialisti tom uiliamsi, romelic spilbergis           kolizeumi.
filmis Semdeg muSaobda robert zemekisis `forest gampze~,               digitaluri kinos mimarT interesi gasuli saukunis 90-
`niRabze~ da kidev araerT sxva filmze. ra gziT iqmneboda           iani wlebidan moyolebuli sul ufro izrdeba. aris festivalebi,
realurisa da xelovnuris WeSmariti sinTezi? rogor unda              sadac is erT-erT prioritetad aris miCneuli. aseTia, vTqvaT,
ganlagebuliyvnen da Serwymodnen naturul `dekoraciebs~              roterdamis kinofestivali. aq yovelTvis warmodgenilia sakmao
dinozavrebi da sxva sinTezirebuli obieqtebi? `CvenTvis             raodenobis namuSevrebi, romlebic ara marto gadaRebulia
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo, rom `emuSava~ dinozavrebis        cifrul safuZvelze, aramed maTi demonstrirebac `dividi~
ara marto zedapirs, garegnobas, aramed Sinagan bunebas. Cven       proeqciis saSualebiT xdeba. ufro metic, umaRles kategoriad
kompiuterze vaxdendiT dinozavrebis kanisa da moZraobis             aRiarebuli veneciis festivalis farglebSi araerTxel moewyo
rekonstruirebas,kameriT viRebdiT ra sxvadasxva cxovelebs           specialuri ganxilvebi Tu bienalebi, romlebic `digitaluri


176                                                                                                                                  177
irina kuWuxiZe                                                                      kinematografis konturebi axali teqnologiebis epoqaSi

kinos~ problemebs mieZRvna da masSi gamoCenili xelovanebi,          gatacebaa, rodesac filmi meti araferia, Tu ara teqnikasTan
avtoritetuli Teoretikosebi iRebdnen monawileobas: vim               TamaSi. aseTi tendencia gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemi iyo axali
vendersi, jilo pontekorvo, kSiStof zanusi, umberto eko da           teqnologiiT damkvidrebuli Janris _ e. w. videoartis filmebSi.
sxvebi. yvela maTgani Tanxmdeba, rom azrs moklebulia msjeloba       Tumca, am JanrSi ukve dagrovda WeSmaritad mxatvruli miRwevebic.
da miT ufro kamaTi imis Taobaze axali teqnologiebis danergva        sakmarisia movixsenioT poloneli         reJisoris ribCinskis
kinoSi kargia Tu cudi. es ukve momxdari faqtia, axla ki             SesaniSnavi namuSevrebi. meore mimarTuleba garkveuli Janrebis
mTavaria rogor da risTvis gamoiyeneben kinoxelovanebi axal          gaaqtiurebasTan aris dakavSirebuli: saocar masStabebs aRwevs
SesaZleblobebs. vim vendersi, romelic Tavad didi interesiT          fantastikuri Janris modifikaciebi. erTi mxriv, sxvadasxva
Caeflo digitalur xelovnebaSi, jer kidev 10 wlis win Tavis           ti pis kosmosuri odiseebi: teqnologiurad unaklod gamarTuli
Tavsac da sxvebsac TiTqos afrTxilebda: “dRevandel kinos             `varskvlavuri omebi~, `armagedonebi~ da sxva mravali...
Cven mivyavarT yvelaze fantastikur mogzaurobaSi, sadac advilia      fantastikur-saTavgadasavlo filmebis mTeli seria, maT Soris,
daikargo. amitom Zalze mniSvnelovania sakuTar cnobierebaze          dabali, saSualo da maRali donis SesrulebiT, vTqvaT,
kontrolis SenarCuneba, TavisTavadad darCena `pirveli xelis~         gaxmaurebuli `beWdebis mbrZanebeli.~ amave JanrSi mesame ganxra
realobaSi, romelic mainc yvelaze metad momxiblavi da                - es aris fantastikuri Trileri an e. w. `hororebi~. aqac
amaforiaqebelia.~4 kSiStof zanusi ver uarhyofs, rom XX1             arCevani Zalze farToa, magram moviyvan Tundac erT magaliTs:
saukuneSi kino uTuod sxva _ eleqtronul formaSi iarsebebs,           `ucxoebis~ mTel cikls.
magram TiTqos gvafrTxilebs, roca ambobs: `...rogori teqnikac            mkvidrdeba `virtualuri kinoTeatris~ cneba, icvleba
unda gamoiyenebodes, CvenTvis yovelTvis saintereso iqneba           nawarmoebTan komunikaciis forma, mxedvelobaSi maqvs mayureblis
monaTxrobi sxva adamianebis cxovrebaze. am monaTxrobis gareSe,      specifikuri ukukavSiri ekranTan. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT _
teqnikuri saSualebebis SuamavlobiT sxva adamianebis gacnobis        interaqtiuloba, rac sazogadod damaxasiaTebelia komunikaciis
gareSe, Cven cxovreba ar SegviZlia.~5 sakmaod skeptikurad           digitaluri saSualebebisTvis. garkveuli ti pis filmebSi
ganwyobilma umberto ekom axal teqnologiebs `simulaciuri~            mayurebels ganusazRvrelad SeuZlia Caerios filmis nebismier
uwoda. ai, ra Tqva cnobilma moazrovnem: “rac Seexeba kinoSi         elementSi da Tavidan gauSvas qselSi. aseTi komunikacia
axali `simulaciuri~ teqnologiebis danergvis Sedegebs, rogorc        mxatvrul nawarmoebsa da, uxeSad rom vTqva, momxmarebels Soris
Cans, Cven SevejaxebiT situacias, analogiurs imisa, rac masobrivi   Zalze sakamaToa. albaT, ufro _ miuRebeli, vinaidan ikiTxeba
informaciis saSualebebTan, gazeTebsa da televiziasTan               Semoqmedsa da xelovnebaze masebis Zaladobis ufro pirdapiri
mimrTebaSi SeiniSneba.~6 WeSmaritad, axali tipis kinematografma     da Tavxeduri gamovlena. sityva `ufro~ imitom vixmare, rom
farTo gasaqani misca `meorad~ saxeebs, erTgvarad axali sunTqva      xelovnebis da sazogadod kulturis sivrcis did farTobs,
Sehmata da Caewera postmodernistuli simulakrebisa da                samwuxarod, isedac masebis `dakveTa~ aregulirebs. es yovelive
simulaciebis zogad konteqstSi. rac Seexeba analogias masobrivi      rom ganvazogadoT, SeiZleba davaskvnaT: kinoSi dRes masobrivi
informaciis saSualebebTan, aq umberto ekos, rogorg Cans, maTdami    produqciis masStabis arnaxuli zrdaa, rogorc Cveulebrivi
da, maSasadame, momavali kinosadmic ndobis faqtorSi aSkarad         formatis filmebis, ise gansakuTrebiT teleserialebis saxiT.
eJvi Seaqvs.                                                        Znelia imis mtkiceba, rom amJamad kinematografSi TvalnaTlivi
    dasasruls minda gamovyo ramdenime tendencia, romelic            krizisuli situacia uSualod teqnologiur siaxleebiTaa
cifruli kinos ganviTarebasTan erTad gamoikveTa da, SeiZleba         ganpirobebuli, magram es krizisi (rasac bolo prestiJuli
iTqvas zedapirze devs. pirveli teqnologizmiT zRvardaudebeli         kinofestivalebic adasturebs) Tu erTgvarad gardamavali


178                                                                                                                                 179
irina kuWuxiZe

periodi jer-jerobiT aZnelebs kinos momavlis konturebis                                                        Mmaia levaniZe,
danaxvas. da bolos, kinos erTsaukunovani istoriis manZilze                                  xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,
teqnikuri siaxleni WeSmarit xelovanebs enobrivi Ziebebisken                                    wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli
ubiZgebdnen, esTetikuri problemebis daZlevis Tu
konceftualuri siRrmeebis vizualizaciis instrumentebi
xdebodnen. imedi viqonioT, rom axali teqnologiac upiratesad          qarTuli telesivrce da reklamis
namdvili xelovnebis samsaxurSi Cadgeba.                                      Tavisebureba

                                                                  `sifilisi gonebriv daavadebaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, televizia
                                                              ki Tanamedrove adamianis SemecnebaSi mimdinare ngrevis mizezia.
                                                              Tomas mani romanSi `doqtori fausti~ aRniSnavda, rom sifilisi
                                                              sazRauria adamianis genialobisTvis. dRes televiziis fenomens
                                                              imave Tvisebebs miaweren: esaa me-19 saukunis kulturis
                                                              aRorZinebisa da ayvavebis sazRauri. sifiliss moaqvs sigiJe
                                                              da gancda. sabolood ki sikvdili, sawyissa da sasruls Soris
                                                              CvenSi raRac saSineleba xdeba...~ 1 suzan zontagis mier
                                                              SemoTavazebuli es uCveulo Sedareba, vfiqrob, mkveTrad
                                                              gamoxatavs televiziis unars, zegavlena moaxdinos adamianis
                                                              Sinagan samyaroze, misi cxovrebis stilsa da msoflmxedvelobaze;
                                                              mis unikalur unars, Seqmnas simulaciuri realoba yvelaze
                                                              damajerebeli, realisturi niSnebiTa da elementebiT.
                                                                  simulaciuri realobis Seqmnis procesSi mniSvnelovani
                                                              adgili reklamas ukavia. Tu sainformacio saSualebebi
                                                              yoveldRiurad ayalibeben garkveul ideologias (sadac ikveTeba
                                                              politikuri aqcentebi, movlenaTa Sefasebis qvakuTxedi), reklama,
                                                              misgan gansxvavebiT, ZiriTadad mimarTulia zogadi Rirebulebebis,
                                                              cxovrebis wesis yofaSi damkvidrebisken. miuxedavad imisa, rom
                                                              reklamis ZiriTadi funqcia ama Tu im sagnis realizebaa, qarTul
                                                              telesivrceSi, Warbad SemoTavazebuli dasavluri reklamis
                                                              xarjze, xSirad xdeba garkveuli cvlilebebis Setana, rogorc
                                                              mentalobaSi, ise arsebul tradiciebSi. xSirad, sareklamo
1. Андре Базен. Что такое кино? М., 1972, ст.48-50;           rgolebis lakirebuli, idealizebuli, romantikuli samyaro
2. Киноведческие записки,№24,19994/95. ст.198;                mibaZvis sagani xdeba da pirdapir asaxvas hpovebs sazogadoebis
3. Киноведческие записки,№22;                                 garkveul nawilis cxovrebaSi.
4 Киноведческие записки,№24,19994/95. ст. 200;                    satelevizio rekalama moicavs gamosaxulebas, xmas, moZraobas,
5. www.kinozapiski.ru                                         fers da swored amitom, auditoriaze is ufro mkveTr da
                                                              Zlier zegavlenas axdens, vidre sxva masobrivi saSualebebi.
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maia levaniZe                                                                                 qarTuli telesivrce da reklamis Tavisebureba

reklama televiziaSi mayureblisTvis gansakuTrebiT saintereso             `imij-reklama~ mimarTulia saxis, imijis Sesaqmnelad, masSi
im SemTxvevaSi xdeba, Tu kompiuteruli grafikis gamoyenebiTaa        SesaZlebelia aRiniSnos stabiluroba, erTguleba, gaweuli
Seqmnili. telereklamis meSveobiT xdeba ufro meti                    samuSaos efeqturoba, keTilganwyoba klientebisadmi.
samomxmareblo sagnis gayidva, vidre, nebismieri sxva ti pis             s a r ekl a m o b l o keb i s S es a q m nel a d a u c i l eb el i a
sareklamo gancxadebiT. satelevizio sareklamo rgolebi                gaTvaliswinebuli iqnas Semdegi komponentebi:
SeiZleba iyos dokumenturi, mxatvruli, animaciuri. maT               1. saintereso, advilad dasamaxsovrebeli vizualuri mxare;
mayureblebze didi fsiqologiuri zegavlenis moxdena SeuZlia.          2. mkafio da martivi vizualuri mxare;
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sareklamo blokebs uaryofiTi Tvisebic           3. sareklamo rgolisadmi mayureblis yuradReba unda iyos
aqvT, magaliTad, maRali Rirebuleba da Cvenebis sixSire, rac             mipyrobili pirveli ori wuTis ganmavlobaSi, sxva SemTxvevaSi,
mayurebelSi xSirad garkveul gaRizianebas iwvevs.                        interesi ecema;
    telereklamaSi, fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT, mniSvnelovania        4. sareklamo rgoli ise unda iyos awyobili, rom maSinve
dinamikuroba da bunebrioba. sareklamo rgolis dinamikuri                 mii pyros mayureblis interesi;
ritmis dakargva iwvevs imas, rom reklama dune Dda naklebad          5. misi Sinaarsi unda aigos ara mxolod reklamirebuli sagnis
saintereso xdeba.       arsebobs sentimentaluri reklamebi,              garSemo, aramed potenciuri momxmareblis moTxovnaTa
romlebSic dasavluri reklamebi qarTul niadagze pirdapir                  gaTvaliswinebiT;
gadmodis. reklamis damzadebisas, mniSvnelovania saerTo stilis       6. sareklamo rgolSi gamoyenebuli yoveli fraza unda muSaobdes
da ganwyobis Seqmna. zegavlenis TvalsazrisiT, sareklamo                 qmediTunarianad da efeqturad.
gzavnili SesaZloa iyos racionaluri da emociuri.                         arsebobs sxvadasxva ti pis sareklamo rgolebi, maT Soris:
    racionaluri (sagnobrivi) reklama myidvels konkretul             komerciuli reklama, socialuri reklama (mimarTulia
informacias awvdis. is sagnis realizebis procesSi damajerebel       saqvelmoqmedo da sxva sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis
argumentebs iyenebs. emociuri (asociaciuri) reklama garkveul        popularizaciisken. aseve gaTvaliswinebulia saxelmwifo
mogonebebs aRZravs, iZleva saazrovno impulsebs, mimarTulia          interesebi), politikuri reklama (maT Soris, saarCevno).
grZnobaTa samyarosadmi, emociebisa da qvecnobierisadmi da               satelevizio reklama moicavs virtualur reklamas, morbenal
zemoqmedebs ideis da warmosaxvis saSualebiT. reklamebis             striqons, telegancxadebas. misi erT-erTi ZiriTadi Rirseba
umetesoba am ori komponentis nakrebia, magram es tipebi arseboben   maRali emociuri damajereblobaa. misi meSveobiT, mayurebels
damoukidebladac.                                                    ramdenime wuTSi, sruliad damajereblad eqmneba garkveul
    gamosaxvis mixedviT reklama or ti pad iyofa: `msubuqi~          damokidebuleba sagnis mimarT. reklamebs Soris telereklama
da `myari~. aseTi tipis reklama xSirad uaryofiTi stimulirebis       yvelaze emociuri da sanaxaobrivi saxea. M
gamosawvevadaa gamiznuli da xanmokle periodisTvisaa                     gansxvavebuli Rirebulebebis miuxedavad, telereklamas aqvs
gankuTvnili. aseTi tipis nimuSebi yuradRebas ipyrobs myvirala,      rigi seriozuli SezRudvebic: 1. gayidvisa da damzadebis didi
Sinagan efeqtze gaTvlili gancxadebebiT. `msubuqi~ reklama           Rirebuleba; 2. mravaljeradad CvenebaDda sxva.
qmnis garkveul areals, atmosferos, zogad ganwyobas. ufro                saqarTveloSi samrewvelo sareklamo rgolebis umetesoba
xSirad esaa emociuri reklama, romelic iyenes simbolikas,            dasavleTisa da ruseTis televiziebis produqcias warmoadgens.
siRrmiseul motivebs. miznebis mixedviT, reklama SesaZlebelia        xSiradreklamirebul saganTan erTad xdeba sxva, ucxo qveynis
iyos: `imij-reklama~, stimulisa da stabilurobis momcemi reklama,    cxovrebis, urTierTobis stilis gafetiSeba. mayurebelis
Sida safirmo reklama, SedarebiTi, informaciuli da sxva.             cnobierebaSi, romelic, faqtobrivad, gaucnobiereblad iRebs
                                                                    sareklamo rgoliT miwodebul informacias, atmosfero
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maia levaniZe                                                                             qarTuli telesivrce da reklamis Tavisebureba

etapobrivad, nel-nela jdeba; meore mxriv, arati puri garemos       struqtura agebuli iyo zogad `simbolur frazebze~, garemosa
SeTvisebisas ar xdeba identificireba arsebul personaJebTan         da ganwyobaze. xSirad xdeboda kadris esTetizeba. mniSvnelovani
da samyarosTan.                                                    xeboda musikaluri laitmotivebi, romlebic kli pSi xSirad
    saarCevno kampaniis periodSi saqarTveloSi mniSvnelovani roli   gansazRvravda ritmis raobas, mis Taviseburebas. swored amitom,
mieniWa politikur reklamas, romelic pirobiTad SesaZloa daiyos      politikurma reklmam, am SemTxvevaSi, zogadad musikaluri klipis
or _ `poziciis~ (mmarTveli partiis) da `opoziciis~ blokad.         forma miiRo, rac mayurebelSi TavisTavad garTobasTan
    `poziciis~ sareklamo rgolebi ZiriTadad mimarTuli iyo           igivdeboda. anu is Znelad aRiqmeboda problemur, mniSvnelovan
`momxmareblisTvis~ konkretuli mesijebis gagzavnisken. wina         mesijad. magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT `ucnobis~ sareklamo
xedze wamoweuli iyo cnebebi: rwmena, profesionalizmi, moqmedeba.   kli pi: `Seni xma mWirdeba, Zmao!~
rac konkretdeboda sloganebiT: `me gTavazob yovelive amas,              `opoziciuri~ bloki or ZiriTad mesijze aigo:
raTa Sen miiRo keTildReoba da stabiluroba.~ nacionaluri                1. `saqarTvelo saakaSvilis gareSe~ anu moxda dapirispireba
moZraobis sareklamo rgolebSi ZiriTadi aqcenti gadatanili           erT konkretul pirTan da mtris saxis Seqmna, rac, faqtobrivad,
iyo ara am moZraobis, partiis zogadi saxis Seqmnaze, rac           Tavidanve ganwiruli aRmoCnda. vinaidan, saarCevno procesSi
arsebul situaciaSi wamgebiani pozicia SesaZloa yofiliyo,           wina planze wamoweuli iyo mixeil saakaSvilis persona.
aramed konkretul pirovnebebze, romlebsac realurad SeswevdaT        `saqarTvelo saakaSvilis gareSe~ ukve moZvelebuli mesiji
Zala da unari SeecvalaT arsebuli realoba. saxelisuflo              aRmoCnda, ramac ver moaxdina partiisa da konkretuli pirebis
sareklamo rgolebi amomrCevels sTavazobda konkretul saxeebs,        identifikacia. mesiji mesijad darCa. `opoziciurma~ blokma
romlebic TiToeul adamians konkretuli problemebis gadaWras          `pozicias~ konkretuli Rirebulebebi ver daupirispira,
pirdeboda. anu Seiqmna mesiji: `konkretuli deputati piradad        konkretul Temebze agebuli antireklama, rogorc es `vardebis
SenTvis~.Pamis paralelurad, aqcenti keTdeboda iseT mniSvnelovan    revoluciis~ dros moaxerxa opoziciurma speqtrma. maSin maT
Rorebulebebze, rogoricaa rwmena, ojaxuri tradiciebi,               aqcenti gaakeTes ara mxolod SevardnaZeze, aramed, zogadad,
patriotizmi. Yyovelive es myardeboda konkretuli kandidatis         qveynis mZime socio-politikur mdgomareobaze. sareklamo
warsuliTa da awmyoTi. Eekranze Cndebodnen masaSi `gaTqvefili~      rgolebiT mouwodebdnen, uari eTqvaT _ qveynis `varadnaze~
warmatebuli adamianebi, romlebic mayurebelSi asocirdebodnen        zogadad, da amave dros, `Se-vardna-Zeze~, rogorc vardnis erT-
materialur keTildReobasTan, stabilurobasTan. zogadad,              erT mizezze.
`poziciis~ sakmaod vrceli formatis politikuri reklama,                 2. `gaverTiandeT~. sareklamo bloki orientirebuli iyo
romelic mcire satelevizio siuJetebs warmoadgenda, mimarTuli        konkretuli partiebis irgvliv xalxis gaerTianebisken, magram,
iyo arsebuli mdgomareobis ganaxlebis, problemis gadaWris,          vinaidan ZiriTadi mesiji iyo gaerTianeba prezidentis winaaRmdeg,
mogvarebisken., ramac met-naklebad pozitiuri roli iTamaSa          moxda mayureblis, potenciuri amomrCevlis yuradRebis erTgvari
damkveTis sasargeblod. sareklamo bloki `opoziciuri~                `gabneva~, rodesac agresia, kritika isev konkretuli adamianisa
blokisgan gansxvavebiT, agebuli iyo konkretul gamosaxulebaze,      da partiis winaaRmdeg warimarTa, politikurma reklamam isev
realuri garemoTi da adamianebiT, mizanmimarTuli mesijebiT.         `poziciis~ sasargeblod imuSava. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
    `opoziciuri~ bloki, faqtobrivad, Tavs aridebda                 saparlamento arCevnebis periodSi `opoziciis~ sareklamo
konkretizacias. isini ZiriTadad aqcents saxelisuflo                blokSi ar iyo gamoyenebuli politikuri reklamis
partiebis im Secdomebze amaxvilebda, romlebsac xelisufleba         SesaZleblobebis mTeli speqtri, rasac `poziciis~ sareklamo
Tavad aRiarebda da mayurebels gamosavalsac Tavadve sTavazobda.     blokze ver ityvi.
`opoziciuri~ blokis saarCevno kli pebSi gamomsaxvelobiTi
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maia levaniZe

    arsebul realobaSi aqtualuri xdeba Jan bodriaris frazebi:                                                manana lekboraSvili,
`Cven vcxovrobT simulaciur samyaroSi, sadac niSan-simboloebi                                      xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,
(telegamosaxuleba, kompiuteruli TamaSebi, eleqtronuli fuli)                                              asocirebuli profesori
ukeT funqcionirebs, vidre realuri~... `axlandeli foto,
kino da telesaxeebi samyaros arsebobas gulaxdilobiTa da
damajerebeli uSualobiT gvimtkiceben. Cven daufiqreblad               media reprezentaciebi da maTi Seswavlis
gvjera maTi realobis, WeSmaritebis, magram vcdebiT~... `swored                      aqtualoba
maSin, roca saxe yvelaze realisturad, yvelaze WeSmarit
sinamdviled gveCveneba, swored maSin avlenen ufro metad avlenen        qarTul metyvelebaSi da werilobiT teqstebSi sul ufro
sakuTar satanur arss...~2                                          xSirad gvxvdeba sityva `reprezentacia~ da es ar aris
                                                                   SemTxveveiTi _ dReisTvis reprezentacia erT-erTi yvelaze
                                                                   aqtiurad diskusirebadi Temaa ara mxolod akademiur kvlevaSi,
                                                                   aramed ufro farTod, kulturul garemoSi.
                                                                       mxolod sityvis moqmedi gansazRvrebebi SeiZleba erTgvari
                                                                   dabneulobis mizezi gaxdes. inglisuri enis oqsfordis
                                                                   universitetis leqsikoni reprezentacias, upirveles yovlisa,
                                                                   gansazRvravs rogorc `arsebobas~, `yofnas~ („presence”) an
                                                                   `gamovlenas~, `garegnul saxes~ („appearance”). aqedan gamomdinare,
                                                                   termini ixmareba sxvadasxva sferoSi da konteqstSi da SeiZleba
                                                                   sxvadasxva mniSvneloba hqondes.
                                                                       reprezentacia SeiZleba ganixilebodes rogorc procesi,
                                                                   movlena, rodesac xdeba erTi obieqtis meoriT Canacvleba. is
                                                                   miRebulia axali istorikosebis mier, romlebic am mniSvnelobas
                                                                   garkveuli sazogadoebis da garkveuli drois periodis
                                                                   simboluri konstruqtirebis aRsaniSnavad iyeneben.
                                                                       amave mniSvnelobiT ixmareba is politikaSic. aq fokusi
                                                                   gadainacvlebs politikur reprezentaciaze, roca erTi persona
                                                                   an jgufi Caanacvlebs vinmes an rames, am SemTxvevaSi _ ufro
                                                                   did warmomadgenlobiT jgufs. amgvari reprezentacia ZiriTadia
                                                                   demokratiuli sazogadoebebis funqcionirebaSi. magaliTad,
                                                                   parlamenti swored warmomadgenlobiTi organoa da idealSi
                                                                   unda axdendes mosaxleobis jgufebis sruli speqtris
1. `televizia me-XX saukunis kulturuli aRzevebis sazRauri~-gaz.    reprezentirebas, konkretul moqalaqesa da saxelmwifos Soris
kultura 2005, #2, gv.4;                                            interaqtiobis funqcias asrulebdes.
2. J. bodriari, saxeTa boroti demoni, `iskustvo kino~ 1992, #10,       meore gansazRvreba gulisxmobs, rom `reprezentacia~ aris
gv.64-70.                                                          teqstebis unari, gamoiyenos samyaros damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi
                                                                   da warmoudginos igi mayurebels, ara mxolod rogorc ubralod
186                                                                                                                              187
manana lekboraSvili                                                                         media reprezentaciebi da maTi Seswavlis aqtualoba

anarekli (reflection), aramed ufro rogorc konstruqcia. amgvar            `simarTle~, `Sesabamisoba~, `sizuste~,’`damaxinjeba~),
reprezentacias adgili SeiZleba hqondes rogorc metyvelebaSi               konstruqtivistebi fokusirdebian sakiTxze, visi realobaa
an werilobiT teqstSi, aseve fotografiaSi Tu kinematografSi.              warmodgenili da visi – uaryofili, vinaidan, nebismieri
    vinaidan amjerad Cveni interesis sagania mediareprezentacia,         reprezentacia gardauvalad arCeviTia: is wina xedze wamowevs
reprezentaciis swored es meore mniSvneloba gvainteresebs.                garkveul xedvas, sakiTxs, problemas da ugulebelyofs, aCumaTebs
termini gulisxmobs `realobis~ sxvadasxva aspeqtis (adamianebis,          (nebiT Tu uneblieT) – sxvas. amis metad TvalsaCino magaliTad
sagnebis, movlenebis, kulturuli identurobis da sxva                      SeiZleba moviyvanoT TbilisSi gaxsnili `sabWoTa okupaciis
abstraqturi cnebebis) konstruirebas nebismier mediaSi.                   muzeumi~. Tumca, am SemTxvevaSi, yvelasTvis naTelia, rom es
    albaT, SeiZleboda movridebodiT qarTuli enis kidev erTi ucxo          eqspozicia arc isaxavs miznad sabWoTa realobis srulad
terminiT damZimebas da Cagvenacvlebina is Cveuli sityviT `warmodgena~.   mocvas, rom aq win wamoweulia realobis mxolod erTi mxare,
magram arsebobs erTi arsebiTi niuansi, romelic iZulebuls gvxdis,         dRevandeli politikuri diskursis Sesabamisad. magram xedvis
vixmaroT swored es termini da ara romelime sxva.                         kuTxe, teqstis arCeviToba ase mkafiod gacxadebuli yovelTvis,
    reprezentacia, rogorc termini, Seicavs gagebas, rom                  da ufro xSirad, ar aris.
                                                                              magaliTad, muzeumebi, romlebic kolonizirebul kulturebs
nebismieri xati, nebismieri teqsti ar asaxavs realobas
                                                                         warmoadgenen, `orientalizmis~ diskursis terminebSi asaxaven
miukerZoeblad, asprocentiani sizustiT, aramed ufro
                                                                         dasavlur ideologiur pozicias, romelic ganixilavs Sua-
warmogvidgens `realobis variaciebs~, romlebic ganpirobebulia
                                                                         aRmosavlur, muslimur kulturas rogorc egzotikurs,
kulturiTa da adamianebis Cveuli azrebiTa da qmedebebiT.
                                                                         idumalebiT moculs, mouxelTebels da potenciurad saxifaTos.
Tavis mxriv, igive gzis gavliT mas aqvs unari gavlena moaxdinos
                                                                         da es diskursi dasavleli damTvarielebelisTvis sulac ar
kulturis da sazogadoebis damokidebulebebis, Rirebulebebis,               aris gacxadebuli, ramdenadac ukve Cveulia da amdenad, bunebrivic.
aRqmis da qcevis formirebaze.1 amrigad, iqmneba wre, romlis                  am TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebiT niSandoblivia Tanamedrove
sawyisi wertilis povna da, miT umetes, Tavis daRweva, TiTqmis            eleqtronuli mediasaSualebebis miswrafeba, moaqcion Tavisi
SeuZlebeli xdeba, radgan yvelani am wreSi vtrialebT da                   `moRvaweoba~ tradiciuli `realobis asaxvis~ diskursSi.
aravis xelewifeba masze amaRleba. Cven vqmniT reprezentaciebs,           mediasaSualebebis tradiciuli kvleva aseve ganixilavs
reprezentaciebi gvqmnian Cven.                                           mediaproduqtebs, rogorc garkveuli realobis an movlenis
    realoba yovelTvis reprezentirebulia – is, rasac Cven                 `cru~ da `damaxinjebul interpretacias~. es cneba gulisxmobs,
ganvixilavT rogorc `pirdapir~ gancdas, yovelTvis                         rom arsebobs `WeSmariti~ an `ucvleli~ azri, romelic
`gaSualebulia~ aRqmis kodebiT da reprezentacia yovelTvis                 asocirdeba gare `realobasTan~ da romelsac mediateqsti unda
dakavSirebulia “realobis konstruirebasTan”.                              Seudardes; maSin, rodesac mediareprezentaciebis Tanamedrove
     nebismieri teqsti, rac unda `realisturad~ gveCvenebodes             mkvlevarTaTvis Tavad gare, `realobis~ mniSvnelobaa
is, upiratesad `konstruirebuli reprezentaciebia~, vidre ukve             konstruirebulia mediis mier.
arsebuli realobis pirdapiri `anarekli~, Canaweri Tu aslia.                   mediateqstebi ar aris realobis ubralod garegnuli
Tumca, Cven amas xSirad verc vacnobierebT, radgan reprezentaciebi,       warmodgenis gza. isini Tavad qmnian realobis mniSvnelobebs.
romlebsac gamudmebuli xmareba kargad nacnobs xdis, aRiqmeba              is procesic, rac dRes qarTul eleqtronul mediasivrceSi
rogorc `bunebrivi~ da aragaSualebuli.2                                   mimdinareobs, sxva araferia, Tu ara brZola realobis
    am TvalsazrisiT, `realobas yovelTvis hyavs avtori~D(deniel           mniSvnelobebisaTvis.
Candleri).3 Tu realistebi fokusirdebian reprezentaciebis                     mediareprezentaciebi ayalibeben pirovnebis mier
`mimarTebaze~ `obieqtur~ realobasTan (rac aisaxeba terminebSi            cxovrebiseuli movlenebis aRqmas – maT Sexedulebebs sqesze,

188                                                                                                                                      189
manana lekboraSvili                                                                             media reprezentaciebi da maTi Seswavlis aqtualoba

klasze, rasaze, maT warmodgenebs qalaquri, gareubnebis, TuU             axalgazrdebs Cveva, gamoiyenon mediareprezentaciebis es
soflis cxovrebis wesze da sxva; maT mrwamss, cxovrebiseul,              specifikuri aspeqtebi mediateqstebis analizisas.
politikur, Tu kulturul Rirebulebebs da a.S. es Sexedulebebi,                Seswavla exmareba auditorias, daikavos kritikuli pozicia,
ufro xSirad, zogadia da azrovnebaSi stereoti pad yalibdeba.4            gzebis amocnobis swavlisas, romlis meSveobiTac media aSualebs
magaliTad, rom msaxiobebi qarafSutebi arian, rom yvela fineli           realobas, gansazRvravs samyaros aRqmis mimarTulebas. kritikuli
– alkoholikia, qarTvelebi – niWierebi, magram zarmacebi.                konteqstis Seqmna exmareba individs gamoarkvios reprezentaciis
    amrigad, Cven vwvdebiT realobas mxolod reprezentaciebis             safuZvelSi arsebuli RirebulebiTi Sefasebebi, daikavos maT
gavliT: teqstebis, metyvelebis, xatebis meSveobiT – ar arsebobs         mimarT aseve kritikuli pozicia – iRebs is am Rirebulebebs
aragaSualebuli daSveba realobasTan. maSinac ki, roca Cven               Tu uaryofs.
`sakuTari TvalebiT~ vuyurebT garemo sinamdviles,                            es daexmareba, axalgazrdas, gaerkves ara marto mis irgvliv
garkveulwilda vxedavT mxolod imas da mxolod ise, rogorc                 arsebuli kulturuli modelebis mravalferovnebaSi, aramed
viciT, rom `unda~ davinaxoT. magram is, rom Cven SegviZlia              am mravalferovnebaSi adgilis povnas, TviTidenturobis
realobis xedva mxolod reprezentaciebis gavliT, ar niSnavs,              gamomuSavebas gauadvilebs. es ki, saboloo jamSi, socialur
rom realobas saerTod ver vxedavT... realoba yovelTvis ufro              praqtikasac gansazRvravs.
farTo da ufro rTulia, vidre reprezentaciis nebismier                        magaliTad, e. w. `realuri~ satelevizio Souebi
sistemas SeuZlia Caswvdes mas. kacobrioba yovelTvis                     telekompaniis miznebisda Sesabamisad gansazRvraven, televiziaSi
acnobierebda, rom es asea – reprezentacia verasdros ver                 qcevis ra formas Tvlian sasurvelad SerCevis, montaJis,
`moicavs~ srul realobas, amitomacaa, rom kacobriobis istoria,           gamosaxulebis meSveobiT. rogorc wesi, es garegnuli efeqtebiT
am miznis misaRwevad, amden sxvadasxva da cvalebad gzas badebs.         da socialuri epataJiT gamorCeuli, sensaciisken, skandalisken
    mTlianobaSi, kacobrioba amas acnobierebda, magram saWiroa,          gadaxrili formebia. amis Sedegad ki auditoriamac SeiZleba
calkeulma individmac gaacnobieros. es erTaderTi gzaa, raTa              CaTvalos, rom programis monawileTa saqcieli jdeba `normaSi~
win aRvudgeT masebiT mani pulirebis kidev erTi iaraRis kidev            – normaluria im pirobebSi, rogorSic televizia axdens
ufro gaZlierebas; mxolod Semdgom gaZlierebas, vinaidan is               `realobis~ reprezentirebas.
ukve arsebobs da sakmaod nayofieradac gamoiyeneba.                          dRes, rodesac informaciis moZalebisgan Tavdacva erT-erT
    am mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, dasavleTSi, kolejebSi Tu             yvelaze aqtualur problemad iqca da, SeiZleba iTqvas, TiTqmis
universitetebSi farTodaa danergili mediareprezentaciebis                sasicocxlo aucilebloba gaxda, reprezentaciebis Seswavla
saswavlo kursebi. albaT urigo ar iqneba, Tu am gamocdilebas             individis Tavdacvis erT-erT qmediT iaraRad SeiZleba ganvixiloT.
Cvens ganaTlebis sistemaSic davnergavT.                                 zogi axerxebs Sinagani resursebis xarjze (ganaTleba, zogadi
    imis nacvlad, rom mediareprezentaciebi SeviswavloT, rogorc          kultura, refleqsiisken midrekileba) es iaraRi Tavad
`realobis~ ubralo anarekli, Cven unda vaswavloT axalgazrdebs,           `aRmoaCinos~ da moqmedebaSi moiyvanos, magram misi, masobriv
rogor emsaxureba mediareprezentaciebi realobis `xelaxla                 iaraRad qcevisTvis, aucilebelia Zalisxmeva garedan.
warmodgenas~ („re-present“) anu, faqtobrivad, axali realobis Seqmnas.
    Cven unda vaswavloT axalgazrdebs im specifikuri gzebis              1. B. Moon Literary terms: a Practical Glossary, Cottesloe, 2001;
identificireba, romliTac mediareprezentaciebi gamosaxulebas,            2. Stuart Hall Cultural Representations and Signifying Practice, London, 1997;
xmas da musikas, interteqstualobas, enas da realobis                    3. Daniel Chandler. Semiotics for beginners - http://www.aber.ac.uk/
konstruirebis teqnikas iyeneben. Semdegi safexuria, gamovumuSavoT       media/Documents/S4B/semiotic.html;
                                                                        4. Philip Rayner Peter Wall Stephen Kruger Media Studies London, 2001, p.63-65.

190                                                                                                                                               191
                                        dinara maRlakeliZe,      aRar unda iyos individualuri, rom igi sabolood unda
                             xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,       gaTavisufldes saavtoro kinos iluziebisagan.
                                       mecnier-TanamSromeli         dogma 95 kinematografiuli saZmos reJosorTa mier
                                                                 dawesebuli TavSekavebulobis normebis mixedviT:
  XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi
                                                                  filmebis gadaReba mxolod filmis siuJetisaTvis saWiro
    cifruli teqnologiebis ganviTarebam da am teqnologiiT             gadasaReb moedanze unda moxdes;
gamowveulma kinematografis demokratizaciis procesma XX            xma gamosaxulebasTan erTad unda iqmnebodes, ar SeiZleba
saukunis 90-iani wlebis Crdiloevropul kinematografSi axali           filmis gadaRebis Semdgom gaxmovaneba;
kinomimdinareobis dogma 95 Camoyalibeba ganapiroba.               musika filmSi ar unda iqnas gamoyenebuli, SeiZleba mxolod
    1995 wlis 13 marts danielma kinoreJisorebma: lars fon            im musikis gamoyeneba, romelic uSualod gadasaReb moedanze
trirma, tomas vinterbergma, soren krag-iakobsenma da kristian        Seiqmneba;
levringma Seqmnes manifesti saxelwodebiT: dogma 95.1              nebadarTulia mxolod xelis kameris gamoyeneba;
    ramdenime dRis Semdeg maT parizis kinoTeatr odeonSi           ar SeiZleba xelovnuri ganaTebis gamoyeneba;
kinematografis 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnil konferenciaze           filmi aucileblad unda iyos feradi;
mewamul wiTel qaRaldze dabeWdili manifestis teqsti sazeimo        akrZalulia filtris gamoyeneba;
viTarebaSi gaacnes kolegebs.                                      aseve akrZalulia iaraRisa da Zaladobis Cveneba filmSi,
    kopenhagenel kinematografistTa provokaciuli da                   mkvlelobis scenebi;
ironianarevi _ erTi mxriv, teqnikuri, cifruli sensaciebis,        dauSvebelia geografiuli da droiTi gaucxoebis efeqtebis
holivudis kinoindustriis da, mere mxriv, evropuli saavtoro           gamoyeneba;
kinos , rogorc individualuri gemovnebis gamomxatveli              miuRebelia Janruli kinematografi;
kinematografis winaamRdeg mimarTuli manifesti, kinematografist    dasaSvebia mxolod akademiuri 35 mm. formati.
kolegaTa mier Tavdapirvelad Tanamedrove kinos krizisisadmi           dani eli kinoreJiso rebis wi naamRdeg mimar Tuli
mimarTul ironiul komentarad iqna aRqmuli.                        TavSekavebulobis manifesti - Mainstrram – kino, _ romelic
    magaliTad, klod Sabroli manifestis avtorTa misamarTiT        filmis Seqmnis process garkveul wesebsa da SezRudvebs
ironiulad ambobda, rom isini male wverosnebis gamoCenasac ki     uqvemdebarebs, miuxedavad manifestis provokaciuli, ironianarevi
akrZalaven filmebSi.2                                            suliskveTebisa, kinos istoriis didi avangardistebis, sergei
    dogma 95 _ manifestis avtorTa mixedviT _ kinematografis      eizenStainisa Tu lev kuleSovis eqspresiulobas exmianeba da
gadarCenis aqcias warmoadgens.3                                  am niSniT kinematografis axali vizualuri enis Seqmnis
    maTi formulirebiT Tanamedrove teqnologiurma procesebma       mcdelobas warmoadgens.4
kinematografi axali, avangarduli kinomimdinareobis Seqmnis           dogma 95 saZmos reJisorebis mier Seqmnili manifestiT,
aucileblobis winaSe daayena.                                     saZmos wevrebi, kinos istoriaSi manamde arsebuli avangarduli
    fon tririsa da vintenbergis ganmartebiT: dogma 95            moZraobebis msgavsad, kinoSi arsebuli krizisis dasaZlevad,
kinematografis iluziebidan, krizisidan gamoyvanis mcdelobasa     sakuTar esTetikur strategias aviTareben.
da TavSekavebulobis aqciias warmoadgens. manifestis avtorebi         isini TavianT kritikas, erTi mxriv, holivuduri
Tvlian, rom teqnikuri demokratizaciis epoqis kinematografi       kinoindustriis, rogorc iluziebis kinematografis, xolo, meore


192                                                                                                                         193
dinara maRlakeliZe                                                                                 XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi

mxriv, evropuli saavtoro kinos, rogorc individualuri                  d o g m a 9 5 - i s a v to r Ta f o r m u l i r eb i T: k a m er a m
gemovnebis gamomxatveli kinos winaamRdeg mimarTaven.              SeZlebisdagvarad obieqturad unda asaxos sinamdvile.6
    am TvalsazrisiT dogma 95 SesaZlebelia, swored meore               dogma 95 esTetikuri strategia _ pretenzia autenturobaze,
msoflio omis Sedgomi kinos istoriiis cnobili avangarduli          xelis kameris gamoyeneba, originalur, filmis siuJetisaTvis
mimdinareobebis _ italiuri neorealizmis, franguli axali           saWiro gadasaReb moednebze muSaoba, xmis gadaRebis procesSi
talRisa Tu amerikuli Direkt Cinema-s diskurSi iqnas               sinqronizireba, uaris Tqma xelovnur ganaTebaze _ garkveuli
ganxiluli.                                                        paralelebis gavlebis saSualebas iZleva mimdinareobis, kinos
    msgavsad zemoT dasaxelebuli avangarduli mimarTulebebis        istoriis winamorbed avangardul mimdinareobebTan mimarTebaSi.
warmomadgenlebisa, dogma 95 manifestis avtorebic uars amboben         niSandoblivia is faqtic, dogma 95-is saZmos wevrebis
konvenciuri kinos esTetikaze da kinematografis ganaxlebis         filmebSi kameris moZraoba dramaturgiuli Txrobis funqcias
sakuTar strategias gvTavazoben. strategias, romelic maTi          iZens da mayureblis iluziisagan gaTavisuflebas, realobis
formulirebiT kinematografis iluziebisagan gaTavisuflebaSi         asaxvas emsaxureba.
unda gamoixatos.                                                      ka m er a Zi r i Ta da d m s a x i o b i s g a m o m ety v el e b a z ea
    dogma 95 -is mier dawesebuli e. w. kinematografiuli           koncentrirebuli. msaxiobTa TamaSs, maT gamometyvelebas, maT
purizmi, Tavis Sekaveba, uaris Tqma aprobirebul kinematografiul   mier emociebis zustad gadmocemas dogma 95 reJisorTa filmur
SesaZleblobebze, manifestis avtorTa azriT, kinos zedapiruli       TxrobaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili eniWeba. amasTan msaxiobis
aqcionizmisagan ganTavisuflebis aucilebeli winapiroba unda        TamaSis manera dogma filmebSi spontanuri da Tavisufalia.
gaxdes.                                                               SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mimdinareobis reJisorebi swored am
    dogma 95-is avtorTa TvalsazrisiT, cifruli teqnologiebis       stilisturi Taviseburebis gamo amboben uars dekoraciebisa
epoqis kinematografSi namdvil emociebs iluziebi cvlian.           da rekvizitebis gamoyenebaze TavianT filmebSi, radgan maT
    holividur iluziur kinematografs saZmos wevrebi, upirvel       filmebSi mTavari aqcenti swored kameris mier dafiqsirebul
yovlisa, dogma filmebis TvalSisacemi autenturobiT                 msaxiobis TamaSze keTdeba.
upirispirdebian, riTac isini neorializmisa da Direkt Cinema-s,        aseve gansakuTrebuli yuradReba dogma 95-is filmebSi
Tu jon kasavetasis anti-holivodur tradicias exmianebian.          filmis montaJs eTmoba. filmebis montaJi umetesad uCveulo,
    saZmos wevrebis mier dawesebuli norma #7, romelic filmSi      arakonvenciuria da momxdaris dramatizirebisa da dinamizirebis
geografiuli da droiTi gaucxoebis efeqtebis gamoyenebas            funqcias emsaxureba.
krZalavs, axlosaa im esTetikur mrwamsTan, romlebic                    arakonvenciuri da eqsperinementulia dogma filmebis
kinamatografs Tavis droze neorialisturi mimdinareobis             Tematikac: ojaxi da individebi masTan mimarTebaSi, ojaxi da
warmomadgenlebma wamouyenes: filmma awmyo unda asaxos.            tabu, danaSauli da seqsi, sasiyvarulo istoriebi, fsiqikuri
dRevandeloba, dRevandeloba, ai, ra sWirdeba kinos (Cezare         anomaliebi.
Zavatini, fiqrebi kinoze, 1972).5                                     dogma 95-is saZmos filmebSi aqcenti Tanemedroveobaze
    Direkt Cinema-s reJisorTa msgavsad, romlTa filmebSi xelis     keTdeba, isini mayurebels Tanamedrove burJuaziuli ojaxis,
kamera konceptualur datvirTvas atarebda, dogmas saZmos            burJuaziuli yofis tabuizirebul, maSokirebel saidumloebebze
reJisorTa      filmebSic mousvenari, moqanave xelis kamera        mouTxroben, yvebian adamianTa eqsistencialur problemebze,
gansakuTrebul esTetikur, stilistur datvirTvas iZens da            siyvarulis maZiebeli Cveulebrivi adamianebis istoriebze.
filmis dramaturgiis Semadgeneli nawili xdeba.


194                                                                                                                                       195
dinara maRlakeliZe                                                                           XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi

    Ainsteam-Kino-ze uaris TqmiT, dogma 95 saZmos reJisorTa            tomas vintenbergma _ Festen (Dogma # 1) 1998 wels, lars
filmebi, miuxedavad maTi kritikuli damokidebulebisa                fon trirma Idioterne (Dogma #2) 1998 wels, soren krag-
individualur, saavtoro kinematografTan, swored evropuli            iakobsenma Mifunes Sidste Sang (Dogma # 3) 1998 wels da
saavtoro kinos realistur tradiciebs agrZeleben im azriT,           kristiam levringma The King is Alive (Dogma # 4) - 2000 wels.
rom maT filmebSi reJisoris gemovneba mTlianad filmebis             1999 wels Seiqmna frangi msaxiobis Jan-mark baris sadebiuto
dramaturgiul sxeuls, dramaturgiul Txrobas, gmirTa xasiaTebsa       filmi Lovers (Dogma # 5) da amerikeli harmoni korinis Julien
da situaciebis realobas eqvemdebareba.                             Donkey-Boy (Dogma # 6).
    manifestis avtorebi ara marto kinematografis istoriis              dogma 95-is saZmos reJisorTa filmebis vizualuri ena
cnobili avangarduli kinomimdinareobebis zegavlenas amJRavneben,    reklamis, videoxelovnebisa da politikuri plakatis esTetikur
aramed iseTi Teoretikosebisasac, rogorebic arian: zigfrid          praqtikas efuZneba.
krakaueri, andre bazini da bertold brexti.                             saZmos reJisorTa TvalsazrisiT, Tanamedrove teqnologiebma
    mag.: zigfrid krakaueris realuri cxovrebis dinebis7            kinematografis multimediuroba axal ganzomilebaSi Seiyvana
kinematografiul asaxvas isini did yuradRebas uTmoben.              da misi demokratizaciis process Seuwyo xeli, Tanamedrove
gacnobierebulad amboben uars Tanamedrove kinos teqnikur            teqnologiebis pirobebi nebismier msurvels aZlevs filmis
SesaZleblobebze da filmur TxrobaSi aqcents detalebze               gadaRebis SesaZleblobas.
akeTeben, im mizniT, rom mayurebelSi maqsimaluri realobis,             kinematografi tradiciulad yvelaze Zvirad Rirebuli
autenturobis SegrZneba gamoiwvion.                                 mediumia, dogma 95-is saZmos wevrebi SezRuduli teqnikuri
    amasTanave Zalze mniSvnelovania is garemoebac, rom danieli     SesaZleblobis pirobebSic inarCuneben optimizms da
reJisorebis dogma 95-is sertifikatiT Seqmnili filmebi cxadad       kinematografis gadarCenis axlebur, sakuTar strategias
avlenen daniuri, kerZod ki kopenhagenuri, kinoskolis tradiciebs.   imuSaveben, romelSic mTavari aqcenti kinematografistis
lars fon triri da tomas vinterbergi kopenhagenis kinoskolaSi       kreatiulobaze keTdeba.
mogens rukovis studentebi iyvnen, misi kinematografiuli                dogma 95-is serTificirebuli filmebi ar xasiaTdebian
                                                                   erTiani stiliT, TematikiTa da vizualuri esTetikiT. reJisorebi
xelweris zegavlena danieli reJisorebis dogma filmebze
                                                                   xSirad arRveven manifestiT dawesebuli TavSekavebulobis
aSkarad TvalSisacemia.
                                                                   normebs.
    dogma 95-is manifestis avtorebma, mimdinareoba ramdenjerme
                                                                       mimdinareobis reJisorTagan mxolod erTeulebi qmnian
gamoacxades mkvdrad. 2002 wels maT gauqmebulad cnes dogma
                                                                   filmebs manifestis normaTa mixedviT: maT Soris _ espaneli
95-is samdivnoc. miuxedavad amisa, manifestis avtorTa mier
                                                                   xuan pinzasi, danielebi lone Serfigi, nataSa artusi da
dadgenili esTetikuri normebis mixedviT Tanamedrove msoflio         suzane biri da amerikeli laif tildeni.
kinoSi ocdaTxuTmeti (35) oficialuri da as samocze (160)                Tumca, Cveni azriT, dogma 95-is xelweriT Seqmnili yvela
meti araoficialuri dogma filmia Seqmnili.                          filmis saerTo maxasiaTeblad mainc am filmebis naratiuli
    manifestis arsebobis 10 wlis Tavze, 2005 wels, dogma 95-       autenturoba unda CaiTvalos.
is samdivnom kidev erTi gamosamSvidobebeli dogma manifesti             dogma 95-is reJisorTa ironiuli manifesti reJisorTagan
gamoaqveyna, romlis mixedviTac mimdinareobis serTifikati           filmis gadaRebis tradiciuli, aprobirebuli meTodebisagan
misawvdomi gaxda nebismieri msurvelisaTvis.                        TavSekavebas moiTxovs. Tumca, Tavis mxriv, igi Tavad awesebs
    dogma 95 manifestis avtorebma: lars fon trirma, tomas          garkveuli TamaSis wesebs, romelTa darRveva mTlianad am Tu
vinterbergma, soren krag-iakobsenma da kristian levringma maT      im kinematografistis gemovnebaze, kreatiulobasa da
mier dadgenili normebis mixedviT mxolod TiTo filmi Seqmnes.        temperamentzea damokidebuli.
196                                                                                                                              197
dinara maRlakeliZe                                                                                XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi

    miuxedavad mimdinareobis aSkara ironianarevi, provokaciuli      3. Dogma 95 –Manifest - Online : www. dogma 95. dk;
xasiaTisa, dogma 95-ma Tanamedrove msoflio kinematografis           4. Andres Sudmann – Dogma 95 . Interviews, Hannover 2001, S.
vizualur da naratiul enaze seriozuli zegavlena moaxdina.            151- 185;
    dogma filmebis minimalistur esTetikisTan siaxloves              5. Cesare Zavattini – Einige Gedanken zum Film In: Theorie zum
amJRavnebs cnobili fineli reJisoris aki kaurismakis 1999            Film, Frankfurt a. M. 1972, S. 202- 220;
wels tragikul sasiyvarulo istoriaze Seqmnili filmi, Juha.           6. Dogma 95 –Manifest, Kopenhagen, 13 March, 1995;
    aseve cxadia dogma filmebis esTetikuri strategiis               7. Siegfried Krakauer, Theorie des Films, Frankfurt a. M. 1964.
zegavlena florideli studentebis 1999 wels gadaRebul
filmze Blair Witch Projeckt. 8 mm. video da 16 mm. kameriT
gadaRebulma filmma profesionali msaxiobebis gareSe kinos            gamoyenebuli literatura:P
samyarosaTvis sruliad ucnob axalgazrda damwyeb reJisorebs           Andre Bazin, Was ist Kino?Bausteine zum Theorie des Films, Koeln
uzarmazari warmateba da 200 milioniani finansuri mogeba             1975;
moutana.                                                            Monika Beyerle, Authentisierungsstrategien im Dokumentarfilm, Das
    filmi kinoskolis sami studentis mistikur mogzaurobaze           amerikanische Direkt Cinema, Frankfurt a.M. 1997;
mogviTxrobs merilandis tyeSi, sadac isini merilandeli               Carmine Chiellino, der neorialistische Film, Text und Kritik 1979;
jadoqris ambis gadasaRebad gaemgzavrnen, Tumca iqidan dabruneba      Thomas Elsaesser, Cinema Futures, Convergence, Divergence,
veRar moaxerxes. filmis avtorebi amtkiceben, rom maTi filmi         Differenz, Amsterdam 1998;
swored dakarguli studentebis mier gadaRebuli autenturi              Dogma 95 – Manifest www. dogma 95.com;
masaliTaa Seqmnili.                                                 Film Dienst 2005 www.film-dienst.de;
    90-iani wlebis dasasruls manifests msoflios sxvadasxva          Siegfried Krakauer, Theorie des Films, Frankfurt a. M. 1964;
qveynis ocze meti reJisori oficialurad SeuerTda                     Georg Seessler, Aufbruch in der Sackgasse, die Daenischen Dogma-
kinoreJisorebi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebidan, holandiidan,         Filme, in : Die Zeit, Nr. 28, 1999;
argentinidan, safrangeTidan, italiidan, Sveicariidan, iaponiidan,   Andrias Sudmann, Dogma 95, Hannover 2001;
koreadan, espaneTidan.                                              Andrew Tudor, Filmtheorien, Frankfurt a. M. 1977;
    Tanamedrove kinos iseTi gavleniani reJisorebic ki,              Cesare Zawattani, Einige Gedanken zum Film, Theorie des Kino,
rogorebic, joel Sumaxeri da stiven soderbergi arian, Riad           Frankfurt a. M. 1972;
acxadeben sakuTar filmebze dogma 95-is zegavlenas.                  Peter Zander, Zeugen der Anklage, Berliner-Morgenpost 07. 01. 1999.
    ufro metic, stiven soderbergi Tavis films Treffi ormoc
milionian dogma films uwodebs, xolo saavtoro kinos cnobili
kinoreJisori, germaneli vim vendersi dogma 96-is Sesaxeb
ambobs, rom es mimdinareoba XX saukunis dasasrulis evropuli
kinos istoriis yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovan movlenas
warmoadgens.


1. Dogma 95 – Manifest, Copenhagen 13. Match 1995;
2. Chaude Chabrol – Online Interview from Peter Zander 1999 ;
198                                                                                                                                   199
                                               Nnino mxeiZe,          dito cincaZis filmSi germaniis erT-erT patara qalaqSi
                             xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,        msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxis emigrantebi Sekrebilan. Ddito
                                    asocirebuli profesori         cincaZe kargad grZnobs garemos, situacias, emigrirebuli
                                                                  adamianebis guneba-ganwyobas. serbi branko, qarTveli merabi,
           deskri pcia Tu eqsplikacia                             iugoslaveli gogona, vietnameli meZavi da misi senegaleli
                                                                  megobari siyvarulSi eZeben megobrobas, xolo megobrobaSi _
    `deskri pcia-aRwerisa da eqsplikacia-axsnis mecnierul         siyvaruls. advilad pouloben erTmaneTs, radgan ucxo samyaroSi
amocanaTa gamTlianebiT fsiqologias, marTlac, unikaluri            Tavis marto gatana Znelia.
roli ekisreba kulturologiur kvlevaTa speqtrSi. xelovnebis             branko da merabi daqiravebuli, iaffasiani mkvlelebi arian.
Teoriisagan gansxvavebiT, fsiqologia mimarTulia ara mxolod        maqsimalurad cdiloben gaWimon mkvlelobis procedura, aTasgvar
sakvlevi fenomenis aRwerisken, misi stilisturi, mecnieruli,       mizezs igoneben, rom dakveTa sisruleSi ar moiyvanon.
struqturuli Tu istoriuli maxasiaTeblebis Seswavlisken,            gauTaveblad svamen. smis dros merabs samSoblos nostalgiac
aramed aseve fsiqo-socialuri (zogadkulturuli, istoriuli           eZaleba.
Tu eTnikuri) determinantebis (mizezebis, motivebis, stimulebis        yvela Taviseburad cdilobs maTTvis ucxo samyaroSi adgilis
da impulsebis) kvleviskenac. Ffsiqologiis amocanas Seadgens       damkvidrebas, umeteswilad, es meZaveobiT an SekveTili
ara mxolod aRweriTi _ rogor?Aaramed aseve axsniTi _ ratom?        mkvlelobiT xdeba, mxolod senegalelia mowadinebuli,
problemebis gaazreba da mizez-Sedegobrivi mimarTebis moZieba.~1   avstraliaSi `tkbili cxovreba~ sakuTari filtvis gayidviT
    dameTanxmebiT, rom garkveulwilad igive funqcia                moiwyos.
kinematografsac SeTvisebuli aqvs. qarTuli kino bolo oci               filmis atmosfero mZimea da damTrgunveli, adamianebi _
welia, umetes SemTxvevaSi, mxolod aRwers, magram, samwuxarod,     miusafarni. maT ukan dasaxevi gzac moWrili aqvT. merabsac
jerjerobiT ver xsnis Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi mimdinare          samSobloSi yofnas aq, am gaurkvevel situaciaSi, yofna urCevnia,
procesebs.                                                        Tumca es misi nebayoflobiTi arCevani ar aris. igi samSobloSi
    gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi bevrma qarTvelma datova         Seqmnil garemoebebs gamoeqca. saqarTvelo daqucmacda, mravali
samSoblo. zogi nebiT, zogic ki iZulebiT moxvda emigraciaSi.       Wir-varami gamoiara, bevri faseuloba Tavidan gadafasda. aq,
ra daxvdaT dito cincaZis `xelmocaruli mkvlelebis,~ gela           emigraciaSi, maTi cxovreba gausaZlisia, isini mitovebuli arian,
babluanis `13~-is, levan Rlontis `xaxvis cremlebis~ da daviT      magram es maTi arCevania.
kandelakis `erika erT oTaxSi~ filmebis gmirebs?                       filmis gmirebma `zRvars~ gadaabijes, emigraciis Sesaxeb
    `xelmocaruli mkvlelebis~ personaJebs Soris erT-erTi           kanonis me-15 paragrafis mixedviT, aralegalurad myofT
qarTvelia, igi araprofesionalma laSa baqraZem ganasaxiera.        ganaTlebisa da samsaxurSi miRebaze uars eubnebian. swored
SemTxveviTi araa, rom reJisori am problemiT dainteresda da        amitom, aralegalurad, isini mxolod meZaveobisTvis, daqiravebuli
mTavari gmiris rolis Sesruleba ucxoeTSi, kerZod, germaniaSi,      mkvlelobisTvis arian ganwirulni.
didi xnis ganmavlobaSi mcxovreb adamians miando. U                    gela babluans filmSi `13~ CvenTvis ucnob garemoSi
    uwin qarTveli emigrantebi TiTze CamosaTvlelebi iyvnen         SevyavarT da modunebis, moSvebis uflebas ar gvaZlevs. moqmedebis
da maT saxelebs TiTqmis yvela icnobda, maTze mowiwebiT da         adgili: safrangeTi - qarTvelebis mudmivi emigraciis saocnebo
siyvaruliT saubrobdnen. isini xom emigraciaSi revolucias          qveyana; ferebi: ruxi da Sav-TeTri; ambavi: Semzaravi.
gaeqcnen. dro Seicvala, mravali ram moxda da bevrma qarTvelma,        filmis gmiri SemTxveviT sxvisi TamaSis monawile gaxdeba.
sxvebis msgavsad, adgilis Zebna dasavleTSi daiwyo.                iRbliani nomeri cametia, TamaSis wesi _ daundobeli. aq
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nino mxeiZe                                                                                                      deskripcia Tu eqsplikacia

moxvedrils ukan daxevis, gaqcevis Sansi ara gaqvs. cameti            daoben, aravis TanaugrZnoben, indeferentulebi arian. maT Soris
moTamaSe da mxolod erTi gamarjvebuli. cocxal adamianebze             verc siyvaruls, verc siZulvils ver vxedavT, mZafri emociebi
fsonebs Camodian, es arc doRia da arc cekvis maraToni (rogorc        maTTvis ucxoa. maT warTmeuli aqvT inciativa da moqmedebis unari.
filmSi `qancgawyvetil cxenebs xom xocaven?~), es `rusuli                 filmis gzaacdenili, gaucxoebuli, gadagvarebuli gmirebi
ruletkaa~. moTamaSeebi _ narkomanebi, loTebi, emigrantebi _          Sinapatimrobidan Tavisuflebisken miiswrafvian, magram kvlav
ganwiruli adamianebi.                                                SinapatimrobaSi brundebian. maTTvis saocnebo samyaro tragikuli
    Tavidan filmis gmirs gaqceva unda, magram iZulebulia             aRsasrulis adgilad iqceva. isini SeTxzul samyaroSi cxovroben
TamaSis wesebs daemorCilos da saSineli maraToni bolomde              SeTxzuli samyaro ki STambeWdavi imitomaa, rom realurs Zalzed hgavs.
ganvlos. gamarjvebis Sansi ki nel-nela klebulobs. erTi                   daviT kandelakis filmis `amerika erT oTaxSi~ gmiri koka
tyvia, ori, sami, oTxi gasrola da ori mokluli adamiani...            gegeWkori ki realuri pirovnebaa, masze Seqmnili dokumenturi
jildo didi mogebaa. moTamaSeebs Soris erTi ucnauri wyvilia.          filmi sastik realobaSi gvabrunebs.
ori Zma. erT-erTi iRupeba, mas swored filmis gmiri klavs.                koka gegeWkorisTvis saocnebo, Tavisuflebis, demokratiis
erTi dRe da mTeli cxovreba. am TamaSSi gamarjvebuli mxolod           qveyana, romelic TbilisSi misTvis radio `amerikis xmasTan~
mepatronea. moTamaSe ganwirulia.                                     asocirdeboda, niu-orkSi moxvedrisTanave, kvlav erT oTaxSi
    filmis dasawyisSi erTxel jojoxeTgamovlili moTamaSe               moqceul samyarod iqca, oRond amjerad es oTaxi realuri
kvlav iq dabrunebas `kaifSi~ gaparvas amjobinebs. TiTqos             sakania. Tavisuflebisaken swrafva, uxeS realobas, daundobel
yvelaferi kargad ewyoba, gmiri Tavs aRwevs jojoxeTs.                 kanons, biurokratias, usamarTlobas Seejaxa da samSoblodan
policielebsac dauZvreba, fulis gagzavnasac axerxebs.                 gaqceuli adamiani samudamo patimrobis marwuxebSi moeqca.
ukanasknelad mSobliur, qarTul enaze Zmasac daelaparakeba da              rogorc filmidan vigebT, koka gegeWkori saqarTveloSi
Sinisaken mimaval rTul gzas daadgeba. mas sadgurSi moklulis          Seqmnil situacias gaeqca, man airida `mxedrionis~ rigebSi
Zma aedevneba, ara imitom, rom Suri iZios (man xom Zma sasikvdilod   yofniT gamowveuli represiebi da daWera, SeiZleba iTqvas,
Tavad gaswira), aramed mogebulisTvis fulis wasarTmevad. is           fizikur ganadgurebasac gadaurCa da amerikaSi Casuli
matarebelSi klavs filmis gmirs da misi xelCanTiT garbis.             gaugebrobis msxverpli gaxda.
    ruxi peizaJi da gayinuli mzera, erTi TamaSis, cxovrebis              patimars sinanuli, monaniebis saocari grZnoba aqvs. warsulis
tragikuli dasasruli. axlo xedebi, uCveulo rakursebi,                 gaxsenebisas Tavis mimarT daundobelia, maqsimalurad gaxsnili
ritmuli moZraoba. dramatuli, emociuri, plastikuri                    da gulaxdili. warmosaxviTi samudamo Tavisufleba mas samudamo
kinematografi. gela babluani cdilobs Cawvdes xilulis da              patimrobad eqca. Sekruli wris garRveva Znelia.
uxilavis arsSi, kino xom ver itans sworxazovnebas, cxovrebasTan          mxatvruli da dokumenturi filmebis gmirebi ganwiruli
naturalistur miaxlovebas. babluani saocari daundoblobiT              arian, uimedoba maTi cxovrebis megzuria. moCvenebiTi Tavisufleba
aCvenebs adamians sakuTar gadagvarebas da Tavzars scems mas.         filmis gmirebisaTvis `monobaze~ uaresi aRmoCnda. reJisorebi
SeuZlebelia, Tvali moaSoro ekrans, erTi wamiT modunde.               deskri pciasTan erTad movlenebis arsSi Cawvdomasac cdiloben,
yovelgvari garegani efeqtebis gareSe reJisori axerxebs               mayurebels fiqrisa da gansjisaken mouwodeben.
mayureblis `dabmas~ da gancdiliT SeZrwunebuls kvlav                        levan Rlontis dokumentur filmSi `xaxvis cremlebi~,
kinodarbazSi mibruneba gindeba.                                      Cvens Tvalwin realuri adamianis, musikosis cxovreba iSleba.
    dito cincaZis da gela babluanis filmebis gmirebi                     filmis gmiris cxovreba TiTqos erTferovania, momabezrebeli,
gaucxoebul samyaroSi sakuTari Tavis gadarCenaze ar fiqroben.         magram amave dros _ savse SemoqmedebiTi impulsiT. igi musikosia.
apaTiis, uimedobis mdgomareobidan ver gamodian. isini araferze       misi dRe saaTobrivad gawerili. sakuTari TavisTvis cota
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nino mxeiZe

dro rCeba, magram saqarTveloSi umusikod, usaqmod yofnas                                                                    eTer okujava,
germaniaSi yoveldRiur rutinul yofaSi CaZirva jobia.
                                                                                                       xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,
    xaxvis WriT gamowveuli cremlebi, ra Tqma unda, samSoblodan
                                                                                                                    sruli profesori
Sors gadaxvewili adamianis xvedria.
    `nostalgia”, `msxverplSewirva~ andrei tarkovskis mier
                                                                                 `ganaxlebis~ xana qarTul kinoSi
emigraciaSi gadaRebuli filmebis saTaurebia. fuZesa da fesvebs
iZulebiT mowyvetili adamianebi, Tavisufal samyaroSi, warsuli
                                                                              XX saukunis 60-iani wlebi politikur, socialur da
mogonebebis tyveobaSi rCebian. maTi yofa gausaZlisia, adaptacia
                                                                          kulturul sferoSi cvlilebebis aTwleulia. cnobilia, rom
rTuli, momavali ki, bundovani.
                                                                          am, e.w. `daTbobis~, periodSi axalgazrda Taobis qarTvelma
                                                                          kinematografistebma (maTze odnav ufrosi Tengiz abulaZis
                                                                          TaosnobiT) Tavisi esTetikuri Sexedulebebi ase Camoayalibes:
                                                                          uari eTqvas sinamdvilis yalb asaxvas, vaCvenoT mxolod
                                                                          simarTle da adamianis utyuari, WeSmariti saxe.
                                                                              mogexsenebaT, 50-iani wlebis saqarTvelos SemoqmedebiT
                                                                          cxovrebaSi arsebul, e. w. `lakirebis~ periodsa da
                                                                          ukonfliqtobis Teoriis moTxovnebis, fonze es gadawyvetileba
                                                                          socialisturi realizmis winaaRmdeg gamosvlas niSnavda, TviT
                                                                          faqti ara mxolod Semoqmedeb iTi, aramed ukve
                                                                          msoflmxedvelobiTi da politikuri aqti gaxldaT. bunebrivia,
                                                                          rom ideur-Tematur ganaxlebas gamomsaxveli saSualebebis
                                                                          inovaciebic mohyva, e. i. Sedga ideur-esTetikuri `ganaxleba~.
                                                                          sityva _ ganaxleba, romelic konkretulad, gasuli saukunis
                                                                          60-iani wlebis xsenebuli SemoqmedebiTi interesebis,
                                                                          gamomxatveli iyo, SemdgomSi, am periodis kinoprocesis Sefasebis
                                                                          gamomxatvel terminad damkvidrda.
                                                                              aRsaniSnavia, rom ganaxlebisaken ltolva ara mxolod qarTul
                                                                          kinoSia, aramed zogadad msoflio kinoxelovnebaSi, zogadad
                                                                          kulturul sivrceSi da amis dasturia araerTi araordinaruli
                                                                          moazrovnis individualuri xelweriT gamorCeuli Semoqmedeba.
1. r. mircxulava, xelovnebis fsiqologia, gamomc. `kentavri~, 2007, gv.7
                                                                          maT Soris, Jan-pol sartris, romelsac SvedeTis akademiam 1964
gamoyenebuli literatura:                                                  wels nobelis premia mianiWa da romlis misaRebadac, rogorc
                                                                          viciT, igi ar wasula. sartrma uari martivad axsna: nebismier
r. mircxulava, xelovnebis fsiqologia, gamomc. `kentavri~, 2007          premirebas igi adamianis burJuaziuli elitisadmi mikuTvnebad
mocemul filmebze ixileT 2006-2007 ww.-Si periodul presaSi               miiCnevda, es ki ewinaaRmdegeboda mis warmodgenebs adamianis
(`rezonansi~, `24 saaTi~, `cxeli Sokoladi~) gamoqveynebuli l.             individualuri nebis, arCevnis Tavisuflebis gagebis Sesaxeb.
oCiauris, n. kakabaZis, s. kikaliSvilis recenziebi.


204                                                                                                                                  205
eTer okujava                                                                                              `ganaxlebis~ xana   qarTul kinoSi

    am garemoebas isic daemata, rom parizSi momxdari movlenebis              rac Seexeba aRmosavleT evropas, iq 60-ian wlebSi
Semdeg (vgulisxmob 1968 wels studentTa amboxebas, romelmac               kinoxelovanebi kidev ufro metad sulieri tragizmis (SeiZleba
sartris cxovrebaze ganumeorebeli kvali datova; studentebis               iTqvas, ufro amboxis _ ssr kavSiris politikuri zewolis
mitingebis fonze 63 wlis filosofosma ifiqra, rom dadga                   fonze) pirobebSi arseboben da qmnian Sesabamisi ganwyobis
`burJuaziis diqtaturis~ damarcxebis dro, magram amboxebulebma            xelovnebas. eqsperimentul maneraSi muSaoben poloneli
xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg veraferi gaawyes _ de golis mTavrobam            kinoreJisorebi: anjei vaida, anjei munki, eJi kavaleroviCi da
wesrigi droulad `aRadgina~).1 sartrma maRal idealebze xeli               sxvebi. ungreTSi ki 1956 wlis ajanyebis CaxSobis Semdeg
sabolood Caiqnia.                                                        gansakuTrebiT mkafio aRmoCnda mikloS ianCos Semoqmedeba,
    misi gancda arafriT gansxvavdeba dasavleTevropel                     romelic qmnis filmebs Zaladobaze, SemoqmedebiTad iazrebs
kinoxelovanTa sulieri mdgomareobisgan. metic, ukve 1960-                 istoriisa da Zalauflebis problemebs (filmebi: `uimedod~
1966 wlebSi maT sakuTari ganwyoba mxatvrul nawarmoebebSi                 (1965), `wiTeli da TeTri~ (1967), `siCume da yvirili~ (1968)).
gamoTqves. amis ramdenime magaliTia: bresonis `sikvdilmisjili                `daTbobis~ periodma Sva roman polanskis, kSiStof zanusis,
gaiqca~ (1956), romelic imave wels, kanis festivalze saukeTeso           irJi mencelis, vera xitilovas da miloS formanis Semoqmedeba.
reJisurisTvis dajildovda, mogvianebiT ki franguli                        magram, sainteresoa, rom SemoqmedebiTi `dabadebis~ Semdeg
kinoakademiis premia miiRo; miqelanjelo antonionis trilogia              samSobloSi, arc erTi maTgani ar darCenila. maTgan zogi
`Tavgadasavali~ (1960), `Rame~ (1961), `dabneleba~ (1962);               britaneTSi, umetesoba ki, aSS-Si gadaixizna.
bergmanis `dumili~ (1962)). am filmebis magaliTze Cans, rom                  rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSne, rodesac Cven dasavleTsa da
adamianis fsiqogancdis mimarT interesma filmis gmirebi sakuTar           60-ian wlebze vsaubrobT, viTvaliswinebT, rom esaa politikur,
samyaroSi imdenad Caketa, rom kritikosebma saubari daiwyes
                                                                         socialur da kulturul sferoSi cvlilebebis aTwleuli.
`dedramatizaciaze~, `gaucxoebaze~... antonionis `gaucxoebis
                                                                         cxadia, yvela qveyanaSi am gardaqmnebs Tavisi konkretuli
trilogiam~ win wamoswia, Tanamedrove sinamdvilidan amokiTxuli,
                                                                         motivacia hqonda, magram, farTo gagebiT da msoflSegrZnebiT,
a da m i a neb s S o r i s u r Ti erTo b eb i s da ka r g vi s Tem a ,
                                                                         yvelaferi erTad im didmniSvnelovani procesis nawilia, ramac
arakomunikabelobis problema. xolo kidev ufro adre bresonis
                                                                         adamianis mier samyaros axleburi aRqma gamoiwvia. kerZod,
filmebidan naTlad gacxadda xelovanis mier movlenis
                                                                         erT-erTi ZiriTadi muxti iyo `okultizmis~ afeTqeba (mirCa
siRrmiseuli xedvis da SemoqmedebiTi stilis asketizmis erToba,
kinogamomxatveli saSualebebis simarTlisadmi maqsimaluri                  eliades terminologiiT), anu, ezoTeruli revolucia.
damorCileba, e. w. `wminda kinos~ erTguleba, rac sinamdvileSi                marTalia, okultizmis namdvili afeTqeba ocdaaTi wlis
amokiTxuli adamianis pirovnul simyareSi eWvs, nihilizmsa da              win moxda (mxedvelobaSi maqvs iungis Sromebi), magram saqme
uimedobas naTlad warmoaCenda. amave periodis filmebis                    isaa, rom Tu XX saukunis 20-30-iani wlebSi xsenebuli moZraoba
safuZvelze, xazgasmiT aRvniSnav, kidev erT da, Cemi azriT,               inteleqtualuri SemoqmedebiTi elitis safiqrali iyo, 60-ian
gansakuTrebiT RirsSesaniSnav movlenas. kerZod: naTelia, rom              wlebSi am ideebma masebi gaitaca da namdvil revoluciad
60-iani wlebis kinoxelovnebaSi iwyeba inteleqtualuri                     mogvevlina, amasTan, masStabi gafarTovda. SegaxsenebT konkretul
problemebis analizi da am mxriv is msoflio analitikuri                   da cnobil faqtebs: 30-ian wlebSi iungma icoda sami ezoTeriuli
samyaros avangardSia. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kinoSi es procesebi           seqta: ori - germaniaSi da erTi – safrangeTSi. 70-ian wlebSi
ufro adre iwyeba, vidre maT kvlevis miznad (zemoT moxmobil               mirCa eliade wers ukve aseulobiT wresa da seqtaze. amave
xelovanT davumatebdi iseT reJisorebs, rogorcaa: felini, godari,          periodSi, iseT mkacri reJimis saxelmwifoSic ki, rogoric
viskonti, pazolini, bertoluCi, Zmebi tavianebi da sxv.)                  espaneTia (vgulisxmob frankos reJims), viTareba icvleba.
filosofia daisaxavda.
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eTer okujava                                                                                            `ganaxlebis~ xana   qarTul kinoSi

    sul cota xnis win iq akrZaluli iyo socialur da                   exeba umniSvnelovanes sareklamo kampanias – sakuTari Tavis
seqsualur realiebze filmebis gadaReba da Cveneba. 1959 wels          Cvenebas, cxovrebis demokratiuli saxis reklamas _ Cven
ki franko erTgvar `daTbobis~ periods iwyebs. espaneTis               komunistebs SesamCnevad CamovrCebiT.~2
kinobazari aSS-is da evropis kinosTvis ixsneba.                          aqedan gamomdinare, amerikeli mkvlevrebi dResac Tvlian, rom
    saerTo daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mxatvruli Ziebebis    aSS-is kulturuli eqsporti 60-iani wlebis bolos erTgvarad
mxriv 60-iani wlebi evropis kulturul sivrceSi gardaqmnebis           pasuxic ki iyo sabWoTa ideologiaze da, rom am moZraobis
wlebia, ramac SemoqmedebiT xedvis sawyisad struqturalizmi            centraluri elementia politikuri motivebi, romelTa safuZvelSi
da semiotika dasaxa, xolo 70-ian wlebSi gagrZelebuli es              Cadebuli iyo kulturis, rogorc totalitarizmis damangreveli
S em oq m edebi Ti p ro c es i p o s ts tr u q tu ra l i z m is da   ZiriTadi iaraRis, sakiTxebi. faqtia, rom 60-iani wlebis
postmodernizmis esTetikur mimdinareobebSi gadavida. aRniSnuli        dasasrulidan moyolebuli evropaSi ukve igrZnoba erTgvari
mimdinareobebis Tu gamomxatvelobis meTodologiis nebismier            SeSfoTeba amerikuli kulturis kardinaluri cvlilebebis gamo,
monakveTSi evropuli kino WeSmariti esTetizmis wiaRSia.               rac aSS-is xelovnebis evropaSi eqspansiaSi gamoixata.
    amrigad, mas Semdeg, rac `daTbobis~ wlebma TvalnaTliv daanaxa        rac Seexeba amave periodis qarTul kinos, sabWoTa da
evropas da agreTve ssr kavSirs xelovani adamianis SemoqmedebiTi      evropuli kulturuli yofis aqcentebis amgvari ganlagebis
TvalTaxedvis swrafi gafarToeba da is sabWoTa ideologiisTvis          fonze kinoprocesis ganaxleba dakvirvebis axal kuTxes xsnis
aSkara saSiSroebad warmosaxa, Sedegma ar daayovna: pirveli _         da ara mxolod im mxriv, rom erovnul kinematografSi moxda
Tavisuflebis pirvelive gaelveba evropaSic da ssr kavSirSic           axali Taobebis mosvla. aqve vityvi, rom saintereso debiutebi
CixSi moeqca, es moxda 1967 wlis varSavis xelSekreulebidan           iyo 70-ian wlebSic. am dros gaicno qarTvelma kinomayurebelma
erTi wlis vadaSi; xolo, 1970 wlisTvis yovelgvari Tavisufali          kinooperatori da Semdgom kinoreJisori aleqsandre rexviaSvili
`egzersisebi~ ukve dasrulebuli iyo. meore _ swored am droidan        da telefilmelTa sakmaod Tamamad moazrovne da mkveTri
gaZlierda emigraciis procesi. rogorc ukve vTqvi, cnobili             mxatvruli koncefciis Taoba, maT Soris _ soso CxaiZe, irakli
evropeli reJisorebi emigraciaSi wavidnen.                            kvirikaZe da sxv., romlebmac Tavisi SemoqmedebiT mxatvrul-
    vidre saqarTveloSi ganviTarebul movlenebs Sevexebode,            esTetikuri sinamdvilis axali Sreebi gaxsnes. magram mTavari
mokled vityvi, Tu ras sTavazobs sinamdvile am dros aSS-Si            60-ian wlebSi isaa, rom sabWoTa adamians, ase vTqvaT, gzebi
gadaxvewil xelovan adamianebs. cxadia, pirvel rigSi esaa             `gaexsna dasavleTisken, rac sabWoTa sinamdvileSi, rogorc
SemoqmedebiTi Tavisufleba, razec Riad wers formani emigraciis        cnobilia, politikuri viTarebidan gamomdinare, SezRuduli
pirvelsave wlebSi (ix. Sesabamisi periodis formanis interviuebi).    hqonda. Tumca, isic unda iTqvas, rom es procesi uceb ar
    istoriam daamtkica, rom amerikelebi XX saukunis dasawyisSi       Semdgara; am wlebSic (vimeoreb, gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebSi)
qveynis umTavres Rirebulebad xelovnebasa da kulturaze win            qveynis SigniT informaciuli SimSili garkveulwilad grZeldeba.
politikas da politikur sistemas miiCnevdnen. amgvari                 samagierod, kinos ganusazRvreli mniSvnelobis gamo, kinematografis
damokidebulebis mizezi is iyo, rom SeerTebul StatebSi                sawarmoo biujeti qveyanaSi Zalze didia. aqedan gamomdinare,
popularuli kultura, kerZod ki, kino, ufro garTobis sagnad            mravalricxovania (yvela sxva istoriul periodTan SedarebiT)
aRiqmeboda, vidre qveynis sagareo politikis marTvis                  kinodebiuti, maT Soris, umetesi wili moklemetraJiani filmebis,
instrumentad, ise, rogorc es ssrk-Si iyo.                            romlebsac kinoindustriis xelmZRvaneloba ufro damwyeb
    gasuli da mimdinare procesebis Sefasebisas 1958 wels             kinematografistebs ukveTavda (ara imdenad xelovnebaze fiqriT,
cnobili Jurnalisti piter groti werda kidec: `amerika aris            ramdenadac wliuri kinoerTeulebis gegmis Sesavsebad), xolo
ganviTarebuli sareklamo industriis qveyana, magram, roca saqme
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eTer okujava

axalgazrdebi axali TemebiT, siuJetebiT iyvnen gatacebuli da                                                             lela oCiauri,
asaxavdnen kidec ekranze.                                                                               xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,
    swored am dros giorgi Sengelaias `alaverdobam~                                                                   sruli profesori
yumbarasaviT aafeTqa sazogadoebis obivateluri simyudrove.
Sengelaias gmirs evropuli da amerikuli kulturisagan
gansxvavebuli, Tavisi Sinagani interesis ideologiuri da                              socialisturi realizmidan
analitikuri, konkretuli safuZveli hqonda, magram mrwamsiT                                postmodernizmamde
zemoxsenebuli moZraobis sivrceSi trialebda, es iyo arCevnis,
adamianis nebelobis gancda.                                                  miuxedavad imisa, rom dRes yovel meore sityvad Tu terminad,
    amrigad, 60-ian wlebSi kinoprocesis ganaxleba qarTul                 rodesac saubari Tanamedrove xelovnebas exeba (iqneba es Teatri,
kinoSi SeiZleba msoflio civilizaciis sivrcis Semadgenlad                 literatura Tu kinematografi), postmodernizms viyenebT, misi
ganvixiloT, romelic samyaros mentaluri ganaxlebis                        mniSvneloba bolomde gacnobierebuli da gansazRvruli araa.
kanonzomieri ciklis nawilia.                                                 Cven ase Tu ise viciT, ras niSnavs, vTqvaT, kritikuli realizmi,
    evropisa da aSS-is kulturuli warsulis, Tumca arc ise                 avangardi, modernizmi Tu surrealizmi (Tumca, zogjer vcdebiT
Soreuli warsulis, gaxseneba saWiroa. vfiqrob, SemoTavazebuli             xolme am mimdinareobebis srulfasovan gansazRvraSi), garkveuli
eqskursi analizis safuZvels iZleva, kerZod, demokratiis                  mizezebidan gamomdinare, Zalian kargad gvesmis, ra aris
pirobebSi kinoxelovnebis arsebobis formebis Sesamecneblad                socialisturi realizmi da, saerTod, naklebad verkveviT, ras
da, sazogadod, misi arsebobis aucileblobisTvis. Cveni qveyana,           niSnavs postmodernizmi da am Temas bevr pirobiT cnebasTan
dRes ise, rogorc arasdros, grZnobs am process da masTan                  `naZaladevad~ vaigivebT.
dakavSirebuli Temebi, raoden mtkivneulic unda iyos, Cven,                    farTo gagebiT, postmodernizmi – esaa kulturis ganviTarebis
xelovnebis mkvlevarebma, unda wamovWraT.                                 saerTo mdgomareoba, misi erT-erTi etapi, romelmac modernizmi
                                                                         Secvala da mis alternativad iqca. modernizmi xelovnebas or
                                                                         nawilad hyofs. esaa, erTi mxriv – elitaruli kultura da,
                                                                         meore mxriv – masobrivi. erTi mxriv _ maRali xelovneba,
                                                                         meore mxriv _ yvelasTvis gasagebi da xelmisawvdomi produqcia,
1. sxvaTa Soris, unda iTqvas, rom sartris e.w. demokratiul mosazrebebi   romelic gansazRvrulia imwamier, masobriv moTxovnaze, radgan
komunistebs ukavSirdeboda da studentTa amboxSi isini sabolood            pasuxobs sazogadoebis Cvevebsa da molodins. erTi mxriv _
simxdaleSi daadanaSaula, magram am sakiTxis, winamdebare Sromis          mxatvruli avangardi, romelic Slis arsebul esTetikur
TemasTan konteqstSi, ganxilva amjerad saWirod ar mimaCnia;
                                                                         faseulobebs, qmnis axal formebs, qmnis maradiul qmnilebebs;
2. g. i. filimonovi, `kulturis faqtori aSS-is sagareo politikaSi~,
2003, internetresursi.                                                   meore mxriv _ amzeurebs ukve arsebul, ukve gamocdil esTetikur
                                                                         Stampebs, romlebic tradiciuli xelovnebidan an avangardidan
gamoyenebuli literatura:                                                 miRebul gamocdilebas adaptirebas ukeTebs, aiaffasurebs~.
                                                                             eropuli Tu amerikuli kritika postmodernizmis Sesaxeb
mirCa eliade, `okultizmi, jadoqroba da modebi kulturaSi~,              upirispirdeba xelovnebis amgvar axsnas, gaSifvras, dayofas da
(Mircea Eliade, Occultism, witch craft and cultural fashions), 2002,     aerTianebs yvelafers, rogorc aramarto arsebuls, amave dros,
internetresursi.                                                         sazogadoebaze zemoqmedebis saSualebas, rogorc kanonzomierebas,
                                                                         TavisTavad moqmeds da im mizezebs, romlebic mas badebs.
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    postmodernistuli xelovneba esaa xelovneba, romelic             dabrunebis tendencia, ufro sworad, maTi gamravleba da aRreva.
faseulobaTa gadafasebis saSualebas iZleva da saamiso pirobebs      dRes is harmoniuli hibridi, romelsac im periodSi jer kidev
qmnis imdenad, ramdenadac, is ukve TavisTavadaa Cadebuli           ar hqonda sabolood gansazRvruli saxe, ukve normad iqca.
mimdinareobis arsSi. isaa Cadebuli Tavad mis cnobierebaSi da           ra aris Semoqmedeba? am kiTxvas modernizmi sxvanairad,
mis mierve Seqmnil sistemaSi fxizeli da kritikuli TvaliT.          postmodernizmi ki sxvanairad pasuxobs.
amisTvis saWiro gaxda zogierTi gamtkicebuli da aRiarebuli              `Semoqmedeba _ es aris stereoti pebis gacnobierebuli
Sexedulebis gadaxedva. xmarebaSi Semovida stereotipebis mimarT     arCevani~, _ ambobs xelovnebis Teoretikosi, rac niSnavs, rom
pativiscemiT gamsWvaluli xedva da maTi Taviseburi gamoyeneba.      Semoqmedi sakuTar Tavs garkveuli koncefciis, saavtoro uflebis
    stereoti pi, romelsac rogorc `Stamps~, `kliSes~ aRiareben,     arCevnis nebas aZlevs, romelic moiTxovs stereoti pebis
postmodernizmis SemTxvevaSi, sxva datvirTvas iZens, ufro sworad,   gansakuTrebul, gansazRvrul arCevans da maT SeerTebas Sesabamis
sxva mniSvnelobas da Sesabamisad, terminic sxva mniSvnelobiT       CanafiqrTan SefardebiT. amave dros, aRsaniSnavia isic, rom
ixmareba. arsebobs saxeebis, xatebis Seqmnis saukuneebis           stereoti pi jer kidev ar niSnavs mxolod Janruli modelebiT,
ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibebuli da Semonaxuli xerxebi da modelebi,     aramed garkveuli stilisturi figurebiT, frTosani siuJeturi
romlebic fass dRemde ar kargaven.                                  motivebiTa da svlebiT, qmedebis gamocdili svlebiT azrovnebas
    magaliTad, tradiciuli Janruli modelebi. maTi mniSvneloba       da a. S., rac avtoris (sazogadoebis) mexsierebaSi arsebuli
ar ganisazRvreba `maRali~ Tu `dabali~ xelovnebis sferos            codnis Tavmoyras da Tavisebur asaxvas hpovebs.
kuTvnilebiT, aramed mxolod im kriteriumebiT, riTac fasdeba             ra Tqma unda, rodesac stereoti pebzea saubari, erTi
ama Tu im JanrSi Seqmnili namuSevrebis Rirebuleba. aq droulia      romelime sqemis gamoyeneba saamisod gansakuTrebuls verafers
gavixsenoT, rom `ar arsebobs kargi da cudi Janrebi, mosawyenis     Seqmnis da adamianze misi mxatvruli zemoqmedebis Zalac
garda~ da isic, Tu ramdenadaa maTi Rirebuleba damokidebuli         minimaluri iqneba, magram Tu reJisori airCevs stereoti pebis
maTive arsebobis xangrZlivobaze kacobriobis kulturis               mTel sistemas, maTi variantebis erTianobas, maSin saqme ufro
istoriaSi.     maTi mniSvneloba SeiZleba ganisazRvros imis         rTulad da, Sesabamisad, Sedegic ufro mniSvnelovani iqneba.
mixedviT, ramdenad Rrmadaa isini cnobierebis arqaul siRrmeebSi     aseve, stereoti pebis xelovnuri, ekleqturi erTianoba ar
Caleqili, ramdenad didia maTi gamomsaxvelobiTi potenciali.         niSnavs, rom es avtors sasurveli Sedegis miRwevis saSualebas
    modernistuli kritika Zalian martivi sqemis mixedviT            miscems. aseTi midgoma an rCeba sqemad, an imdenad martiv saxes
ewyoboda _ es iyo xelovneba, romelic raRac axals ayalibebda,       iZens, rom yvelaze gauTviTcnobierebuli mayureblisTvisac Tu
uars ambobda yvela stereoti pze. amdenad, xelovnebis aseTi         mkiTxvelisTvisac naTeli xdeba, Tu ra warmonaqmTan aqvs saqme.
nawarmoebi ukve TavisTavad gulisxmobs maRal xelovnebas,            xelovnebis nawarmoebi, ra Janris, Tu mimdinareobisac unda
novatoruls, arakomerciuls, xolo stereoti pze damyarebuli           iyos is, Semadgeneli nawilebis gamTlianebas unda emsaxurebodes.
xelovneba, Tundac amitom ukve ganwirulia misi uaryofisTvis,            `sadidan moyolebuli beketamde literaturaSi damkvidrebulma
vinaidan (Tu Janrul stereori pebze SevaCerebT yuradRebas)          dumilis motivebma, ramdenadac isini sakuTar Tavsac da
komerciul, samayureblo (kinematografiul, Teatralur Tu              erTmaneTsac upirispirdebodnen, enis, kulturisa da cnobierebis
literaturul) kategorias ganekuTvneba, rac TavisTavad ukve          mTeli si rTule gamo xates . es zebunebriv i mus ika
niSnavs minus niSniT `ganviTarebas~.                               postmodernizmis gamocdilebasa da SegrZnebas gvaziarebs. Tumca,
    postmodernizmis pirveli niSnebis arseboba kinematografSi       imaves ver vityviT mis cnebasa da definiciaze. SesaZloa,
60-iani wlebidan SeimCneva, mas Semdeg, rac daiwyo JanrebTan       koncefciis definiciisken svla garkveuli kiTxvebis dasmiT


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lela oCiauri                                                                                   socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

ganvaxorcieloT~ – wers ihab hasani., - `daviwyeb yvelaze               xSirad meordebian, xSirad sakuTarive citirebas axdenen.
aSkara SekiTxviT~ _ agrZelebs igi msjelobas _ `misaRebia Tu            citireba da TviTcitireba mxatvrisTvis bunebrivi procesia.
ara iseTi fenomeni zogadad dasavlur sazogadoebaSi an,                  Zalian xSirad, Zalian bevri Semoqmedi iyenebs sakuTar sistemebs,
konkretulad, literaturaSi, romelic modernizmisgan                      niSanTa, xerxTa Tu simboloTa sistemebs, maT kombinaciebs, maT
gamocalkevebasa da saxeldebas moiTxovs? Tu asea, rogor                 stereoti pebs.
moergeba mas droebiTi rubrika `postmodernizmi~? am SemTxvevaSi             vinaidan kinematografi axali xelovnebaa, mas ar hqonda
SegviZlia Tu ara (Tundac droebiT), am fenomenis farglebSi              gamocdilebis, stereoti pebis, informaciis dagrovebis iseTi
iseTi qronologiuri da ti pologiuri sqemis konstruireba,                SesaZlebloba, rogorc xelovnebis sxva dargebs, magram, rogorc
r o m el i c s r u l a d m o i c a v d a m i s ten den c i eb s a da   Cans, bolos es dro movida. kinematografma ukve imdeni daagrova,
kontrmimarTulebebs, misTvis damaxasiaTebel mxatvrul,                   rom Tavs uflebas aZlevs imuSaos sakuTari sistemebis,
epistomologiur da socialur xasiaTs? anda rogor ukavSirdeba             stereoti pebis, niSnebis gamoyenebiT. maTi interpretaciis gziT.
es fenomeni iseT mniSvnelovan movlenebs, rogoricaa, saukunis           es stereoti pebi Rrmad unda iyos Serwymuli ZiriTad xazTan,
Semotrialeba _ avangardi, anda, 20-iani wlebis maRali                  siuJetis ganviTarebasa Tu saerTo sxeulTan mis Sida
modernizmi?~1 Zalian xSirad, postmodernizmis safarqveS (iseve,         struqturaSi, rodesac maT damoukidebeli saxe aqvs, rodesac
rogorc avangardis) imaleba, iniRbeba is, rasac xelovnebasTan           isini zedapirze devs, maSin esaa an mibaZva, an parodia an isev da
saerTo araferi aqvs da aqvs pirdapiri kavSiri mimbaZvelobasTan         isev Stampi, radgan maTi gaazreba da gaanalizeba ar xdeba.
da moduri tendenciebisTvis xarkis gaRebasTan. postmodernizmi,              socialisturi relizmis epoqaSi kinematografSi arsebuli
albaT, rogorc arc erTi sxva mimdinareoba, kavSirSia saerTo             stereoti pebi iseTive zemoqmedebas axdenda (Tu ufro metadac
kulturologiur realobasTan da amave dros, cxovrebis                     ara) im mayurebelze, romelic uSualod iyo procesebis monawile,
realobasTan.                                                           romelic uyurebda da emorCileboda im simarTles, romelsac
    xelovnebis mizani – mimarTos adamians momavalSi _ ukana            ekranidan sTavazobdnen. Tanagancdis momenti, saiTac kinematografi
xedze iwevs postmodernistuli xelovnebis mTavar mizanTan _              mayurebels mouwodebs, yvela drosa da yvela mimdinareobis
iqonios kavSiri Tanamedrove adamianTan da masTan dialogSi              Jams, sazogadoebis mier aRiqmeba ise, rogorc mas sTavazobdnen,
Sevides dRes da ara, vTqvaT, xval, SedarebiT. Tumca, ra Tqma           oRond erTi gamonaklisiT, miuxedavad imisa _ aris Tu ara is
unda, es ar niSnavs, rom postmodernuli filmebi aRar iarsebeben         simarTle, radgan stereoti pebi, iqneboda es movlenaTa
xval, 10, 20 Tu 30 wlis Semdeg. Tu imasac gaviTvaliswinebT,            ganviTarebisa Tu personaJSi ganxorcielebuli _ pasuxobs
rom xelovanis erT-erT mizans Tu funqcias warmoadgens asaxos            moTxovnebs, rasac mayurebeli elis filmidan.
(ama Tu im formiT) is dro, romelSic is cxovrobs, maSin                     drois distancia bevri axali aRmoCenis saSualebas iZleva,
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom postmodernizmi yvelaze `namdvili~                 anu xelaxla gadaxedvis saSualebas, rogorc asaxuli movlenebis,
xelovnebaa, raRac TvalsazrisiT, moduri koniunqturac, moduri            aseve maTi mxatvruli Rirebulebis mxriv. albaT, isic
spekulaciac. Tanamedrove mayureblis gemovnebisa da                     gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom xelovnebis sazRvrebi myari da
TvalTaxedvis mixedviT nawarmoebis Sefaseba _ postmodernizmis           SezRuduli araa da esTetikuri Rirebulebebis damkvidreba
erT-erTi mTavari pirobaa.                                              axali sazogadoebrivi interesebisa Tu drois faqtoris, drois
    postmodernizmma erTgvari ironiiT Sexeda da TiTqos boloc            moTxovnis aucileblobidan gamomdinareobs.
mouRo romantikul pozicias im reJisorTa mimarT, romlebic                    xelovnebaSi `maRalisa~ da `dabalis~ Sefaseba garkveulad
erTeulebisTvis qmnidnen. Zalian xSirad, mayurebeli Tu                  `SefardebiTia~, maradiuli, saerTo faseulobebis arsebobis
kritikosebi postmodernistebs sayvedurobdnen, rom isini Zalian          miuxedavad. postmodernuli kinos mTavari princi pia _ kino
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lela oCiauri                                                                              socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

unda arsebobdes `aq~ da `axla~. is muSaobs dRes. is aRqmul        azrovnebisTvis da Semdeg masTan WidilSi adamianebTan misasvleli
unda iqnas maSin, rodesac Seiqmna, radgan ukeT moqmedebs          gzebis da mxatvruli formebis Camoyalibebis gezs sTavazobda.
mayurebelze. rac Seexeba mis aRqmas, analizs, albaT, mTavari,         veZebT Tu ara Cven im dros, romelic davkargeT? am kiTxvas
rac, aseT SemTxvevaSi, unda iqnas gamoyenebuli, swored im         xSirad svamen postmodernizmis epoqaSi da masze pasuxs eZeben.
stereoti pebisgan gaTavisuflebaa, rac xels uSlis ama Tu im        dRes aSkaraa _ Tanamedrove xelovneba aramarto ascda dros,
nawarmoebis aRqmas piradi gamocdilebidan, individualuri           aramed TiTqos saerTod daiviwya misi arseboba da im droSi
midgomebidan gamomdinare.                                         gadavida, rodesac maradiuli araferia da rodesac sinamdvile
    nebismieri fibula _ esaa erTgvari Zaladoba realobaze,         ararsebuliT ifareba. sadRac droTa sazRvarze gaWedili
esaa mxatvris SeWra cxovrebaSi. aq xdeba adamianis cxovrebis      qarTveli kinematografistebi, romlebmac orientirebi, pirvel
_ misi xangrZlivobis miuxedavad _ SemWidroeba mxatvruli           rigSi, sakuTar TavSi dakarges, ararsebuls eZeben da swored
nawarmoebis msvlelobis droSi.Yyvelaferi nebadarTulia.             amitomaa, umetes SemTxvevaSi, maTi Semoqmedeba azrs, siRrmesa
mTavaria, rogor eqceva ``nebadarTuloba~ sistemaSi, romelsac       da raRac mniSvnelovans moklebuli, konteqstidan amoRebuli.
reJisori Tu sxva xelovani awyobs da ramdenad ereva igi am             e. w. `perestroikis~ pirvel wlebSi, rodesac tabu aexsna
sistemis msvlelobaSi, romlis sazRvrebi gacilebiT farToa,          akrZaluls da maSindel sabWoTa kavSirSi daiwyo im
vidre ``Cveulebrivi~ xelovnebis nawarmoebis sazRvrebi. imdenad,   literaturis, filmebis da a.S. masalis gamomzeureba, romlebic
ramdenadac am CarCoebSi eteva yvela is fiqri, mosazreba Tu        wlebis ganmavlobaSi cenzuris gamo dafarul-Caketili, Taroze
migneba, Tundac yvelaze banaluri, rac xangrZlivi drois            Semodebuli iyo, aRmoCnda, rom qarTuli xelovneba am procesebs
ganmavlobaSi dagrovda sazogadoebis gamocdilebasa da               ver gamoexmaura da iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda, qveyanaSi ar
cnobierebaSi.                                                     aRmoCnda reJisori, romelic komunisturi ideologiis
    aka morCilaZe romanSi `gadafrena madaTovze da ukan~           `msxverpli~ iyo da akrZaluli qmnilebis saaSkaraoze gamotana
`tradiciul~ postmodernul sqemas aSkarad da Tavisuflad             axla mainc SeeZlo, iseve, rogorc, vTqvaT, kira muratovas, aleqsei
iyenebs. am xerxs igi rogorc sametyvelo enas, ise mimarTavs       germans an andron konCalovskis Tu sxvebs. iyo erTi-ori
da aqcevs sistemad, romelic `gamdidrebulia~ deteqturi             leqsi, iyo grigol robaqiZe da qarTveli emigrantebis, noe
siuJetiT, romelic bevri Cveulebrivi Srisgan Sedgeba. igi,         Jordanias mTavrobisa Tu qaquca ColoyaSvilis SeficulTa
meore romanSi `agvistos pasiansi~ am sqemas kidev ufro metad      mogoneba-Canawerebi.
aSiSvlebs anu umartives da metad banalur siuJets, uSualod             evgeni zamiatini blokisadmi miZRvnil CanawerebSi wers:
dayrdnobils drois niSnebze, rTul Sinagan struqturad aqcevs        `sami weli Semdgom Cven Caketili viyaviT foladis WurvSi _
da marTlac pasiansiviT Slis ambavs, im pasiansiviT, romelic       sibneleSi, siviwroveSi, stveniT mivqrodiT, vin icis, saiT... am,
rTulad ewyoba, magram saboloo jamSi mainc gaiSleba - agvisto      winasasikvdilo wuTeb-wlebSi raRacis keTeba iyo saWiro. unda
iqneba es (anu konkretuli dro, rodesac moqmedeba xdeba),          mogewyo cxovreba mqrolav WurvSi.~
adgili (sadac viTardeba es moqmedeba) Tu paraleluri, irealuri         wlebis ganmavlobaSi qarTuli kinematografi aseT WurvSi
samyaro _ ganyenebuli Tvali, romelic retrospeqtiulad              moqceuls hgavda, romelic sadRac mihqris, magram ar aqvs
aRiqvams movlenebs, ra Tqma unda, mwerlis aqtiuri CareviT.        zemoqmedebis, mimarTulebis Secvlis unari. xelovneba mxolod
    mTavari mainc droa, romelic arsebobs da ara Cvengan           maSinaa marTali, rodesac masSi arsebobs realobiT mogvrili
damoukideblad, aramed CvenTan erTad. dro, romelic mudam           da gacnobierebuli realoba, is mxolod maSin ganixileba, rogorc
axdenda sazogadoebis formirebas, gamoxatavda mis suls,            sakmarisad saimedo. masSi, rogorc wesi, Cadebulia sibrZnis
cxovrebis wess, safuZvels uqmnida xelovans fiqrisTvis,
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rwmena _ realuri drois rwmena-xedva (SigniT da ara garedan           ucxoobas, sxva faqtorebTan erTad, ramdenadme faravs da
aRqmuli). amitom gare faqtebis gacnobiereba xdeba rwmenis            SeumCnevels xdis agreTve enis tradiciuli, Cveuli wesiT
saxe, is ki Semowmebas ar eqvemdebareba da ar saWiroebs. Semowmeba   moxmareba, radgan es ukanaskneli cxovrebis tradiciul wesrigs
ki iwyeba maSin, rodesac mqrolav WurvSi msxdomebs gveCveneba,        Seesabameba.
rom vmoZraobT, magram es moZraoba sxva araferia, Tu ara                  xSirad aseT dros iqmneba STabeWdileba, viTom cxovreba
daxSul sivrceSi gamomwyvdeuli adamianebis farTxali, ara              isev im wesiTa da rigiT, arsebiTad isev Seuferxeblad miedineba.
Tavis dasaRwevad, aramed iq, SigniT myudrod da moxerxebulad          mwerali naTlad xedavs da mwvaved ganicdis tradiciuli
mosaTavseblad.                                                       wesrigis rRvevas, samyaros arsebiT mouwesrigeblobas da
    mxatvruli Semecneba individualuri SemoqmedebiTi                  ucxoobas da amgvar pirobebSi, enis tradiciuli moxmarebis
gamovlinebis sferoa da mas, wesiT, ar unda SeeZlos garemosTan,       princi pul siyalbesa da Seusabamobas. igi `am naTelxilvisa~
sazogadoebasTan (mis mier dawesebul xelovnur kanonebTan)             da mwvave gancdis dawoliT, sagangebod arRvevs xolme enis
konfliqtSi Seusvleloba. es misi aucilebeli sulieri                   tradiciul normebs, cxovrebis wesis Sesabamisad da naTelhyofs
moTxovnileba unda iyos, radgan sinamdvile gacilebiT rTulia,          WeSmaritebas am ukanasknelis Taobaze.
vidre, erTi SexedviT, warmodgeba. am labirinTSi gzis gakvalva            60-ian wlebSi xelovnebaSiOmomxdari gadatrialebis
ki, yvelas ar SeuZlia.                                               avtorebma, xelovan-meamboxeTa jgufma zustad icoda Tavisi
    socialisturi realizmis boboqroba-aRzevebis Jams                  daniSnulebis Sesaxeb da miznebic gansazRvruli hqonda. maT
xelovneba swored imitom ar iyo xelovneba, rom xelovani               uTanasworo brZola moiges. moiges imitom, rom hqondaT rwmenac,
iZulebuli iyo tyuili eTqva, cru ideas cru forma mosdevda             mizanic, esmodaT, rom samyaros suraTis cvalebadoba enis Sesabamis
da erTi tyuili sicrueTa mTel jaWvs iwvevda. andrei siniavski         cvalebadobas moiTxovs da ganapirobebs; icodnen, rom Zveli
wers: `ukanaskneli wlebis movlenebma Cveni xelovneba                 idealebi ZalaSi aRar iyo. maT Zala daukarges Zvel idealebs
naxevaromebisa da naxevarsimarTlis gzas Seuyena...~                  da daamyares axali cxovrebis Sesabamisi wesrigi. maT axali
    sxvadasxva `sofl-xedva~ (zurab kakabaZis terminia) anu           idealebi moitanes, axali idealebis AZiebasa da maTze dakvirvebas
samyaros sxvadasxva suraTis aRqma ara mxolod sxvadasxva              Seudgnen. maT gaamarTles im droSi arseboba, romelSic
xalxebs axasiaTebs, aramed erTsa da imave xalxs sxvadasxva           cxovrobdnen da araTu fexdafex mihyvnen, aramed win gauswres
dros _ icvleba yoveli eris ZiriTadi ideali da aqedan, misi           dros. `aseT SemTxvevaSi bunebrivi iyo, rom moxdeboda is
suraTis cvlileba enis Sesabamis cvlilebas moiTxovs da                raRac, rac isev da isev adamianma gamoigona da es gamonagoni
apirobebs. oRond cvlileba SedarebiT nela da SeumCnevlad              SefarviT, pirobiTi, idumali niSnebiT, ucnauri `ieroglifebiT~
xdeba _ enobrivi niSnebi inerciis ZaliT garegnuladac igiveni         Sealamaza da dro, romelic yvelafris mmarTvelia, ubralod,
rCebian da imave wesiT moixmarebian, rac Cqmalavs im garemoebas,     mospo, gaaqro, radgan is, ubralod, aRar dasWirda.
rom ZalaSi aRaraa Zveli ideali, samyaros Zveli suraTi da                 wina periodebisgan (anu sabWoTa ideologiiT nakarnaxevi
samyaros Sesabamisi wesrigi.                                         30-40-50-iani wlebidan) gansxvavebiT, rodesac istoria iwereboda
    gardamaval periodSi, rodesac Zala daukargavs tradiciul           asaxuli sinamdvilis yvela arsebul kiTxvaze mza pasuxiT,
ideals, samyaros tradiciul suraTs da cxovrebis Sesabamis             rodesac realuri siuJeti ukve winaswar gansazRvrul daskvnebsa
wesrigs, ise rom, axali jer ar Cans adamianis cxovreba, misi         da reziumeebTan iyo SeTanxmebuli, rodesac saWiro iyo ara
yofna samyaroSi arsebiTad ferxdeba da samyaro misTvis                mxolod didi tyuili, aramed axali miTologia, rodesac gaCnda
princi pulad ucxo xdeba; xolo am Seferxebas da samyaros am           axali, revoluciuri xelovneba, ramac yvelasa da yvelafers


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Tavisi saTanado adgili miuCina. 50-iani wlebis meore naxevridan    nacekvma, maTma naTqvamma leqsebma Tu SeTxzulma legendebma _
es monoliTi, Tixis fexebze mdgomi goliaTi uecrad daingra.          erovnulma tradiciam ganapiroba. miTologiuri samyaros
    dRes, rodesac samyaroSi kvlav axali idealebi damkvidrda,       personaJTa ganumeoreblobam, aq Semoqmedebis individualobis
rodesac yvelaferi TiTqos xiluli da xelmisawvdomia, ucbad           ganumeoreblobis saxe miiRo, Zveli sistemebi dairRva, axlebi
amoCnda, rom xilulsa da xelmisawvdoms miRma uxilavi da             amoqmedda, istoriuli realoba, romelSic maT cxovreba
xelSeuxebeli devs.                                                 uxdebodaT, axali ganzomilebebiT Seicvala.
    axali legendaruli sinamdvilis (meorenairad, socialisturi           Tanamedrove kvleva sul ufro da ufro ixreba im
realizmi) Seqmnisas saWiro iyo axali moqmedi gmirebis Seqmna,      Tvalsazrisisken, rom miTosi Seicavs dafarul sazriss,
romlebic analogs Zvel, ukve Camoyalibebul, saukuneebgamovlil       fantastikuri saxeebisa da warmodgenebis miRma arsebuls. am
saxeebSi povebdnen da gaCndnen _ winaswarmetyveli                  sazrisis wvdomasa da gamovlenas isaxavs miznad Tanamedrove
revolucionerebi, maTi mociqulebi, raindi mxedarTmTavrebi, maTi     mecnieruli analizi, magram amave dros xazgasmiT aRiniSneba,
saWurvelmtvirTavebi, maTi mtrebi da monebi, uwmindurebi, axali     rom ramdenadac goneba ver moicavs adamianis kulturuli
xalxi, axali morali, axali demonebi, axali gmirebi da uecrad       arsebobis yvela formas, miTosis struqtura ver daxasiaTdeba,
(ra Tqma unda, ara erTbaSad) es yvelaferi gaqra.                   rogorc nacionaluri.
    erTgvar miTologiur `Cvenad~ qceuli Semoqmedi kvlav                 mxatvruli realoba amCnevs Tavisi arsebobis pirobebs, rac
`me~-s niSnian personad iqca da man daiwyo, miTologiuri samyaros   sruliad ar SeuZlia miTs; Tavis pirobebs amCnevs folkloruli
personaJTa msgavsad - adamianebTan Sinagani Tvisebebis amotana,    Semecneba; zRaparma icis, rom gamogonilia, miTs eWvi arafris
yvelafris ganumeoreblis, gansakuTrebulis Zieba, is, rac axlos      aqvs, iseve, rogorc adamians, romelic miTis SigniT imyofeba,
iyo gamomxatvel bunebasTan, is rac axlos iyo sakuTar TavTan,       religiur adamians sWirdeba rwmena, raTa miiRos zebunebrivi,
im eris sworupovar TvisebebTan, romelsac igi warmoadgenda          saswauli, miTur samyaros kacs es ar sWirdeba. is yovelgvar
da aq ukve, didi xania, aRar iyo nihilizmis, cxovrebis uaryofis    saswauls iRebs, rogorc savsebiT bunebriv movlenas.
dro, jer komunizmis aCrdilma da Semdeg evropaSi (swored,               adamians, romelsac gadatanili aqvs sabWoTa `miTologiis~
50-ianis miwurulsa da 60-ianis dasawyisSi) dawyebulma              wlebi da romelmac SesaniSnavad iswavla Tavisi fiqrebisa Tu
moZraobam, axleburad Sefasebulma samyarom, axalma imedebma,        survilebis SeniRbva, axali sistemebis Seqmna SeuZlia, mas aqvs
axalma talRam, qarTvel xelovanTa da kinematografistTa              amis rwmena da amdenad, Tavisuflad epyroba garemomcvel samyaros
rigebSic, SeiZleba pirdapiri ara, magram uxilavi pasionaluri       - es odiTganve qarTveli kacis bunebaa.
kavSirebi daamyara.                                                    istoria da xelovneba erTaneTis ganuyreli Tanamgzavrebi
    samyaro TiTqos didi xnis Zilisgan gamoerkva da gamofxizlda,    arian, amdenad, xelovnebis dayofa, gancalkeveba – faqtobrivi
sizmarSi nanaxi gakveTili cxadad aqcia, sizmari realobaSi          istoriuli movlenebis amsaxvel da Tanamedrove adamianis Sesaxeb
gadmoitana, ufro sworad, realobas sizmris, zRapris, igavis,        Seqmnil nawarmoebebad, mcdari iqneboda. miT umetes, rom
legendis (imis mixedviT, vis ra esizmra) forma mianiWa da          damokidebuleba xelovnebis qmnilebis mimarT, rodesac mas wlebis
galaktioniviT Tamamad ganacxada: `Cven vxedavT sizmrebs ara        intervalis Semdeg uyureb, TavisTavad gulisxmobs istorizmis
Tqveneburs~. am sizmrebs odnav tkbili surneli dahkravda,           moments. es distancia Rrmavdeba maSin, rodesac warsulis
oRond isini ar iyo jadosnuri sizmrebi, agebuli ocnebebsa           gaanalizebis Jami dgeba, Tumca, TavisTavad, Tanadroulobac ukve im
Tu iluziebze, isini Zalian realuri da myarsafuZvliani sizmrebi     epoqis drois gamomxatvelia, rodesac esa Tu is nawarmoebi iqmneba.
iyo, romelTa arsebobac winaparTa gamocdilebam, maTma namRerma,


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    amdenad, albaT, unda iTqvas, rom ar arsebobs filmebi                 cxovrebis istoriad gageba naTels hfens agreTve xelovnebis
`Tanamedrove~ da `istoriuli~, aramed arsebobs filmebi,               Sinaarsisa da formebis cvalebadobis faqts. xelovneba, rogorc
romlebic adamianis Sesaxeb, misi Sinagani samyarosa da garemosTan,   cnobilia, cxovrebas gamosaxavs, amitomac misi Taviseburebis
sazogadoebasTan damokidebulebaze mogviTxrobs, an warsulSi,           gagebisTvis xSirad cxovrebis Taviseburebis gaTvaliswineba
an awmyoSi. dro ucvlelia da swored esaa 60-70-iani wlebis            gvWirdeba. amasTan, cxovreba istoriaa, rac imas moaswavebs, rom
qarTuli kinos mTavari Tviseba - yvelaferi, rac masSi xdeba,          misi gezi da mimarTuleba, misi warmmarTveli yoveli ideali
erTi mxriv, Janris axali kanonebis damkvidrebis saSualebaa,          mxolod droebiTia, rom igi odesme amowuravs Tavis
meore mxriv, mxolod da mxolod Tanamedrove problemebis                SesaZleblobebs, anu, rogorc ityvian xolme, Tavis dros mosWams
amsaxvelia, moqmedebis drois gadatanis, saTqmelis, viTarebis         da axal gezsa da mimarTulebas, axal ideals dauTmobs adgils.~
gantevebis miuxedavad.                                                   cxadia, socialisturi realizmis ideologiidan
    meoce saukunis 60-70-iani wlebi, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom            gaTavisuflebul xelovans (socialisturi realizmis eqo kidev
qarTuli kinematografis yvelaze saintereso da gamorCeuli              didxans ismoda yofili sabWoTa respublikebis kulturebSi,
periodia da, Sesabamisad, Tavis droze, _ yvelaze ukeT da             imdenad rTuli iyo misi zegavlenisgan azrovnebis gamijvna)
Rrmad Seswavlili. gamomdinare iqidan, rom xelovans sabWoTa           Sansi mieca, xelovneba Tavisi WeSmariti arsisTvis daebrunebina
kavSiris respublikebSi, moRvaweoba sabWoTa cenzuris pirobebSi        - cxovrebiseuli simarTlis asaxvisa da axali mxatvruli
uxdeboda, igi iZulebuli iyo an damorCileboda gabatonebul             formebiT ametyvelebisken. rameTu xelovnebis yovel axal
ideologias, an epova is gzebi, anu is mxatvruli formebi,             safexurze gadasvla yovelTvis gamomsaxveli xerxebis ganaxlebas,
romelTa meSveobiTac igi Tavis namdvil saTqmels ityoda.               saxecvlilebas moiTxovs, radgan saTqmelTan erTad formac
maTi namuSevrebis Taviseburebac, am garemoebebma ganapiroba.         icvleba, miT ufro, rom es saTqmeli amboxebis xasiaTisaa da
drois cvalebadobasTan erTad, bunebrivad icvleba                      cxovrebis gardaqmniskenaaa mimarTuli.
damokidebuleba mxatvruli nawarmoebis mimarT, Sefasebis                   `xalxis winaSe gadaSlili sulieri da fizikuri Tavisufleba
sazomebic cvlilebas ganicdis, rac misi aRqmis Taviseburebebs         uxilavi bedisweris daqvemdebarebaSi aRmoCnda. samyaroSi sakuTari
gansazRvravs. saintereso swored isaa, Tu rogor xedavs xelovani       Tavis ufro srulad realizebis SesaZlebloba (harmoniis niSani?)
(reJisori, mwerali, mxatvari) dros, saidan sadamde isazRvreba        saerTo disharmonianSi gazavda. xolo bunebriv swrafvas
is SemoqmedebaSi _ aris es konkretuli wlebi, epoqa, dRe,             darRveuli realobis mowesrigebisken globalur kraxamde,
ricxvi, Tu moicavs iseT periods, romelic miTurad - odesRac           sikvdilis srul zeimurobamde, apokalifsamde mivyavarT... da
arsebulad, an ukiduresad ganzogadebulad warmosdgeba? ra              srulebiT araa savaldebulo ca miwas daemxos, Tu miwa Sinaganad
iyo da Seicvala Tu ara xelovanis mier samyaros filosofiuri           TviTnadgurdeba... magram cxovreba grZeldeba. paradoqsis mTeli
Wvretis kriteriumebi, ra iqceva xolme kulturis mTavar                didebuleba ufskrulis piras iyineba.~2
maxasiaTebel niSnad, drois msvlelobasTan erTad?                          rodesac saubaria sxva qveynebis gamocdilebis, kulturis
    zurab kakabaZe `filosofiur saubrebSi~ aRniSnavs: `cxovrebis      zegavlenaze, ar unda daviviwyoT, rom qarTuli kultura
istoriad gageba damatebiT naTels hfens xelovnebis                    karCaketili arasodes yofila da mudam Tavisuflad (ufro
kritikulobas, sinamdvilisadmi mis kritikul mimarTebas -              xSirad, iZulebiT) iRebda sxva qveynebis kulturis Senakadebs.
sinamdvile am gagebiT, yovelTvis Zvelisa da axal ideal Soris         magram saqmec isaa, rom umeteswilad, xdeboda organuli SeTavseba,
brZola da, maSasadame, Zveli, dromoWmuli idealisa da Sesabamisi      gamTlianeba, `sruladi qveynis~ gaTaviseba da samyaros ukidegano
tendenciebis mxriv ganxiluli, uaryofasa da kritikas imsaxurebs.      sivrcesTan ziareba. magram es mxolod maSinaa SesaZlebeli,
                                                                     rodesac eri (xelovani) momwifebulia, Camoyalibebulia, siaxlis,
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`informaciis~ misaRebad. amave dros, rogori gaxsnilic unda        (cxadia, sakuTari da ara wesad, modurad, sayovelTaod
iyos Cveni suli SexvedrisTvis, man, upirveles yovlisa, sakuTari   aRiarebulad miCneulis, rodesac cnobilia, rom arsebobs
Tavis gazrdaze, sakuTari sulierebis gadarCenaze unda izrunos.     `sargeblis momtani~ Temebi, magram maTi mniSvneloba ar viciT!)
Tu es generaluri gadarCena ar moxda, ar moxdeba axali             arqona, qmnis autaneli sicarielis SegrZnebas. rodesac saTqmeli
xelovnebis dabadebac, romelic Tan hgavs da Tanac ar hgavs         ara gaqvs, cxadia, arc is ici, rogor Tqva. rodesac ici, misi
imas, rac samyaroSi xdeba. aseT SemTxveaSi, imis gaazrebac        gamoTqmis, gamoxatvis formebs bunebrivad eZeb. zogjer poulob.
gagviWirdeba, Tu sad vdgavarT Cven am samyaroSi, ra adgili        Cveni drois niSani - saTqmelis arqona, misi ararsebobaa.
gvikavia da ra adgilis dakaveba gvsurs.                               xelovnebaSi maradiul problemebTan erTad yovelTvis
    ra Tqma unda, sabWoTa sistemam, ideologiam adamianis yofas,   arsebobs konkretuli droisTvis, erisTvis, Tundac TaobisTvis
mis cnobierebas mniSvnelovani kvali daaCnia, Semoqmedi am         maxasiaTebeli niSnebi da mTavari maTi `sworad~ gamoyenebaa da
ideologiis kanonebs daemorCila da Tavadve gamoigona               ara maTiT `Jonglireba~ Tavmowoneba da amdenad, uSedegoba.
fsevdoromantizmi da ideaTa fsevdoamaRlebuloba, cxovreba,              `Teoriuli azri dramaturgiis, kompoziciis, siuJetis awyobis,
romelic arcTu mSvenieri iyo, idealur garsSi Semosa da             ekranis `enis~ Taobaze kamaTis, kamaTis kinogamosaxulebis `saxisa~
mSvenierad warmogvidgina.                                         da `niSnis~, `mniSvnelobisa~ da `azris~ Sesaxeb iswrafis
    iyo dro, rodesac Teoriuli manifestebi win uswrebda,           aRmoaCinos gansazRvruli filosofiuri princi pebi da
faqtobrivad, yvela kinematografiul Tu saxelovnebo novacias.       formaluri xerxebis miRma cxovrebasa da xelovnebaze
ukve sakmarisi xani gavida mas Semdeg, rac Semoqmedi Ziebebs      filosofiuri Sexedulebebi gamoavlinos~.4
winaswari deklarirebis gareSe axorcielebs.                            namdvil xelovans drois SegrZneba sWirdeba. arseboba droSi,
    `kinematografis bunebis gamokvleva, pirvel rigSi, TviT        Semdeg misi ganfena, gaSla, sxva droebTan, epoqebTan, sxva
sazogadoebrivi procesebis _ materialur da sulier _                istoriebTan (Tundac Sinagani) dakavSireba. da swored imitom,
msvlelobaze dayrdnobas niSnavs.~3                                 rom gavigoT, ra SeemTxva Tanamedrove adamians, ratom dakarga
    nebismieri mimdinareoba Tu xelovnebis nebismieri aqti         man bunebis simSvenieriT tkbobisa da sicocxlis siyvaruliT
arsebobs droSi da maT arsebobas konkretuli mizezebi apirobebs.    sixarulis unari, ratom dakarga man adamianis siyvarulis
ucxo mimdinareobaTa araorganuli zegavlena qarTulma                grZnoba da Semwynareblobas, qarTveli kacis erT-erTi gamorCeul
xelovnebam adrec, marTlia, iSviaT SemTxvevebSi, magram mainc      Tvisebas, rkinis farda miafara, unda kargad davukvirdeT, Tu, ra
ganicada, Tumca es zegavlena isev da isev zedapirze darCa,        iyo mTavari motivi, mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala, ramac qarTuli
epataJurobis gamovlinebad, Tanac ar ganviTarebula.                poeturi, filosofiuri Tu metaformuli kinos arseboba
    bunebrivia, saTqmelis gabundovneba, garTuleba srulebiT        gansazRvra. kinematorgafis bunebis gamokvleva pirvel yovlisa,
ar niSnavs mis Rirsebas, raSic Cveni Tanamedrove xelovanebi       TviT sazogadoebriv procesebze - materialursa da sulierze
xSirad scodaven. harmonia arssa da formas, gamoxatvis gzebsa      dayrdnobas niSnavs.
da Semoqmedis Sinagan samyaros Soris, bundovanebas gamoricxavs        `CemTvis kino zneobrivi saqmianobaa da ara profesiuli.
da naTels xdis, gamokveTs azrovnebis nebismier mxares. cxadia,    CemTvis aucilebelia, SevinarCuno Sexeduleba xelovnebaze,
Tuki aseTi ram saerTod arsebobs.                                  rogorc raRac gansakuTrebul, seriozul sapasuxismgeblo
    cxadia, bundovanSi mravalazrovneba ar igulisxmeba.            movlenaze, rac iseT cnebebSi ar eqceva, rogoricaa: Tema, Janri,
bundovanSi igulisxmeba is, rodesac nawarmoebSi azri saerTod       forma da a. S. xelovneba mxolod misTvis ki ar arsebobs, rom
araa da Tu aris, marTlac sjobs, saerTod ar iyos. saTqmelis


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sinamdviles asaxavs, igi adamians cxorebis winaSe unda              buneba pirdapir gadmoicema. Semdeg ki, dafaruli arsidan
aiaraRebdes, aniWebdes Zalas winaaRmdegoba gauwios cxovrebas...     gamomdinare, xdeba movlenis, axali xedvis rekonstruireba.
    xelovneba Cven rwmenas gvaniWebs da gvavsebs sakuTari               Zalian xSirad mxatvruli sinamdvile bevrad ufro
Rirsebis SegrZnebiT. mas adamianis, sazogadoebis sisxlSi Sehyavs    damajerebelia, vidre, _ Tavad realoba. aseT SemTxvevaSi, Cven
winaaRmdegobis gawevis unaris, ardanebebis erTgvari reaqtivi.       winaSea realuri da umaRles xarisxSi ayvanili sulieri
adamians sWirdeba sinaTle. xelovneba mas sinaTles, momavlis         ganviTarebis procesi.
rwmenas, perspeqtivas aZlevs.                                           `kinematografis mimarT filosofiuri midgoma Tavis TavSi
    geniosi CemTvis perspeqtivasTan, sinaTlesTanaa dakavSirebuli.   moicavs yovel SemTxvevaSi, or urTierTdakavSirebul aspeqts
adamiani dramatul, tragikul situciebSi unda gamoscado da            _ istoriul-gnoseologiursa da kulturul-sociologiurs.
sixarulSi simSvide, simyudrove da imedi mianiWo.~5                      ...aseT Teorias didi mniSvneloba aqvs TviT umniSvnelovanesi
    rodesac Cven vsaubrobT filosofiis tradiciuli                    filosofiuri (da istoriul-filosofiuri) problematikisTvis:
sazRvrebidan gasvlaze, mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs Cveni drois sulieri      sinamdvilis praqtikul-Teoriul aTvisebaSi saxeobriobisa da
ganviTarebis erTi Tavisebureba - filosofiisa da xelovnebis          gagebis, vizualurobisa da verbalobis, intuiciisa da logikis
daaxloeba. es procesi SeimCneva, rogorc filosofiis mxridan          sakiTxebSi. ramdenadac ekranis gamomsaxveli (audiovizualuri)
xelovnebis mimarTulebiT, aseve, filosofiis mimarTulebiT             SesaZleblobebi aaxloebs mas TviT sinamdvilis aRqmasTan,
xelovnebis mxridan da bunebrivi xdeba, xelovnebis specifikuri       ekranuli saxe saWiroa ganxilul iqnas gnoseologiurad.~6
xasiaTis SeZena sazogadoebrivi pirobebidan gamomdinare.                 kinos filosofiaSi igulisxmeba kinomcodneobis is done,
    saubaria aramxolod xelovnebis erTgvar inteleqtualizaciaze,      romelzec xdeba ekranuli xelovnebis meTodologiuri,
aramxolod xelovnebis nawarmoebis Sinaarsis filosofiuri              Teoretikul-SemecnebiTi da sociologiuri (iseve, rogorc
problematikiT gavsebaze, an formis garTulebaze (rom ara             sociologiur-fsiqologiuri) problemebis kvleva; keTdeba
vTqvaT, gabundovnebaze) da arc filosofiuri koncefciebis             ekranuli saxis sinTetikuri xasiaTis analizi, misi kavSiri
martiv ilustraciaze mxatvruli xerxebiT. saubria rTul                azrovnebasa da mis formebTan, xdeba ekranuli `realobis~
dialeqtikur procesze, romelic arss, sazogadoebrivi                  kvleva obieqtur realobasTan kavSirSi da Tavad ekranuli
cnobierebis formebis specifikas exeba, saubria sazogadoebrivi       saxis `arsi~ `sociumis~ sferoSi, misi funqciuri roli arsebuli
azris Rrma kanonozomierebebis ganviTarebaze, romlis Zirebi          socialuri sistemis saerTo kulturaSi.
Tavad cnobierebis ganviTarebis formebSia, rac mravalsaxeobrivi          80-iani wlebis miwuruls, guram asaTiani werda: `Cveni dro
bunebrivi da socialuri sinamdvilis mTel sistemaSi aisaxeba.         globaluri procesebis droa. araferi `adgilobrivi~ aRar
    cxadia, mxatvruli Semoqmedeba, sociologiisa da                  arsebobs – arc omebi, arc saxelmwifo gadatrialebebi, aRarc
filosofiisgan gansxvavebiT, Cven winaSe adamianuri arsebobis        socialuri Zvrebi. sityva `lokalurma~ dakarga absoluturi
uSualo mravalsaxeobas gadmoscems. mxatvruli analizi imave           mniSvneloba.~7
istorizmSi CaRrmavebs gziT midis, drois kvlevis gziT.                   mas Semdeg dro kvlav gavida, globaluri procesebi
xelovneba moicavs aramxolod drois intervalebs, aramed Tavad         globalur procesebad darCa (SeiZleba, kidev ufro aqtiuri
drois dinamizms, warsulis, awmyosa da momavlis dialeqtikas,         da masStaburic ki gaxda), Cvens qveyanaSi ki, saxelmwifo
obieqturi da `subieqturi~ drois dialeqtikas. yvela es               gadatrialebac moxda, Sida omebic, teritoriuli mTlianobis
tendencia SeiZleba miviCnioT, rogorc sinamdvilis masalidan          darRvevac da socialuri Zvrebic. yvelaferi moxda da
maqsimalurad ganzogadebuli arsis moZiebisken swrafva. arsi          saintereso swored isaa, ramdenad aisaxa esw yvelaferi xelovanze
TiTqos mkveTrad SiSvldeba, mxatvruli sinamdvilis istoriuli          da xelovnebaze. Secvala Tu ara raime Secvlilma drom,
226                                                                                                                               227
lela oCiauri

ganviTarebulma procesebma, airCia Tu ara xelovanma raime                                                                        Ooliko JRenti,
axali gza, forma drosa da drois mimarT sakuTari                                                                  xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,
damokidebulebis gamosaxatad?!                                                                                       wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli
    90-ian wlebSi Seqmnili qarTuli filmebis umetesobis
`aqtualoba~ Cveni Seryeuli faseulobebis fonze, arsebuli                                               Q`feqsebi~
mdgomareobis sakmaod Zlier suraTs xatavs da am procesSi                              da A20-iani wlebis QqarTuli kinoavangardi
Tanabrad moqmedebs, rogorc xarisxi, aseve maTi garegnuli
gamovlineba ara Sinaarsobrivad, ara mxatvruli amocanebis                                1905 wlis revoluciis Semdeg ruseTSi gansakuTrebiT
dayeneba-gadaWris mxriv, aramed movlenaTa mimarT damokidebulebis                    izrdeba interesi masobrivi kulturis mimarT _ kino xdeba
TvalsazrisiT.                                                                       maskulturis fenomeni, maRali xelovneba aRar ganixileba
    Tumca, gasaTvaliswinebelia sxva mosazrebebic xelovnebis                         elitarul kategoriad.Kklasikur xelovnebas daupirispirda
bunebis, Tvisebriobis Sesaxeb. rogorc volteri ambobda: `droa,                       Tanamedroveobis dinamikuri ritmebi _ cirki, balagani, miuzik-
moveSvaT cxovrebaze filosofiur msjelobas da saqme vakeToT.~                         holi... xelovnebaSi uxeSad dairRva esTetikis normebi da
    `nurvin ifiqrebs, marTla gulubryviloni viyveT an                                kanonebi _ fovistebma da eqspresionistebma fundamenturad
simuxTlisa da veragobisa ara gvesmodes ra. ramdenic gnebavT,                        gadaafases naxatis ferTan mimarTebis sakiTxi. TviTdamkvidrebas
amaze meti ra gvinaxavs, magram bunebam da Semdeg qristes                           eswrafvis `usagno~ abstraqcionizmi Tu agresiuli, nihilisturi
mcnebam Semwynareblobas Rrmad gaudga fesvi Cvens sulier                             futurizmi. XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi ruseTi iqca avangarduli
samkvidrebelSi.~8                                                                   xelovnebis epicentrad.
    es Tvisebebi qarTvelma kacma da Sesabamisad, qarTulma                               `mesame kulturad~ wodebuli avangardi gansakuTrebiT aitaca
kulturam me-20 saukunis 90-iani wlebs dasawyisamde SeinarCuna,                      SemoqmedebiTma inteligenciam _ literatorebis, mxatvrebis,
maTi gaqrobis kvali xelovnebasac daetyo, es moxda maSin,                            poetebis nawarmoebebi orientirebuli iyo balaganuri ti pis
rodesac rkinis godolTa nacvlad, xis demonebis mefoba                                warmodgenebze da sacirko sanaxaobebze.
damkvidrda da Cveni samkvidreblidan samudamod amoZirkva                                 rusuli futurizmis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli, poeti vladimer
erovnuli xasiaTis iseTi Tviseba, rogoric Semwynareblobaa.                           maiakovski acxadebda: `Teatrma daiviwya, rom is aris sanaxaoba,
Zveli gmirebis nacvlad axali gmirebi movidnen da axali                              Teatrs unda daubrundes sanaxaoba!~ cirki gauTanabrda namdvil
miTebis SeTxvzis droc damyarda.                                                     xelovnebas da gadaiqca masobrivi moqmedebis mTavar atributad;
                                                                                    saxalxo-revoluciuri Teatridan quCebsa da moedanze SeiWra
                                                                                    pantomimisa da feierverkis elementebi.
1.Hhasani i., `artifaqti~, 0, 2008, gv. 59-68, Tb., fondi `artkavkasusi~;               20-ian wlebs miekuTvneba lunaCarskis statia, saxelwodebiT:
2. Spagini a. `kide~, `iskustvo kino~, 2, m.,N1991 w., gv. 22-34, (rusul            `cirkis ganaxlebis amocana~, sadac sacirko xelovneba
enaze);                                                                             misteriebis da xalxuri dResaswaulebis doneze ganixileboda.
3. veicmani e., `kinos filosofiis narkvevebi~, moskovi, `iskustvo~,                     cnobilia, rom kote marjaniSvilis mier 20-ian wlebSi, Ria
1978 w., gv. 4, (r.e.);
                                                                                    cis qveS dadgmuli masobrivi sanaxaobebi revoluciis Temas
4. iqve, gv. 5;
5. tarkovski a. dRiuris Canawerebi, piradi arqividan (r.e.);                        da sacirko-balaganur tradiciebs ukavSirdeboda (mag., msoflio
6. veicmani e. `kinos filosofiis narkvevebi~, m. `iskustvo~, 1978 w., gv. (r.e.);   komunis dRisadmi miZRvnili Teatraluri misteriebi).
7. asaTiani g. `saukunis poetebi~, Tb., `merani~, 1991 w., gv. 574;                     XX saukunis dasawyisSi saxiobiTi Teatris tradiciebi
8. iqve, gv. 567.                                                                   organulad SeeTvisa axalgazrda qarTul kinos _ cnobili
228                                                                                                                                            229
                                                                                                                    `feqsebi~ da 20-iani
oliko   JRenti                                                                                             wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi


reJisoris, msaxiobis, publicistisa da sazogado moRvawis             masxara /msax.Llado gviSiani/GJurnal `niSaduris~ erT-erTi nomris
valerian gunias iniciativiT, misi uSualo organizebiT, 1909          garekanze gamosaxul masxara-jambazs hgavda. orive personaJi
wels daidga da kinofirze aRibeWda qarTuli saxiobiTi Teatris         atarebda Txis mokauWebul rqebs da wagrZelebul wvers.
warmodgena `berikaoba-yeenoba~ (scen. avtori Salva dadiani,             `berikaoba-yeenoba~ politikuri SarJis da revoluciuri
reJ.Aaleqsandre wuwunava). cirki da balagani xalxuri Teatris        satiris elementebs mravlad Seicavda.Ggunias mier gamocemul
ganuyofel komponentebs warmoadgenda. balaganuri warmodgenebi,       Jurnal `niSadurSi~ periodulad ibeWdeboda kritikuli
Tavis mxriv, ukavSirdeba cirkis uZveles fesvebs, xalxur primitivs   werilebi, feletonebi, SarJebi `masxarasa~ da `mcinaras~
da arqaul kulturas.Aase gacocxlda kinoSi qarTuli saxiobiTi          fsevdonimebiT,A JurnalSi aseve mravlad iyo satirul-
Teatris unikaluri nimuSi _ `berikaoba–yeenoba~ (filmi               iumoristuli novelebi, parodiebi, anekdotebi socializmisa
dakargulad iTvleba). berikaoba-yeenobis balaganur-bufonaduri        da marqsizmis liderebze, socializmis propagandasa da
sanaxaoba bunebrivad gadavida kinematografSi, romlis Sedegad        lozungebze, TviT `marqsizmis mociqulebsa~ da bolSevizmis
moxda kinos, Teatris, cirkis saintereso sinTezi, miTumetes, rom     ideologebze. `niSaduri~ Seicavda komiqsebs, seriul SarJebs,
balagani, klounada, Tojinuri dadgmebi miekuTvneboda yvelaze         rac kinematografis winamorbed Janrad moiazreba. Jurnalis
revoluciur Janrs da zustad pasuxobda drois suliskveTebas            analogiurad, `berikaoba-yeenoba~ Sedgeboda anekdotebisgan da
– am SemTxvevaSi, postrevoluciur da antimarqsistul ganwyobas        saxumaro sketCebisgan. filmSi Sesuli iyo bazrobis scenebi
saqarTveloSi, rac sazogadoebaSi sufevda.                            da balaganuri esTetikiT Seqmnili epizodebi. lado gviSianis
    aqedan gamomdinare, `berikaoba-yeenoba~ SeiZleba ganvixiloT     saarqivo Canawerebis mixedviT, filmSi mravlad iyo
rusuli avangarduli xelovnebis formirebis procesTan (1907-           folkloruli teqstebi, xalxuri leqsebi, andazebi. gviSiani
                                                                    jambazis formaSi gamodioda da oCofexebze Semdgari xalxs
1914) mimarTebaSi.
                                                                    masobriv sacirko warmodgenaze dasaswrebad iwvevda.
    guuniasa da wuwunavas filmSi CarTuli iyo xalxuri da
                                                                        saxiobiTi Teatris specifika (moqmedebis gadatana Ria cis
sportuli TamaSobebi, romlebic masobriv sacirko sanaxaobebad
                                                                    qveS) zustad miesadaga kinos balaganur xasiaTs – gadaRebebma
aRiqmeboda. filmis epizodebs Seadgenda qarTuli alaia, jiriTi,
                                                                    da seansebma saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxe moicva da
doRi, lelo, ferxuli, cekva, Widaoba.
                                                                    grandiozul dResaswaulad iqca. Ffilmma xalxSi masobrivi
    cirkisa da bufonadis elementebi Zlierdeba da mxatvrul-
                                                                    interesi gamoiwvia.
esTetikur datvirTvas iZens wuwunavas Semdgom filmebSi: `xanuma~         cnobilia, rom berikaoba-yeenobis tradiciebs marjaniSvilma
(1924), `vin aris damnaSave?~ (1925), `janyi guriaSi~ (1929).       mimarTa filmSi `qariSxlis win~ (1924), romlis scenaris
    `berikaoba-yeenobas~ siuJeti agebuli iyo anekdotebsa da         avtori iyo Salva dadiani (masve ekuTvnoda `berikaoba_yeenobas~
saxumaro nomrebze (sketCebi, reprizebi, Tojinuri nomrebi),          scenari).Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom sabWoTa kritikam uaryofiTad
xolo mTavar rolze miwveuli iyo cirkis msaxiobi – xumara lado        Seafasa marjaniSvilis pirveli filmi, gamoCenilma sazogado
gviSiani, romelic xSirad mimarTavda filmSi eqscentrikul             moRvawem ioseb imedaSvilma igi qarTuli kinos Sedevrad aRiara
triukebs.Mmizanscenebis gadaReba metwilad mis sazrianobasa da       da aRniSna: `am filmiT safuZveli Caeyara `kinos gaxalxosneba-
gonebamaxvilobaze iyo damokidebuli, amasTanave, `daSvebuli~ iyo     gaerovnulobas~. amgvarad, revoluciuri Janris es nawarmoebi mkafiod
improvizacia da mayureblis uSualo CarTva gadasaReb moedanze.        mianiSnebda, rom kote marjaniSvili Temebsa da ideebs xalxuri
    garkveuli paralelebis moZieba SeiZleba gunias mier              Teatris `wiaRidan~ iRebda, Tumca, didi reJisoris daintereseba
daarsebul saxumaro-iumoristul Jurnal `niSadursa~ (1907-             xalxuri Teatris tradiciebiT gacilebiT adre daiwyo...
1908) da film `berikaoba-yeenobas~ Soris. 1 saarqivo                    XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi marjaniSvili daJinebiT
fotomasalis mixedviT, `berikaoba-yeenobis~ mTavari gmiri berika-    eswrafvoda Teatri-dResaswaulis, Teatri-moqmedebis Seqmnas.
230                                                                                                                                231
                                                                                                                    `feqsebi~ da 20-iani
oliko   JRenti                                                                                            wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

intensiurad eZiebda axal gamomsaxvelobiT formebs,                   Tavis `pirvel qarTul warmodgenad~ miiCnevda, miuxedavad imisa,
amitomac,MruseTis `mxatSi~ miwveuli reJisoris yuradReba             rom scenaze rusi artistebi rusul enaze TamaSobdnen.Aaqedan
SeCerda norvegieli mwerlisa da dramaturgis knut hamsunis            gamomdinare, marjaniSvilis `cxovrebis brWyalebi~ unda
cnobil piesaze `cxovrebis brWyalebi~ (1910).                        ganvixiloT, rogorc revoluciuri (avangarduli) formisa
    qarTvelma reJisorma `mxatis~ TeatrisTvis moulodneli             daAJanris qarTuli speqtakli rusuli Teatris scenaze.
da uCveulo gadawyvetileba miiRo: hamsunis piesisgan Seeqmna             marjaniSvilma uxeSad da gamomwvevad daarRvia samxatvro
`naTeli da mziuri` speqtakli, sikvdil-sicocxlis misteria.           Teatris `sulieri ganwyoba~.Aam eqsperimentis Semdeg scenidan
marjaniSvilis avangarduli eqsperimentebi miznad isaxavda            `ganidevna~ butaforuli sagnebi, scena gaTavisuflda mZime
sruliad axali da originaluri mxatvrul-esTetikuri                    rekvizitisgan, moxda oTaxis realuri garemos sruli
princi pebis dafuZnebas moskovis samxatvro TeatrSi da im            dekonstruireba. feradovan gamas qmnida proJeqtoriT ganaTebuli
mayureblis provocirebas, romelic miCveuli iyo Teatris               qsovilebi da fardebi (fovizmi), sagnis nacvlad scenaze
akademiur stils, realistur Tu naturalistur formebs,                 `gaTamaSda,~ `gacocxlda~ nivTi (erT-erT mizanscenaSi sufris
dekoraciebis mosawyen, yofiT, `damtveril~ garemos. mayurebeli       TiToeul detalsa Tu atributze marjaniSvilma piradad izruna),
meqanikurad emorCileboda Cexoviseuli speqtaklebis
                                                                    romelmac uCveulo gamomsaxvelobiToba da dinamizmi SeiZina.
fsiqologiur ganwyobas. hamsunis piesis mxatvrul gaazrebaSi
                                                                    Suqis zemoqmedebis Sedegad sagnebi gardaiqmnen nivTebad
marjaniSvils isev xalxuri Teatris tradiciebi daexmara _
                                                                    (dadaizmi). ganaTebis zemoqmedebiT scenaze amoZravda naTeli,
man speqtaklSi Seitana eqscentrikis, estradis, operetis,
                                                                    mziuri, feradovani laqebi (fovizmi). marjaniSvilis mxatvrulma
miuziklholis anu `dabali Janris~ xelovnebis elementebi.
                                                                    eqsperimentebma revoluciuri gardaqmna moaxdina aramxolod
    amgvarad, qarTuli `berikaoba-yeenobis~ da xalxuri Teatris
tradiciebs naziarebma marjaniSvilma moaxdina `mxatis~ Teatris       `mxatis~ TeatrSi, aramed mxatvrul dizainSi (tanisamosi, dekori,
revoluciuri gardaqmna, misi sruli `re-Teatralizacia~ _              aveji im periodis modad iqca), xolo mogvianebiT, rus
`cxovrebis brWyalebSi~ iqca Teatris namdvil dResaswaulad~.          kinoavangardTa wreebSi (feqsebi).4
rusulma kritikam aRiara, rom `mxatis~ repertuarSi im                    1913 wels marjaniSvilma datova `mxati~ da Camoayaliba
periodisTvis ar moi poveboda meore aseTi maJoruli, xalasi           `Tavisufali Teatri,~ sadac gagrZelda misi eqsperimentebi
speqtakli...~2 samwuxarod, marjaniSvilis esTetikuri koncefcia       sinTezuri Teatris sferoSi.          marjaniSvilisMmsaxiobebi
kategoriulad miuRebeli aRmoCnda Teatris xelmZRvanelobisTvis         swavlobdnen ritmikas, plastikas, cekvas. mogvianebiT, imave meTods
(nemiroviCi da stanislavski). aseve miuRebeli aRmoCnda speqtaklis   iyenebdnen rusuli avangarduli dajgufebis `feqsebis~ studiaSi.
avangarduli, gamomwvevi forma da is eqsperimentebi, rac             Tumca, Tavis droze msaxiobTan muSaobis novatorulma meTodma
upirvelesad Seexo scenis dekoratiul mxares _ ganaTebas, feris       mwvave skandali gamoiwvia rusul samxatvro TeatrSi:
struqturas, agreTve msaxiobis TamaSs da musikas.                    marjaniSvili msaxiobisgan iTxovda, rom mas uxeSad daerRvia
    mogvianebiT, marjaniSvili igonebda, Tu rogor moaxdina am        sityvis `bunebrioba~, emetyvela maqsimalad mkveTrad, xatovnad,
speqtaklma misi sruli metamorfoza _ masSi iyivla qarTulma           gamomsaxveli JestiT.Mstanislavskis sistemaze `gawvrTnili~
sisxlma, temperamentma, rac `ver Cakla susxianma ruseTma~: `...me   msaxiobebisTvis miuRebeli aRmoCnda marjaniSvilis novatoruli
vgrZnobdi, rogor iRviZebda sulSi Cemi samSoblos mze, rogori         amocanebi, amitomac isini Teatris xelmZRvanelobasTan
siSmagiT amoZravda Cems ZarRvebSi sisxli, qarTuli sisxli~.3         aprotestebdnen marjaniSvilis muSaobas.
    cnobilia, rom `mxatis~ scenaze dadgmul `cxovrebis                   speqtakl `cxovrebis brWyalebSi~ damkvidrda is esTetikuri
brWyalebs~ marjaniSvili radikalurad ganasxvavebda ruseTis           princi pebi, romlebsac mogvianebiT ase aitaceben `feqsebis~
scenebze mis mierve dadgmuli sxva speqtaklebisgan da mas            mesveurni _ rusuli kinoavangardis pionerebi: iutkeviCi,
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                                                                                                                      `feqsebi~ da 20-iani
oliko   JRenti                                                                                              wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

kozincevi, traubergi, romlebic Tavs `marjanovis mowafeebad~               gaCnda klounaduri grimis elementebi: maWanklis grZeli
da mimdevrebad aRiarebdnen.                                           cxviri (cnobismoyvare personaJi cxvirs yofs yvelaferSi),
    jer kidev kievSi muSaobis dros marjaniSvilma sruliad              detalma maqsimaluri gamomsaxvelobiToba SeiZina: maWanklis
axalgazrda iutkeviCs da kozincevs SesTavaza piesa `maskotis~          qolga, CanTa, cxeni (xis joxi).
dadgmis gaformeba.                                                        1924 wlidan rusi avangardistebis eqsperimentebma kinoSi
    Zveli, naivuri opereta revoluciur pamfletad gadaiqca.             gadainacvla. ase Seiqmna kinosaxelosno `feqsebi, `romlis
es speqtakli rusuli Teatris istoriaSi damkvidrda, xolo                manifestad iqca filmi `Sineli~.
marjaniSvilTan TanamSromloba saukeTeso skola aRmoCnda                     1933 wels, `maqsimes ymawvilobis~ gadaRebis Semdeg kozincevma
axalgazrda reJisorebisTvis.                                           ganacxada, rom misi samsaxiobo da reJisoruli muSaoba
    1920 wlidan kozincevi reJisorad muSaobda marjaniSvilis            efuZneboda xalxur xelovnebas – folkors anu `dabali
komikuri operis studiaSi, romelmac am dros, meore reJisorad           Janrebis~ tradiciebs.6
leonid traubergi aiyvana.MqarTveli reJisoris uSualo                       20-iani wlebis yvelaze skandaluri avangardistuli
xelmZRvanelobiT, komikuri operis sardafSi daidga piesa                dajgufeba `feqsebi~ kategoriulad uaryofda `maRal Janrebs~
`jentlmeni jini da uxamsi boTli~. eqscentrikul Teatrs
                                                                      da prioritets aniWebda `dabal Janrebs~: komedias, eqscentrikas,
xalxuri Semoqmedeba kvebavda (speqtaklSi moxda aRmosavluri
                                                                      balaganur sanaxaobas.7 marjaniSvili konsultaciebs uwevda
zRapris motivebis eqscentrikuli gaTamaSeba).Bbalaganuri
                                                                      `feqsebis~ aqtiur wevrebs: traubergsa da kozincevs, exmareboda
groteski gansakuTrebiT warmoCinda bazris scenebSi – xalxur
                                                                      maT eqscentrikuli warmodgenebis realizebaSi. damwyebi
iumorsa da sasaubro leqsikaSi. swored marjaniSvilis TeatrSi
                                                                      `avangardistebi~ xSirad sTxovdnen daxmarebas da rCevebs
Sexvdnen da erTmaneTs dauaxlovdnen kozincevi da traubergi.
maT, Semoqmedebis devizad, daisaxes eqscentrika normidan,             marjaniSvils, xolo, rodesac maT gauWirdaT piesa `vladimer
centridan gadaxveva. marjaniSvilis uSualo daxmarebiTa da              maiakovskis~ dadgma, marjaniSvilma Tavis Segirdebs urCia, rom
xelmZRvanelobiT grigol kozincevma (SemdgomSi cnobilma                 dadgmis sirTulis gamo, ukeTesi iyo SeeTxzaT `raime klounada~.8
kinoreJisorma) kaplerTan da iutkeviCTan erTad Camoayaliba                 aRsaniSnavia, rom speqtakli `balaganuri warmodgena oTxi
eqsperimentuli Teatri `arlekini~, Semdeg ki Tojinebis Teatri.         masxarasaTvis~ kozincevma Tavis maswavlebels – didostat
marjaniSvilma Tavad gaacno kozincevi iutkeviCs. mogvianebiT,          marjaniSvils miuZRvna da es sanaxaoba bufonadur elementebs,
isini erTad Camoayalibeben e. w. takimasxarebis Teatrs. samive        folklorul teqstebs mravlad Seicavda.Kkonzincevi am piesas
gaiTamaSebs TviTSemoqmedi Teatris balaganur dadgmas `zRapars          uwodebda blaganurs (Tumca, marjaniSvilma SesTavaza, rom dadgma
mRvdlis Sesaxeb da muSaze~ – (mRvdeli, muSa, bazari).KmarjaniSvilma   yofiliyo klounaduri an sacirko), cirkisgan gansxavebiT,
piradad dauTmo scena `arlekinis~ Teatrs. kozincevma                   kozincevi `balaganurs~ – cirkTan SedarebiT, ufro `dabal
petrogradis quCaSi dadga folkorul-bufonaduri zRapari                  Janrs~ miakuTvnebda.Bbalagani ukavSirdeboda bazrebs, saxalxo
`mefe maqsimiliane~, xolo 1921 wels leonid traubergTan                dResaswaulebs, folklorul teqstebs.Bkozincevis balaganuri
erTad Seqmna `eqscentrikuli Teatris manifesti~.                       warmodgena Seicavda reprizas, sadac ori TeTri jambazi atyuebda
    1922 wels Camoyalibda Teatraluri saxelosno                        mesames – wiTurs..
`eqscentrikuli msaxiobis fabrika~, romlis manifestad iqca                 `feqsebis~ `memarcxene~ wevrebi (traubergi, kozincevi,
gogolis piesa `qorwineba~. unda aRiniSnos, rom am piesis              iutkeviCi) Tavs sicocxlis bolomde marjaniSvilis mowafeebad
dadgma kozincevs piradad marjaniSvilma SesTavaza. kozincevi           miiCnevdnen. marjaniSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT da rekomendaciebiT,
igonebda: ~kostumebsa da grimebSi iyo bufanoduri gadaWarbeba.         isini dgamdnen eqscentrikul speqtaklebs, misive rCeviT,
yvelaferSi xdeboda raRac balaganuri~.5                                speqtaklebSi SehqondaT xalxuri Semoqmedebisa da masobrivi
234                                                                                                                                  235
                                                                                                                            `feqsebi~ da 20-iani
oliko   JRenti                                                                                                    wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi


dResaswaulebis, balaganuri, sacirko sanaxaobis elementebi,             koncefcia. `feqsebis~ msgavsad,K20-iani wlebis qarTul kinoSi
folkloruli teqstebi. marjaniSvilis rCeviT, jer kidev                   klasikuri literaturis mimarT siyvaruli gamoixata
damwyebi da ucnobi reJisorebi mimarTavdnen xalxuri Teatris             kldiaSvilis, yazbegis, aragvispirelis moTxrobebis ekranizaciiT
tradiciebs, folklors, zRapars. mis damsaxurebad unda                   dainteresebaSi. iseve, rogorc marjaniSvilis filmSi
CaiTvalos, rom axalgazrda avangardistebis speqtaklebSi scenaze         `samaniSvilis dedinacvali~ (1926), qorwinebisa da sacolis
damontaJebuli iyo kinosaproqcio aparati (es meTodi                     Ziebis Tema figurirebda `feqsebis~ cnobil speqtaklSi
marjaniSvilma mogvianebiT Tavis speqtaklebSi: `hopla, Cven             `qorwineba~ (1922), romelic marjaniSvilis piradi rCeviT
vcxovrobT~, `rogor?~, gamoiyena, Tumca manamdec, analogiur             daidga da `feqsebis~ esTetikis manifestad iqca (analogiuri
kinematografiul xerxs speqtaklSi `cremlebi~ mimarTa). kievSi,          Tema figurirebs wuwunavas film `xanumaSi~). cnobili rusi
marjaniSvilis speqtaklis `fuente ove-xunas~ Weris panoze muSaobisas,   istorikosi da filologi iuri tinianovis ganmartebiT,
kozincevi mTeli cxovreba amayobda `Tavisi arakvalificiuri muSaobiT~,   `qorwinebaSi~ iyo cirki, estrada,Ppolitikuri teqstebi, `magram
roca cxvris wyaros Tavze `cisferi ca~ moxata.9                         TiTqmis ar iyo gogoli~.12 kinokomediaSi `samaniSvilis
    traubergi erT-erT interviuSi acxadebda: `marjanovi iyo             dedinacvali~ adgili aqvs kldiaSviliseuli teqstis
SesaniSnavi adamiani, es unda iTqvas, imitom, rom yoveli adamiani      futuristul, Tavisufal wakiTxvas. marjaniSvilma mimarTa
unda amayobdes Tavisi maswavleblebiT.~10                               `dabali~ Janrebis sinTezs _ bufonadis, xalxuri Teatris da
    `feqsebis~ filmebSi msaxiobTa TamaSisKstili klounaduri             eqscentrikis Serwymas.
iyo. isini ZiriTadad asaxierebdnen masxarebs, jambazebs. gasakviri          filmis Seqmnis winapirobad unda miviCnioT 1925 wels
ar aris, rom marjaniSvilis mier saqarTveloSi gadaRebul                 marjaniSvilis werilebi, romlebic erovnuli tradiciebis
filmebSi mkafiod gamoikveTa is niSnebi, rac axasiaTebda                gadasarCenad iyo mimarTuli. `Zveli cxovrebis~ revoluciuri
`feqsebis~ kinoskolas: siuJetis gaTamaSeba klasikuri                   ngrevisa da warsulis uaryofis alternativad marjaniSvilma
repertuaridan, kinocitatebi `feqsebis~ favoriti amerikuli              sazogadoebas mouwoda Zveli kulturis (xalxuri, folkloruli
komediebidan (Caplini), qorwinebis Temis figurireba da a. S.           tradiciebis) gadarCenasa da am gziT qarTuli `yofa-Cvevebis~
    film `Sinels~ (1926), tinianovi uwodebda `mwerlis                  firze asaxvisaken: `Cveni kinosuraTebis pirveli amocana unda
nawarmoebebis motivebze Seqmnil Tavisufal improvizacias~:              iyos Zveli yofa-cxovrebis adaTebis da zne-Cveulebebis
~avtorebisTvis mTavari iyo ara siuJeti, aramed gogolis prozis          aRbeWdva....~13, _ werda marjaniSvili.
stili da suliskveTeba – mwerlis mistikuri da eqscentrikuli                  faruli gangaSi da sabediswero winaTgrZnoba gansakuTrebiT
samyaros kinematografiuli asaxva. `feqsebis~ pirveli filmi             gamoarCevda mis erT-erT werils: `ispoba Zveli ti pebi, icvleba
`Sineli~ Cafiqrebuli iyo, ara rogorc `klasikis ilustracia,~            zne-Cveulebani, iqmneba axali cxovreba, xolo Zveli male
aramed rogorc `fantazia gogolis maneraSi~, rom `SinelSi~               daviwyebas miecema.... sanam jer kidev ar moxda yvelafris
axleburad gaSuqda `klasikosebis~ sakiTxi kinoSi~11 (analogiuri         n i v e l i r eb a d a S T a n Tq m a z o g a d er o v n u l t o n eb S i
Sedareba miesadageba Sengelaias films `elisos~ – avt.).                (internacionalizmSi _ avt.) Cven unda aRvbeWdoT Cveni
    nikoloz Sengelaias da tretiakovis SemoqmedebiTi tandemis           samSoblos yvela kuTxis cxovreba, egzom kolorituli da
mizani ar iyo yazbegis novelis meqanikuri ekranizacia,                 egzom nairferovani. ramdeni aseTi Zveli, ubadlo legenda,
kategoriulad iyo uaryofili mTis egzotika da siyvarulis                 zRapari da moTxroba gvaqvs, rom msgavsi sxva xalxebs ara
romantika, samagierod, wina xedze gamotanili iyo yazbegis              aqvT...~, _ werda qarTveli reJisori.
peronaJTa sabrZolo, gmiruli paTosi – maTi miswrafeba                        erovnuli dramaturgiis krizisisgan gamosavals marjaniSvili
Tavisuflebisken da mterTan Seurigeblobis, daumorCileblobis             xalxuri Teatris da satiruli komediis tradiciebTan mWidro

236                                                                                                                                        237
                                                                                                                     `feqsebi~ da 20-iani
oliko   JRenti                                                                                             wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

kavSirSi xedavda. magaliTebad asaxelebda saeklesio dResaswaulebs,   Caketili bekinas foriaqi da nerviuli wriali, roca `satrfos~
ferxuls, mayrobisa da berikaobis tradiciebs.14 (1924)               naxvis surviliT gulanTebuli moxuci cnobismoyvareobiT
    marjaniSvilis filmi `samaniSvilis dedinacvali~ e.w.             gaixedavs karis WuWrutanaSi, magram moulodnelad kari gaiReba
kinoapologetTa futuristuli Teoriebis gamoZaxilad iqca.              da Tavmomwone sasiZo SubliT `Seejaxeba~ kars... yvela es
`poeti misaRebia, rogorc scenari~, _ acxadebdnen qarTveli           epizodi uxeSad arRvevda kldiaSvilis literaturul teqsts
futuristebi,15 isini uaryofdnen tradiciul literaturul               da saxaliso, bufonadur nomrebs warmoadgenda filmSi.
siuJetsa da sufTa Janrebs: `siuJeti rac ufro idioturia,             donkixotiseuli SemarTebiT jaglag cxenze amayad amxedrebuli
miT ukeTesi~, _ acxadebdnen futuristebi da upiratesobas             platonis `mogzauroba~ da eqscentrikuli Tavgadasavlebi
aniWebdnen sacirko sanaxaobas, usityvo eqspresias. F                ZiriTadad naturaze _ Ria cis qveS warimarTeboda. (servantesis
    platonis mier dedinacvlis anu sapatarZlos Zieba                 klasikuri romanis citireba).Mmoqmedebis gadatana Ria cis
avantiurul Tavgadasavals emsgavseba da moicavs ramdenime            qveS, aseve damaxasiaTebelia `berikaoba-yeenobis~ dResaswaulisTvis.
sacirko nomers. magaliTad, gavixsenoT moxuci bekinas arSiyi         msgavsi meTodis gamoyeneba surdaT marjaniSvilsa da maiakovskis,
soflis qalebTan, sadedinacvlos `xmauriani~ motaceba, maSvloba,      rodesac, 1924 wels, poema `misteria bufis~ Tbilisis
                                                                    funikuliorze dadgma ganizraxes. `misteria bufs~ maiakovski
qorwili, imeruli maspinZloba da a. S.
                                                                    uwodebda `cirks~, piesis moqmedebas `samyaros miniaturas cirkis
    marjaniSvilma, mxatvar mixeil WiaurelTan erTad, ekranze
                                                                    kedlebSi~, xolo personaJebs _ cirkis msaxiobebs. Sesabamisad,
warmoaCina literaturul personaJTa groteskul-SarJuli
                                                                    maiakovskis piesa sacirko nomrebisgan Sedgeboda.
tipebi, mimarTa tradiciuli kostumis eqscentrikul, klounadur
                                                                        marjaniSvilisa da kinoavangardis saintereso urTierTkavSirze
stils: bekina samaniSvilis utrirebuli formis grZeli Tma-
                                                                    mianiSnebs futuristuli `TavxedobiT~ gamorCeuli epizodi
wveri, Coxis uzarmazari Wiqebi da personaJTa zedmetad masiuri,      `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~: filmis erT-erT gmirSi (msaxuri
didi boxoxebi (hi perbolis xerxi).                                  malaqia) mayurebeli advilad aRmoaCens msgavsebas maiakovskisTan:
    filmis personaJebi groteskisa da karikaturis obieqtebad         goliaTuri aRnagobis, tlanqi malaqia futuristi poetis
iqcnen: aznaur platonis kexiani cxviri (antikuri profilis           parodias warmoadgenda (megobruli kinoSarJi). cnobilia, rom
SarJi), vazis lerwisgan Sekruli gvirgvini dionises kultis           maiakovskis bavSvoba da yrmoba imereTs ukavSirdeba, amitomac
parodirebas axdenda. Rimilismomgvrelia scena, roca stumris          didi poetis es biografiuli detali filmis avtorebma ti pur
gamoCeniT damfrTxali qaTmebi aforiaqebulebi darbian ezoSi,          imerul garemoSi komikurad `gaaamaSes~.
am dros maspinZlebi jargvalSi imalebian, rom rogorme Tavidan            marjaniSvili aseve iziarebda qarTuli futurizmis
airidon maspinZlobis movaleoba.                                     `postulatebs~, amitomac miiwvia man filmis scenaris
    sadedinacvlos motaceba Capliniseuli komizmiT gaTamaSda          Tanaavtorad axalgazrda futuristi poeti nikoloz Sengelaia.
(qarTveli futuristebi da `feqsebi~ aidealebdnen Caplinis            saxumaro triukebi da eqscentrika gamoarCevs `samaniSvilis
virtuozul plastikas): moxuci sapatarZlos motacebis motivi           dedinacvalis~ TiToeul epizods.
sadedinacvlos umziTvobaa _ Ramis sibneleSi cxenze                       qarTul futuristul JurnalSi H2SO4 muSaobis
amxedrebuli mayrioni zedmetad `gairjeba~ da nabadSi gaxveul,        gamocdileba Sengelaias kinoSi SemoqmedebiTi TviTrealizmis
sakmaod mZimewonian moxuc sapatarZlos, dabneulobisgan miwaze        saSualebas aZlevs da soflis arqauli garemo, xalxuri
`daanarcxebs~. filmSi saxumaro triukebis mTeli kaskadia:            folklori, imeruli yofis detalebi Tu adaT-wesebi filmSi
mayrionis moCvenebiTi ayal-mayali, Tofis gasrola soflis             balaganur-bufonadur sanaxaobas qmnida: aznaurTa ierSelaxuli
gasagonad an maWanklobis scenebi, sadedinacvlos keklucoba           odebi, morRveuli WiSkari, `Tavmomwoned awowili~ saqaTme _
moyvrebis winaSe da misi ferumariliT SeRebva, an kidev, oTaxSi      personaJebTan erTad sacirko klounadaSi erTvebodnen.

238                                                                                                                                 239
                                                                                                                  `feqsebi~ da 20-iani
oliko   JRenti                                                                                           wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

    `feqsebis~ cnobili filmi `oqtombrelTa Tavgadasavlebi~          klasikisadmi siyvaruli, axasiaTebda maRali xelovnebis uaryofa
(1924), tinianovis ganmartebiT, warmoadgenda triukebis `grovas~,   da `dabali Janrebis~ (bufonada, cirki) aRiareba, agreTve,U
romelsac ase `daacxrnen~ kinoze `damSeuli~ reJisorebi.             klounaduri elementebi. wuwunavam kinematografiulad gaiazra
`triukebis da eqscentrikuli kaskadebis arealad iqca                qalaquri folklori, ferwerulad gaacocxla `dabali~
peterburgis arqiteqturuli sivrce – taZris gumbaTebi,               qalaquri kulturis (kintoebi, yaraCoRelebi) wiaRi. filmSi
saxuravebi, kolonebi, sakarnavalo atmosfero. filmSi `eSmakis       warmoCinda Capliniseuli eqscentrika, reprizebi, saxumaro nomrebi,
borbali~ (1926), feqsebma gamoavlines kinos SemoqmedebiTi arsi     gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos kintoebis originaluri dueti
– rac maT yvelaze metad axasiaTebT _ Janruli Tavisufleba.16        (dito- m. Wiaureli, mito-i. trapaiZe), romelic klounadis da
qalaqma Zlieri gavlena moaxdina 20-ian wlebis peterburis           sacirko warmodgenis saukeTeso nimuSad unda miviCnioT.
kinoskolis formirebaSi. qalaquri kulturis Tema gamoikveTa              aRsaniSnavia, rom filmi `xanuma~ kinoeqscentrikis enaze
wuwunavas `xanumaSi~ da gagrZelda mixeil Wiaurelis `sabaSi~.       afiSirebas uwevda im saprogramo Tezisebs, romlebic axmetelma
    wuwunavas film `xanumaSi~ (1924) msaxiobebTan erTad            1923 wels wamoayena da amiT daupirispirda e. w. meSCanuri
moqmedebaSi CaerTo Zveli Tbilisi _ specifikuri                     anu moZvelebuli Teatris tradiciebs: `Zlieria qarTveli xalxi
arqiteqturuli da kolorituli garemo. avanscenad iqca                Teatralobis potenciiT..... msaxiobi unda iyos celqi, giJmaJi,
(aivniani da baniani saxlebi, viwro, aRmarTiani, mokirwyluli       rogorc qarTveli bavSvi...~.17
quCebi) iseve, rogorc `feqsebis~ fantaziis wyarod _ qalaqi             filmze miwveuli Taetrisa da kinos msaxiobebi – Zveli da
– peterburgi, romelsac jer kidev axsovda `wiTeli terori~,          axali Taoba, swored amgvar sificxes, temperaments, `bavSvur
`samxedro komunizmi~. `xanumaSi~ gacocxlda mSfoTvare da            sicelqes~, `giJmaJur~ TamaSs da Teatralobas avlendnen:
fantasmagoriuli Zveli Tbilisis bohema, romelic komunizmis          lxinismoyvaruli qarTveli Tavadi fantiaSvilis (l. kavsaZe)
`axal industriul epoqaSi~ ganadgurebis da daRupvis zRvarze         qeifisa da muSti-krivis scena orTaWalis baRebSi, kintoebis
aRmoCnda. cnobilia, romKkino, rogorc qalaquri kulturis             saxumaro reprizebi, qarTveli Tavadis `glova~ da mis mier
nawili, Tavdapirvelad balaganur garTobas warmoadgenda.             gamarTuli mama-papiseuli far-xmalis `panaSvidis rituali~
cnobili kinematografistebis filmebSi qalaqi mTavari moqmedi        golovinis prospeqtze, beberi maWanklebis (elisabed
personaJia: gavixsenoTFfric langis berlini, felinis romi,          CerqeziSvilis da taso abaSiZis genialuri dueti) kinklaoba
triufos parizi Tu niu iorki gansgsterul kinoqronikebSi...          da gacxarebuli Cxubi Tbilisis quCebSi, romelic namdvil
    film `xanumaSi~ gacocxlda e. w. moZravi Teatris, berikaoba-    muSti-krivSi gadaizrdeba, an xumara kintoebis da turfa qalebis
yeenobis tradiciebi (moqmedebis gadatana Ria cis qveS, Tbilisis    udardeli lxini da cekva-TamaSi orTaWalis baRebSi, patarZlis
quCebSi, gaCnda intriga, moxda mayureblis dayofa or mopaeqre       formaSi gadacmuli, «koWli da maxinji» xanumas (elisabed
jgufad, iyo personaJTa gaqceva, devna, gadacma, grimi, niRbebis    CerqeziSvili) mier sasiZos `sapativcemulod~ gamarTuli
morgeba da a. S.)A`feqsebis~ gaxmaurebuli speqtaklis               improvizebuli warmodgena, romelic namdvil cirkad iqca da a. S.
`qorwinebis~ Sesaxeb sareklamo afiSa iuwyeboda, rom es iyo             `xanumas~ cnobili epizodi, TeTri baldaxinis scena, sadac
triukebisgan Semdgari samaqtiani piesa da didi mwerlis             qarTveli Tavadi panaSvids uxdis sakuTar samxedro
`eleqtrofikacia~.. speqtakli Seicavda operetas, melodramas,        aRWurvilobas, Tavisi eqscentrikuli gadawyvetiT da nivTis
farss, cirks, varietes, amerikul cekvebs, iseve rogorc             (Zveli, tradiciuli far-xmlis, muzaradis) dadaisturi
marjaniSvilis `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~ (1926), wuwunavas        gaTamaSebiT, mogvagonebs kinoavangardis cnobil Sedevrs _ rene
`xanumaSic~ (1926) dominirebda maSvlobisa da qorwilis Tema.        kleris films `antraqts~ (dasaflavebis rituali).
`feqsebis~ msgavsad, qarTul eqscentrikul komediebs gamoarCevda
240                                                                                                                               241
                                                                                                                        `feqsebi~ da 20-iani
oliko   JRenti                                                                                               wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

    `xanuma~ Seicavs politikur teqstebsac, rac qalaquri            rogoric `feqsebis~ pirveli filmebi.Oswored marjaniSvilis
folkloris wiaRSi bunebrivad gaTamaSda (politikuri satira,          speqtakl `cxovrebis brWyalebiT~ (1911) dafiqsirda
rogorc sacirko-balaganuri xelovnebis nawili), mag., Tbiliseli      mniSvnelovani etapi rusuli avangardis istoriaSi _ mxatvruli
kintos (m. Wiaureli) da marqsisti politpatimris `damegobreba~      eqsperimentebi gagrZelda 1932 wlamde _ am wels aRadgines
orTaWalis cixis sakanSi.                                           da ukanasknelad daidga hamsunis piesa `mxatis~ scenaze,
    futuristebi upiratesobas aniWebdnen `qarTul primitivs~         stanislavskim ki imTaviTve aRiara `revoluciamdeli Teatris
_ xalxur warmodgenebs, saxiobiT Teatrs: `qarTul primitivs          Secdomebi~,19 rac upirvelesad gamoixateboda `gamomsaxveli
saTanadod aqvs: jiriTi, xanjlebis TamaSi, sazandari, Sairoba~.18   xerxebis TvalSisacemi efeqtebis miuReblobaSi~, sabolood ki,
es iyo is princi pebi, romlebsac 1924 wels daefuZna irakli         es dadgma saerTod `miuRebeli~ aRmoCnda rusuli Teatris
gamrekelis da nikoloz Sengelaias qarTuli cirkis proeqti            repertuarisTvis (Tumca, 20-ian wlebSi marjaniSvilis es
saxelwodebiT `xedeira~.                                            legendaruli speqtakli, isev stanislavskis mier iqna
    proeqtis mixedviT (vizualurad warmaodgenda paraleluri          reabilitirebuli da mravaljer daidga). `cxovrebis
xazebisa da wris konstruqcias), cirki warmoadgenda sanaxaobas      brWyalebiT~, faqtobrivad, dasrulda avangardis mSfoTvare epoqa
da iyo `masiuri koleqtivis~ organizatori. cirkis konstruqcia       _Ddasrulda SemoqmedebiTi Ziebebis, Tavisuflebis, `xulignobis~,
xalxuri Semoqmedebis tradiciebs eyrdnoboda da Tavisi               individualizmis, avantiuruli eqsperimentebis etapi, riTac
mxatvruli koncefciiT uaxlovdeboda wuwunavas films `vin             ase gamoirCeoda XX saukunis 10-20-iani wlebi. 30-ian wlebSi
aris damnaSave?~. kerZod, amerikuli `bufalo bilis cirkis~          gabatonda beladis kulti, Camoyalibda totalitaruli sistema.
epizodebs. al. wuwunavam cirki gamoiyena, rogorc siuJeturi         ispoba yovelgvari mxatvruli mimdinareoba da individualurobis
da bufonaduri elementi, aseve, rogorc dramaturgiuli intriga        gamovlineba xelovnebaSi.
_ filmis sakvanZo momentebi cirkis irgvliv viTardeba. (nino
nakaSiZis amave saxelwodebis piesaSi amerikuli cirkis epizodebi
saerTod ar iyo). grandiozuli Sou-warmodgenis monawileebi
gaxdnen gansxvavebuli eTnosis, kulturisa da civilizaciis
adamianebi: amerikeli qovboebi, indieli aborigenebi, romaeli
meomrebi, afrikeli tomebi da a. S.
    sacirko xelovnebam ekranze gamoavlina personaJTa mxedruli      1. es sakiTxi vrclad aris ganxiluli statiis avtoris
niWi da cecxlovani, mgznebare temperamenti, laRi iumori, ubadlo    sadisertacio naSromSi `erovnuli da socialuri sakiTxi qarTul
plastika da ritmi.Gguruli mojiriTeebis `mxedrulma nomrebma~        kinoSi – 20-iani wlebis kinoprocesTan mimarTebaSi~, Teatrisa da
ganapiroba filmis eqscentrika da ritmuli mTlianoba (Tumca,         kinos universiteti, 2006;
                                                                   2. eTer guguSvili, kote marjaniSvili, Tb. 1972, gv. 156;
cenzuram filmis montaJi reJisoris unebarTvod Secvala, ramac
                                                                   3. kote marjaniSvili, krebuli, xelovneba, 1961.Ggv. 77;
daarRvia ritmuli mTlianoba). ficxi da `xmauriani~ gurulebi         4. marjaniSvilis am speqtaklis Sesaxeb avtorma specialuri moxseneba
advilad axerxeben `betonis~ qalaqis – niu-iorkis Tanamedrove       waikiTxa tromsos (norvegia) universitetis literaturis
ritmebTan adaptirebas _ msubuqad, moxdenilad cekvaven              saerTaSoriso konferenciaze 2007 wels. moxseneba statiis saxiT
foqstrots, laRoben, oxunjoben, moqnili, sxarti ileTebiT            Sevida krebulSi: Knut Hamsun and Georgian Modernism - Konstantine
erTvebian cecxlovani jazis ritmebSi.                               MArjanishvili’s staging of In the Grip of Life in The Moscow Art Theatre
    Tavis droze marjaniSvilis `cxovrebis brWyalebSi~ iyo           (1911), Hamsun I Tromso IV - Rapport fra den 4. Internasjonale Hamsun-
iseTive epataJuri, da publikisTvis Sokismomgvreli speqtakli,       konferanse, 2007, HAmsun-Selskapet 2008, Norwey;

242                                                                                                                                    243
oliko    JRenti

5. Юткевич С. И. Начало // Ваш Григорий Козинцев. t.I. gv. 52;                                                             qeTevan trapaiZe,
6. iqve, gv.74;                                                                                              xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,
7. Молдавский Д. М. С Маяковским в театре и кино, М. , 1975;                                                   wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli
8.
   Юткевич С. И. Начало // Ваш Григорий Козинцев, Txzulebebi, tomi I.,Ggv. 39
                                                                            ;
9. Каплер А. Я. О Грише, друге молодости… // Ваш Григорий Козинцев. С. 12;
                                                                                      qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi
10. Яков Бутовский Григорий Козинцев и Золотой век довоенного
«Ленфильма». , “КИНОВЕДЧЕСКИЕ ЗАПИСКИ”, # 70, 2005;                                         gadaRebuli filmebi
11. Тынянов Ю.Н. Поэтика. История литературы, Кино, М., 1977, gv.                              (uaxlesi periodi)
346-348;
12. Тынянов Ю.Н. Поэтика. История литературы, Кино, М., 1977, gv.                   qarTul sinamdvileSi arsebuli araerTgvarovani emociuri
346-348;                                                                        foni axal Sefasebas Txoulobs. teritoriulad patara qveynis
13. k. marjaniSvili, Pro Domo Sua, Jurn. `xelovneba~, 1925, #4;                 kulturuli potencia mudmiv gadasinjvas saWiroebs. qarTuli
14. kote marjaniSvili, krebuli, `xelovneba~, 1961, gv.401.;                     sazogadoebis cnobierebaSi nebismieri siaxlis damkvidreba Zalze
15. Jurn. H2SO4, 1924, #1, gv. 16;                                              advilad xdeba, Tumca, rodesac amiT Tavs viwonebT, siaxlis
16. Тынянов Ю.Н. Поэтика. История литературы. Кино. - М., 1977, –               arsis gamorkvevis aucileblobas viviwyebT.
gv. 346-348;                                                                        adamianis Tavisuflebis maradiuli Tema kacobriobam mWidrod
17. v. kiknaZe, `aris Tu ara qarTuli Teatri qarTuli?”, aleqsandre               daukavSira pirovnuli Rirsebis, Sinagani damoukideblobis,
axmeteli, sandro, dokumentebi da narkvevebi sam tomad, t. 1, saqarTvelos        TavisTavadobis ideas (aseve maradiuls). Tu qarTuli sinamdvilis
Taetraluri sazogadoeba, gv. Ggv. 49-50;
                                                                                am niSniT davinteresdebiT, vnaxavT, rom Tavisuflebaze fiqrisas
18. nikoloz Sengelaia, `qarTuli cirki~, Jurn. H2SO4, 1924 , #1;
                                                                                da, rac mTavaria, gansjisas, iSviaTad Tu gamoikveTeba pirovnuli
19. eTer guguSvili, kote marjaniSvili, Tb. 1972, gv. 157-158;
                                                                                damoukideblobis motivi. arCevnis Tavisufleba `erTniSna~ cneba
                                                                                araa. is adamianis cxovrebis yvelaze intimuri detalebis
gamoyenebuli literatura:                                                        sazogadoebisagan, tradiciuli ojaxisagan gamijvniT iwyeba da
                                                                                kulturuli, materialuri interesebis sruli suverenitetis
guguSvili e., kote marjaniSvili, Tb. 1972;                                    uflebiT sargeblobs. kargad davakvirdeT: qarTuli sazogadoeba
kiknaZe v., `aris Tu ara qarTuli Teatri qarTuli?~, aleqsandre                 Tavisi jgufuri arsebobis interesebs didi aqtivobiT icavs,
axmeteli, sandro, dokumentebi da narkvevebi sam tomad, t. 1, saqarTvelos        Tumca araviTar survils ar amJRavnebs iazrovnos pirovnebis
Taetraluri sazogadoeba;                                                         moTxovnaTa masStabebSi.
marjaniSvili k., krebuli, `xelovneba~, 1961;                                      qarTuli kinematografi aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi axerxebda
marjaniSvili k., Pro Domo Sua, Jurn. `xelovneba~, 1925, #4;                   aesaxa es Tematuri dinebebi, ekranze. am vrcel speqtrSi ar
Sengelaia n., `qarTuli cirki~, J. H2SO4, 1924, #1.; Jurnali `H2SO4”,          moviazreb etapebs, rodesac kinoSi esa Tu is Taoba sakuTari
1924, # 1;                                                                      saTqmelis metaforul, adekvatur Sesatyviss poulobda. Cven
 Тынянов Ю.Н. Поэтика. История литературы, Кино, М., 1977;                     sinamdvilisadmi damokidebulebis erTi, konkretuli aspeqti
 Юткевич С. И. Начало //Ваш Григорий Козинцев, Txzulebebi, tomiI;
                                                                                gvainteresebs: rodis moxdeba Tanamedrove qarTveli adamianis
 Каплер А. Я. О Грише, друге молодости… // Ваш Григорий Козинцев;
                                                                                cnobierebaSi, Sedegad ki, xelovnebaSi pirovnebis Tavisuflebis
 БУТОВСКИЙ Я. Григорий Козинцев и Золотой век довоенного
                                                                                Zireuli gaazreba.
«Ленфильма»., “КИНОВЕДЧЕСКИЕ ЗАПИСКИ” # 70, 2005.
                                                                                    albaT, sakiTxis amgvari formulireba kategoriuladGJRers,
                                                                                magram Tanamedrove qarTuli `sajarooba~ imsaxurebs misTvis
                                                                                damaxasiaTebeli snobizmis da primitivizmis safuZvlian kritikas.
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qeTevan trapaiZe                                                                   qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi gadaRebuli filmebi

    informaciuli Tu intuitiuri gamocdilebis miuxedavad,                ratom icvleba swrafad da efeqturad pozitiuri
Cveni Tanamemamule Tavisuflebis arsis gasacnobiereblad ara         mimarTulebiT adamianis mier sakuTari uflebebis aRqmis kuTxe
sakuTar Tavs, aramed sazogadoebriv sivrces mimarTavs, Tan          im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac kinematografisti gansxvavebul samoqmedo
imgvarad, rom arc ki aRviZebs sakuTar TavSi bunebrivi protestis    sivrces exeba?... Tundac es Sexeba periodul xasiaTs atarebdes.
impulss, arc ki cdilobs, gamijnos pirovnuli, vTqvaT, sruliad           Tu zedapirul analizs movaxdenT, erT-erT mizezad SeiZleba
intimuri interesi imisgan, rasac mas `gverdiT mdgomi~ sTavazobs.   Tanamedrove qarTuli xelovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tematuri
    igive tendencia airekleba tele da kinoxelovnebaSic.            infantilizmi dasaxeldes, imisgan damoukideblad, ramdenad
aRniSnuli problema araa erTaderTi Tumca, Cemi azriT, aranakleb     aqtiuria am mxriv sivrce, romelic Semoqmedma konkretul
mniSvnelovania, vidre xelovnebis sayovelTaod ybadaRebuli           droiT monakveTSi airCia (an iZulebuli gaxda aerCia).
finansuri arastabiluroba. dRevandel saqarTveloSi Semoqmedi             es, erTgvar gulubryvilo, mozardisaTvis damaxasiaTebel
cdilobs yvelaferi, rac misTvis saintereso gmirs exeba,             Taviseburebasac waagavs. igi `moTvalTvalis~ kompleqsisagan
nihilizmis zogad inercias daumorCilos. xSirad arc ufiqrdeba        mxolod maSin Tavisufldeba, rodesac darwmunebulia, rom
gmiris pirovnuli niSan-Tvisebebis waSlis mizezebs. ra aris es,     garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi sakuTar survilebsaa mindobili.
Tu ara gmirSi miZinebuli damoukideblobis resursis anarekli?        sruliad axalgazrda, kinematografist gela babluanis
    TiTqos uCveulod JRers, magram individis mier sakuTari          sadebiuto filmi `13~, Sorsaa dasavluri fsevdosinamdvilis
Tavis Zieba (kvlav maradiuli problema), gansakuTrebiT              im niSnebisgan, romelsac, samwuxarod, xSirad vxvdebiT saswavlo-
araerTgvarovnad da amave dros, sazogadoebasTan konfliqtis          sadebiuto filmebSi (ara mxolod qarTulSi).
sruli gaazrebiT igrZnoba im qarTvel kinematografistTa                  axalgazrda gmiri naxevradmistikur samyaroSi asketuri,
filmebSi, vinc saqarTveloSi ar cxovrobs, magram aq cxovrebis       banaluri da arakomfortuli yofidan xvdeba, mistikur TamaSis
periodSi kargad gaecno am sinamdviles da arc amJamad grZnobs       wesebsac ecnoba. Tumca, mTavari dramatuli faqtori isaa, rom
mas sxvaze naklebad.                                               ara mxolod ecnoba, aramed mis fatalur wreSic Caebmeba.
    Temur da gela babluanebi, aleko cabaZe, dito cincaZe _         sikvdilTan da yofis momakvdinebel erTferovnebasTan TamaSi
TiToeuli maTgani sxvadasxva konceptualur, saxviT-formiseul         fsiqo-emociuri jaWvis logikiT gviTrevs.
kinonawarmoebs qmnis. CvenTvis saintereso TemasTan kavSirSi            rogorc xSirad xdeba sadebiuto da mcirebiujetian filmebSi,
ki aSkarad davinaxavT gmirisa da pirovnuli damoukideblobis         amjeradac mTavar rols araprofesionali msaxiobi (giorgi
xedvis mkveTrad gamoxatul pozicias, survils _ gmiris               babluani) asrulebs. Semsruleblis funqcia, Temaze improvizacia
individualizmidan gamomdinare, mayurebelma sazogadoebriv-          swored profesionali kinomsaxiobis mTavar unar-CvevebSi
socialuri problemebis gaazreba daiwyos da ara, piriqiT.            moiazreba, magram kinom Tavisi arsebobis ganmavlobaSi daakonkreta
swored gmiri, adamiani gaxdes maZiebeli, sakuTari survilebis       araprofesionali msaxiobis, rogorc SesaZlebeli da
`sapatio damcveli~ da ara, piriqiT. Tavad gmirma gadawyvitos,      gamarTlebuli mxatvruli movlenis daniSnuleba. es praqtika
emsaxuros sazogadoebas, Tu ara.                                    Zalze frTxil damokidebulebas, mkveTr konceptualur amocanas
    am reJisorebis bolodroindel namuSevrebSi: `memkvidreoba~       moiTxovs avtorisagan. gela babluanis mxatvruli amocana, misi
(Temur da gela babluanebi), `13~ (gela babluanis sareJisoro        muSaobis stili advilad da sakmaod sainteresod iTvisebs am
debiuti), `dapireba~ (dito cincaZe), `rusuli samkuTxedi~           gamocdilebas, rac debiutSive gamoikveTa.
(aleko cabaZe) ara mxolod gmiris, aramed im samyaros sruliad           filmSi `13~, naTeli dramaturgiuli koncefciis garda,
damoukidebel gaazrebas vawydebiT, sadac adamianebma                formasa da Canafiqrs Soris axalgazrda avtoris wminda
sazogadoebriv azrs, isev da isev, protesti unda gamoucxadon.       intuiciur harmoniul Tanxvedras vgrZnobT. gmiri fatalistis
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qeTevan trapaiZe                                                                 qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi gadaRebuli filmebi

Tvisebebsac amJRavnebs. misi maradiuli, Sinagani, Tundac utyvi    unda dagvaviwydes, rom es problema xelovnebis istoriis
borgva, Tanamedroveobis tyve axalgazrda kacis gancdis             kuTvnilebaa odiTganve. Cven mxolod mis saxecvlilebas, aRqmis
organuli nawilia. rogor xdeba misi diskomfortis arsis             Taviseburebas vadevnebT Tvals da rac ufro berdeba kacobrioba,
gaxsna, an ratom aris mTavari gmiri ase SemaSfoTeblad mSvidi?     miT ufro sainteresod, mtkivneulad JRers adamianis cnobierebaSi
iqneb es, gela babluanis mier danaxuli tyveobis axali, CvenTvis   martoobis Tema.
nacnobi, magram gaucnobierebeli wesia?                                adamiani am tragikuli niSniT ibadeba da kvdeba... amaSi
    filmis personaJebi erTmaneTs sikvdilTan TamaSis wesebs        gansakuTrebuli araferia, magram moazrovne kacobrioba
sTavazoben. firi Sav-TeTria, rac kidev ufro amZafrebs yofis       martoobasTan brZolas uamravi cnobieri Tu yofiTi
simartivis SegrZnebas.                                            saSualebebiT axerxebda. filmi `13~-is gmiri ki spontanuri
    ubraloeba qcevaSi, saqcielis motivaciis mistificireba _       situaciebiT iwyebs fataluri ganwyobis martoobasTan gaigivebas.
yovelive es TviTmiznis STabeWdilebas ar tovebs. rogorc                qarTuli da dasavluri cnobierebis kardinalurad sxva _
Cans, axalgazrda avtori pirovnebis cnobierebis Tavisuflebis       socialur WrilSi interpretacias gvTavazobs reJisori dito
problemisa da martoobis Temis sruliad damoukidebel                cincaZe film `dapirebaSi~ (Tu _ `kaci saelCodan~?).
interpretacias gvTavazobs. saqarTveloSi droebiT Camosuli              moqmedebas Tanamedrove TbilisSi, devnilTa erT-erT
gela babluani erT-erT, metad sityvaZunw interviuSi ambobda,       sacxovrebel kompleqsSi, Tbilisis zRvaze da ucxoeli
rom am upretenzio mcdelobaSi (igulisxmeba filmi `13~),            di plomatis binaSi gadavyavarT. mozardi gogonas, saSas, da
ufro metad Temis TviTganviTarebis process grZnobda, vidre         misi uneblie mfarvelis, konfliqtiT dawyebuli Sexvedra male
gamiznul da aqtiur, mosalodnel qmedebebs. vfiqrob, es sakmaod     maT damegobrebaSi gadaizrdeba. es urTierToba odnav `veluri~
naTeli formulirebaa imisa, rasac Cven avtoriseul koncefcias       saSas pirovnebis Secnoba-Secvlas unda emsaxurebodes. yovel
vuwodebT.                                                         SemTxvevaSi, mayurebels aSkarad uCndeba amgvari gancda.
    Tavad filmis gmirebis urTierTdamokidebulebis formac               uzneo cxovrebas SeWidebuli adamianebi ki saSas `megobrebi~,
swrafad da improvizaciulad icvlis saxes: mdore da mZime           ucxoelis kolegebi, Tu misi seqsualuri partniori qali,
nihilizmi, rac ase damaxasiaTebelia dasavluri axalgazrduli        yvelafers gaakeTeben imisTvis, rom es urTierToba gawydes da
kinematografisTvis (amaze gansakuTrebiT mkveTr ferebSi,           mamakaci iZulebuli gaxdes, samudamod datovos saqarTvelo. am
Tbilisis kinofestivalze Camotanili filmebi metyvelebs),           brZolaSi TiTqmis nebismieri xerxia misaRebi: Zaladoba, SantaJi,
protestisa da fatalurobis axal niSnebs iZens. es ori, xandaxan    nimfomaniaze faruli miniSnebebi da ase Semdeg.
urTierTgamomricxavi cneba gela babluanis namuSevarSi erTi             filmis avtorebi maqsimalurad cdilobdnen gverwmuna, Tu
mTliani ganwyobis fonia. es gaxlavT kinematografisTvis            raoden sufTa da araangarebiani iyo ucxoelis zrunva gogonaze.
sasurveli polifoniuri JReradobis martivi magaliTi an is,          ramdenad sainteresoa Tavad saSas damokidebuleba mfarvelis
rasac drodadro `erTi amosunTqviT naxvas~ vuwodebT.                mimarT da aseve absoluturad moklebulia av zraxvebs. magram,
    gela babluanis axalgazrda gmiri, sakmaod rTuli amocanis       raoden ucnauradac ar unda JRerdes, am keTilSobili
winaSe dgeba _ misi cxovreba or ganzomilebaSi warimarTa da        damokidebulebis mxatvruli interpretacia ver scdeba sqematur,
orive, wina xedze, amaoebisa da protestis dapirispirebas          SigadaSig naZaladev xerxebs. CvenTvis Znelia gaviazroT, Semdeg
gvTavazobs.                                                       realurad aRviqvaT am urTierTobis fsiqologiuri siRrme
    ...es dasavluri samyaroa, Tumca mxatvruli ganzogadebis        (razec aSkarad SeimCneva pretenzia avtorTa mxridan), rodesac
dauwereli kanonebidan gamomdinare, avtori arsad ar axdens am      saSasa da misi mfarvelis irgvliv arsebuli qarTuli sinamdvile
faqtis umizno pedalirebas. martoobaze saubrisas arc is            mxolod agresiuli fsiqozis niSanTa matarebelia.
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qeTevan trapaiZe                                                                     qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi gadaRebuli filmebi


    ra Tqma unda, samwuxarod, es sinamdvile, marTlac, arsebobs       xelovnebaSi moRvawe adamianTa umravlesoba, rogorc wesi, sakuTar
Cvens garSemo. misi mxatvruli ganzogadeba ambiciuri msajulis         Tavze gamocdis im tendenciebs, razec zemoT vsaubrobdiT.
poziciidan xdeba. ucxoels aSantaJeben, binZur miznebSi sdeben            daintereseba adamianis Rirsebis niSanTa sxvadasxvaobiT
brals, miusafari saSas interesebs sababad iyeneben da yovelive       imdenad mniSvnelovani Temaa, rom mxatvruli nawarmoebis
es, rogorc iTqva, aqtiurad gamoxatuli agresiiT avad momzirali        struqturaSi nebismieri, mcire an naklebad mcire, Temis gavrcobis
personaJebis mier xorcieldeba.                                       SesaZleblobas qmnis. Tu avtors gaaCnia Sesabamisi
    filmis dasawyisSi avtorebi gvamcnoben, rom am ambavs marTlac     msoflmxedveluri, warmosaxviT potencia, maSin am mimarTulebiT
hqonda adgili qarTul realobaSi. ucnauri am gancxadebaSi              azrovneba, Tavisi bunebiT, kompleqsuria, magram xSirad sapirispiro
araferia. ara Tu msgavsi, Tavisi daundoblobiT, bevrad mZime          suraTsac vawydebiT.
sisastikec dRevandelobis Cveuli movlenaa, magram, misi ekranze           kvlav dito cincaZis films moviSveliebT. amjerad gverdiTi
gadatana mniSvnelovan sifrTxiles, ganzogadebis unars moiTxovs.       motivebi saerTod ver ganviTarda, rogorc mxatvruli Canafiqris
    sxvaTa Soris, imave reJisoris erT-erTi adreuli namuSevari,       Sedegi. mTavari gmirebi drodadro TiTqos im mtkivneuli, mZime
filmi `zRvarze~, swored gulwrfelobiT, problemis mxatvruli            problemebis deklarirebas axdenen, romlebic, marTlac Cveni
gaazrebiT gamoirCeva. miT umetes, ormagad samwuxaroa is              sinamdvilis ganuyofel nawils warmoadgens.
damokidebuleba, rac bolo nawarmoebis mimarT gviCndeba.                   Tavis, SedarebiT adreul namuSevrebSi: `stumrebi~ da `ojaxi~
    gavixsenoT filmis erT-erTi epizodi, sadac saSas `megobrebi~,     dito cincaZe qarTuli sazogadoebisTvis Cveuli da, marTlac,
saocrad agresiuli axalgazrdebi, ucxoels garkveul Tanxas              saintereso Temebis garda, nawarmoebis formis Ziebasac did
sTxoven imis sanacvlod, rom misi da saSas urTierTobas                yuradRebas uTmobda. qronikis saxiT gacocxlebuli mxatvruli
`oficialur xasiaTs~ ar miscemen da amas dauzustebeli                 Txroba filmSi `stumrebi~ da mdore montaJiT, magram dramatuli
`organos~ saxeliT akeTeben.                                          urTierTobebiT saintereso `ojaxi~, TiTqos xsenebuli Ziebis
    msaxiobi giorgi gurgulia, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli                gamarTlebas gvpirdeboda. `dapireba~ ki, samwuxarod, formalur-
xazgasmuli manerulobiT (rac, ra Tqma unda, reJisoris mier            maneruli, pretenziuli tempo-ritmiT viTardeba, rac kidev ufro
dasaxuli miznis Sedegia), cdilobs daarwmunos ucxoeli                 amZafrebs erTgvar wyenas am, gavimeoreb, metad mtkivneuli Temis
mdgomareobis gamouvalobaSi.                                          mxatvruli gaazrebis, warmoCenis arasrulyofilebis gamo.
    moqmedeba mTavari gmiris saxlis win viTardeba. momxdurTa             qarTvel mayurebels, albaT, arasodes daaviwydeba is rezonansi,
agresia aSkarad utrirebulia. ucxoelis samarTliani aRSfoTeba          romelsac aleko cabaZis filmebi iwvevdnen agresiulad da
daaxloebiT, yalbi paTosiT Sepyrobili moqalaqis wamoZaxilebs          pozitiurad ganwyobil mayurebelSi. man, erT-erTma, pirvelTaganma
gvagonebs, maSin, rodesac, vimeoreb, msgavsi faqtebi arc uCveulo     moaxerxa saocari sinamdviliT, bunebriobiT, utyuari
movlenaa da arc avtorTa warmosaxvis nayofi.                          damajereblobiT da amave dros, daundoblobiT eTqva
    rodesac saqarTvelodan wasuli reJisorebis aRqmis                  sazogadoebisaTvis is, Tu ras fiqrobs mis mier dakanonebul,
Taviseburebani vaxseneT, ar gvigulisxmia mxolod gamZafrebuli         normadqceul yofaze. swored amis gamo, misi debiuti kinoSi,
negativizmi an, piriqiT, araobieqturi nostalgiis Sedegebi mxatvrul   mxatvruli filmi `laqa~, 80-ian wlebSi yvelaze primitiulad
nawarmoebSi. Cven xazgasmiT mivuTiTeT im saintereso, sagulisxmo      moazrovne `zneobis sadarajoze mdgomi~ adamianebis samizned
fsiqologiur metamorfozaze, rac mxatvris, Semoqmedis mier             iqca. naklebi masStabebiT, magram mainc Seirisxa, mogvianebiT
mijaWvulobis kompleqsisagan gaTavisuflebas axlavs Tan.               gadaRebuli filmi, `Ramis cekva~. qarTveli mayureblis nawili
    rogorc vxedavT, es procesi, marTlac araerTgvarovania da          ise xvdeboda gverdiT arsebuli fskeris mxatvrul asaxvas,
gamovlinebis uamrav xerxs poulobs. faqti kanonzomieria.              TiTqos pirvelad Seityo amis Sesaxeb da ar icis, ra saWiroa
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qeTevan trapaiZe                                                                  qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi gadaRebuli filmebi


Zaladobis demonstrireba, Tundac aseTi ram realur cxovrebaSi       aseTia. TavisTavad, es kinematografis specifikis Semadgeneli,
marTla xdebodes. ratom unda Sewuxdes mayurebeli imis cqeriT,      Zalze martivi niSania, Tumca ver vityviT, rom Cveni mayurebeli
rasac yofaSi arasodes miiCnevs sakuTar problemad?!                aseTi sisadaviT, sxva SemTxvevebSic ganebivrebulia.
    iseve, rogorc adreul periodSi, aleko cabaZem amjeradac            aleko cabaZe ar eZebs damnaSaves _ es iSviaTi saavtoro
Tanamedrove sinamdvilis is mkacri wertili amoirCia, romelic       poziciaa. pozicia, romelic xelovanisTvis mudmivi Sinagani
arasodes SeiZleba iyos erTmniSvnelovani. `rusuli samkuTxedi~      borgvis sagania. imave pozicias SevniSnavdiT wina Taobis
sabWoTa kavSiris ngrevis Semdeg ganviTarebuli movlenebis          reJisorTa mcire nawilis namuSevrebSi, magram gansxvavebul
Sesaxeb, kerZod, CeCneTis tragediis msxverplTa, damnaSaveTa da    mxatvrul sivrceSi da gansxvavebul Tematur WrilSi.
axali Taobis mZime xvedrze gvesaubreba. martivi samkuTxedi,           oTar ioselianis SemoqmedebasTan mimarTebaSi Cven sakmaod
aseve martivad da cabaZisTvis damaxasiaTebeli araagresiuli        xSirad viyenebT misi saavtoro poziciis imave formulirebas
sisastikiT iTrevs adamianebs Caketil wreSi.                       _ mouwesrigebel samyaroSi, igi arasodes eZebs damnaSaves, piriqiT,
      sruliad axalgazrda gamomZiebeli, staJiori (msaxiobi         uyvars kidec Tavisi gmirebi ise, rogorc `gzaabneuli bavSvebi~
andrei tkaCenko), didi enTuziazmiT da patriotizmiT, rogorc        (es sityvebi oTar ioselians ekuTvnis). Tumca iseve, rogorc
Tavad ambobs, rac `mas aswavles~, ucnobi mkvlelis saqmes          nebismieri, farTo diapazoniT moazrovne Semoqmedi, oTar
ikvlevs. mkvleli uswordeba yvelas, visac ki kavSiri hqonda        ioselianic Sorsaa vinmes, an raimes gaidealebisagan.
CeCneTis omSi iaraRiT vaWrobis, an ubralod Ralatisa da                rogorc vxedavT, am ramdenime filmisa da avtoris mxatvruli
mkvlelobis faqtebTan. SurismaZiebeli Tavis droze CeCneTis         koncefciis mokled mimoxilvis Sedegad kvlav saavtoro
moqalaqe, skolis yofili pedagogia. igi sakuTari ojaxis            poziciis, realizmisa da Tematur-dramaturgiuli mTlianobis
tragediis, meomarTa Ralatis monawilea. erT-erTi imaTgania,        sakiTxebi gamoikveTa, rogorc umTavresi, umniSvnelovanesi,
vinc msxverplidan daundobel SurismaZieblad SeiZleba               qarTveli (da ara mxolod qarTveli) mayureblis cnobierebaSi
gadaiqces. am saSinelebas ewirebian damnaSavenic da               mimdinare procesebis gasaxsnelad. kidev ufro srulyofili
udanaSaulonic. TiTqos, tradiciuli, erTi SexedviT, Cveuli,         suraTis Sesaqmnelad ki ,am da sxva, dasavleTSi Seqmnili
banaluri siuJeturi qargaa.                                        QqarTvel avtorTa filmebis formiseuli dinamika unda
    upirveles yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos is utyuari alRo, romlis     moviSvelioT, rac vrceli da SemdgomSi calke ganxilvis motivi
wyalobiTac aleko cabaZis samsaxiobo arCevans Cveni droebisaTvis   iqneba.
nanatr movlenad qceul realizmamde mivyavarT. `laqa~-dan
moyolebuli am bolo namuSevriT damTavrebuli ara Tu mTavari,
aramed epizoduri rolebis Semsruleblebi faqizi, frTxili
dramatuli sizustiT gamoirCevian. miuxedavad imisa, rom am
reJisoris nawarmoebebi mudmivad mZime, tragikuli intonaciebis
matarebelia, misi damokidebuleba saTqmelis da gmirebis mimarT
imdenad naTelia, imdenad swrafad gamoikveTeba xolme, ama Tu       l. oCiauri _ aleko cabaZe krebuli `qarTveli kinoreJisorebi~
im, socialuri garemos safuZvliani codna, misi SegrZneba, rom      (damxmare saxelmZRvanelo) nawili I.
paTetikuri motivebisTvis adgili aRarsad rCeba.                    n. mxeiZe _ anemiidan atu-alaba, otel kaliforniamde. krebuli
    avtori kinorolebze msaxiobebis SerCevisas maT Sinagan         `qarTveli kinoreJisorebi~ (damxmare saxelmZRvanelo) nawili
resursebze amaxvilebs yuradRebas – STabeWdileba, daaxloebiT       II, perioduli presa, gaz. `rezonansi~.


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                                               Teo xatiaSvili,      ki ar vlindeba, aramed im amocanis SesrulebaSi, rom mizans
                              xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,         unda miaRwio dausrulebeli gzis gavlaSi;3 swored miznidan
                                 wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli       miznamde cirkulirebuli moZraoba gvaniWebs siamovnebas. zenonis
                                                                    paradoqsebSi moyvanili sizifes miTic adasturebs am mudmivi
       `survilis miuwvdomeli obieqti~                               ltolva-miaxloeba_daSorebis models: rac ufro uaxlovdebi,
      lakaniseuli interpretaciebi luis                              miT ufro Sordebi da miT ufro mZafrdeba survili miaxloebis
            bunuelis SemoqmedebaSi                                  anu Zlierdeba survilis obieqtis Zalaufleba Cvenze (JiJeks
                                                                    amasTan dakavSirebiT mohyavs saintereso magaliTi nacistebis
    gavrcelebuli mosazrebis sapirispirod, rom qvecnobieri           ebraelebTan damokidebulebis Taobaze: rac ufro izrdeboda
araregulirebadi, impulsurad ganviTarebadi da qaoturia,              sakoncentracio banakebSi amoxocil ebraelTa ricxvi, miT ufro
fsiqoanalizi da Cemi dRevandeli moxsenebis mTavari orientiri        mZlavrdeboda ebraelis, rogorc mtris xati, rac ufro cotani
                                                                    rCebodnen isini, miT ufro SemaSfoTeblad ixateboda maTgan
_ froidis moZRvrebis lakaniseuli interpretacia _ mudmivad
                                                                    wamosuli saSiSroeba). Sesabamisad, subieqtis SeSfoTebas iwvevs
aviTarebs koncepts imis Sesaxeb, rom qvecnobieric iseve, rogorc
                                                                    ara survilis obieqtis ararseboba, aramed masTan maqsimaluri
ena, struqturirebulia. survili konstruirebulia fantaziis
                                                                    miaxloeba, rac Teoriuli albaTobiT mis saboloo dauflebas
mier, es ukanaskneli iZleva parametrebs, ris mixedviTac yalibdeba
                                                                    anu survilis obieqtis gaqrobas gamoiwvevs.
subieqtisa da survilis obieqtis urTierToba. Tumca fantaziis
                                                                         swored imis mixedviT, Tu rogoria Cveni mimarTeba, da
sivrce ar warmogvidgeba, rogorc survilebis asrulebis
                                                                    daintereseba, ama Tu im, obieqtiT, xdeba am ukanasknelis da
asparezi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom, piriqiT, aq TvalsaCinovdeba
                                                                    Sesabamisad, mTeli realobis konstruireba; realobis, romelic,
subieqtis frustracia; lakanis TqmiT, fantaziis sivrce _ es          erTi mxriv, „damaxinjebulia~ Cveni subieqturi aRqmiT, masze
aris „scena, romelsac saaSkaraoze gamoaqvs Cveni survilebi,         proecirebuli Cveni survilebiTa da gancdebiT, magram, meore
rogorc aseTi, maT xdis realurs, warmoaCens maT damarcxebas~...1     mxriv, swored is warmoadgens realurs, ramdenadac „obieqturad~
    imis sailustraciod, Tu rogor aris dacilebuli survilis           danaxuli obieqti araraa, mxolod „dainteresebuli mzeriT~,
obieqti da survilis dakmayofileba erTmaneTisgan, JiJeks             garkveuli xedvis kuTxiT aRqmuli obieqti iqceva raRacad.
magaliTad mohyavs berZeni filosofosis zenonis paradoqsebi,          „...swored survilis logika uaryofs cnobil sentencias:
romliTac is amtkicebs Tavisi maswavleblis parmenides                „arafrisgan araferi ibadeba~. survilis moZraobaSi „arafrisgan
moZRvrebas samyaros, rogorc erTi mTelis Sesaxeb, sadac              raRac warmoiqmneba~. marTalia, obieqti-survilis mizezi sufTa
mravlobiToba da moZraoba mxolod iluzoruli xasiaTisaa.               moCvenebiTobaa, magram es mas xels ar uSlis, aamoqmedos SedegTa
oTxidan pirveli aqilevsisa da kus Sesaxeb paradoqsia, romlis        mTeli jaWvi, romlebic zemoqmedeben Cven „realur~, „namdvil~
mixedviTac, aqilevsi verasdros eweva kus _ an uaxlovdeba mas        cxovrebasa da moqmedebebze~.4
an gadauswrebs, an Zalian Sors aris, an Zalian axlos, magram             ramdenad realuria realoba? is, rasac vxedavT, xom ar
verasdros mis gverdiT. JiJekis azriT, es paradoqsi kargad           aris moCvenebiToba, romelic faravs realur arss? es kiTxvebi
xsnis libidolur ekonomikas da „subieqtisa da obieqti-               uZvelesi droidan ismeba filosofosTa da moazrovneTa
survilis mizezis urTierTmimarTebis ilustrirebas axdens.             teqstebSi, sadac samyaros gaazrebasTan erTad xelovnebis
Cven verasdros daviWerT obieqt-mizezs. Cven mxolod mis garSemo      sakiTxic ganixileba, rogorc am samyaros refleqsiis sferosi.
konturebis Semoxazva SegviZlia~.2                                   realoba_moCvenebiTobis dispozicia aq kidev ufro damabneveli
    lakani erTmaneTisgan ganasxvavebs libidoluri ltolvis            da sakamaTo xdeba: xelovneba aris areklili realoba, romelic
mizansa da amocanas da amtkicebs, rom es ltolva saboloo             TavisTavad moCvenebiTia, maSin, ramdenad SesaZlebelia
miznis _ survilis miRwevaSi, anu sruli siamovnebis miRebaSi         moCvenebiTobis moCvenebiTobam asaxos realuri? es problema
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                                                                                                           `survilis miuwvdomeli obieqti~
Teo xatiaSvili                                                                    lakaniseuli interpretaciebi luis bunuelis SemoqmedebaSi

gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT ganixileba XX s-is dasawyisSi, roca       sagulisxmoa, rom Tavad reJisori axorcielebs, ori avanturisti
logocentruli kulturis krizisi piks aRwevs, roca forma              mxatvris mier realobidan fsiqologiur realobaSi gadasvlis
aranairad aRar gamoxatavs arss, roca avangarduli manifestebi,      aqtis gacxadebaa, rasac mohyveba swored obieqti-survilis
ara Tu adamianis, aramed nebismieri sagnis iracionaluris           mizezTa mTeli jaWvi.
reprezentaciaSi xedaven WeSmaritebas. „calkeul sagans SeuZlia,         cnobilia, rom filmis idea avtorebs sizmrebis
Tavis TavSi ataros sanaxaoba, komikuri Tu tragikuli... namdvili    urTierTgaziarebis Sedegad gauCndaT, Semdgom ki scenari
kino _ es aris Cem mier aqamde unaxavi sagnis mxatvruli saxe~      iqmneboda siurrealistebis mier aRiarebuli „avtomaturi weris~
_ aRniSnavda fernar leJe „meqanikuri baletis~ Sesaxeb.5 sagani,    maneriT: erTs raRac mouvidoda azrad, mere meore sTavazobda
romelic utilitarul realobaSi „obieqturad~ aRqmis Sedegad           momentalurad dabadebul ideas; Tu erT-erTs raRac ar
araras warmoadgens, dakarguli aqvs saxe da romlis                  moewoneboda, uaryofili iyo orives mier, ibmeboda axali
reabilitacias cdiloben avangardistebi „damaxinjebuli~ anu          asociaturi jaWvi da a.S. „ormxrivi TanxmobiT, martiv wesebs
„dainteresebuli mzeriT~ asaxvis saSualebiT.                        vicavdiT, _ ixsenebs bunueli, _ ar gavCerebuliyaviT imaze, rac
    luis bunuelisa da salvador dalis „andaluziuri ZaRlis~          iTxovda wminda racionalur, fsiqologiur da kulturul axsnas.
prologSive es mzera basri samarTebliT gadaisereba. kinos           gza mivceT iracionalurs. vtovebdiT mxolod imas, rac azrisgan
istoriaSi erT-erT yvelaze sastik da amave dros bundovan            damoukideblad gvaocebda~.7 filmis gamosvlis Semdeg ki bunueli
epizodad aRiarebuli kadri aTasnair interpretacias eqvemdebareba:   werda, rom es iyo mkvlelobisken sazogadoebis mowodeba.
is xan heteroseqsualuri seqsualobis gamoxatulebaa, sadac               rogorc JiJeki aRniSnavs, „...Cvens qvecnobierSi, Cveni survilebis
Tvalisa da mTvaris disko _ qalur, samarTebeli da wagrZelebuli      realobaSi Cven yvelani mkvlelebi varT~ da SvebiT gamoRviZebas
Rrublebi ki _ mamakacur genitaliebs warmoadgens; xan               _ es xom sizmari yofila _ romelic yvelas erTxel mainc
defloraciis simbolod ganixilaven, xanac solaruli                   ganucdia, adarebs Cjuan-czisa da pepelas igavs, sadac ismeba
msxverplSewirvis gamovlinebad, rac JorJ batais mier, imave         kiTxva: romelia sizmari, roca Cjuan-czis hgonia, rom is pepela
periodSi, gamocemuli da, Zalze popularuli „Tvalis istoriis~        iyo Tu, piriqiT, roca pepelas hgonia, rom Cjuan-czia? JiJeki
magistraluri motivi da mxatvruli saxea.                            gulubryvilobad miiCnevs „realobis samyarosa~ da „ocnebebis
    gadaserili Tvali, rac sibrmavesTan asocirdeba, Cemi azriT,     samyros~ dapirispirebas: „roca gaviazrebT, rom swored da mxolod
bunuelisa da saerTod, siurrealistebisTvis erT metad                sizmrebsa da warmosaxvebSi vxvdebiT Cveni survilebis realobas,
mniSvnelovan aspeqts ukavSirdeba. sibrmave ukve adreul miTebSi     aqcentebi maSinve icvleba: Cveni yofiTi yoveldRiuri realoba,
konotirebulia sibrZnesTan, romelic raRac ze-gancdiT miiRweva.      sazogadoebis realoba, sadac Cven vTamaSobT wesieri da keTili
winaswarmetyveli tiresiosi RmerTebma mobanave aTenas SemTxveviT    adamianebis Cveul rolebs, aRmoCndeba gamonagoni, romelic efuZneba
danaxvis gamo daabrmaves, samagierod, daajildoves xilvis unariT    garkveul „daTrgunvas~, Cveni survilebis, realuris sivrcis
da sikvdilis Semdeg SeunarCunes maxsovroba. „sibrmavidan           mxedvelobis aredan gaSvebas~.8
TvalxilulobaSi da, piriqiT, gadasvlis peri petia tragediis             bunuelis mTeli Semoqmedeba swored am farisevlobis
erT-erTi amosavali wertilia, rac gansakuTrebiT cxadad              gamoaSkaravebaze igeba, rodesac sazogadoebisTvis misaRebi
vlindeba brma, magram Tvalxilul tiresiossa da Tvalxilul,           „wesierebiT~, ufro sworad, „wesieri rolis~ morgebiT iniRbeba
magram brma oidi posSi~6 (gavixsenoT, rom am ukanasknelis          adamianuri instinqtebi: keTilSobili padres WeSmariti mowodeba
Tvalis axelac dabrmavebiT mTavrdeba). sibrmave (gan) Wvretis,      ubralo mebaReobaa, Tan sakmarisia, mantia gaixados, is Cveulebrivi
ze-xedvis niSnad ganixileba, roca xedva aRar yovndeba moCvenebiT   mkvlelic xdeba („burJuaziis mokrZalebuli xibli~),
da warmaval realobaze, aramed aRwevs miRmur SreebSi, namdvil,      respeqtabeluri parizeli qalbatoni sinamdvileSi bordelSi
gnebavT - ze - anu siurrealobaSi. Tvalis gadasera, rasac,          naxulobs siamovnebas („SuadRis lamazmani~), sisastikesa da
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                                                                                                                      `survilis miuwvdomeli obieqti~
Teo xatiaSvili                                                                               lakaniseuli interpretaciebi luis bunuelis SemoqmedebaSi

mkacr reJims damorCilebuli samxedroebi gulCvili da                             fantaziis sivrcis Sesaxeb, „romelsac saaSkaraoze gamoaqvs Cveni
mistikisken midrekili adamianebi arian („burJuaziis                            survilebi, rogorc aseTi, maT xdis realurs da warmoaCens maT
mokrZalebuli xibli~) da a.S. bunueli ukiduresobamde miyvanili                  damarcxebas~... iseTi martivi da yofiTi moTxovnebic ki, rogoricaa
absurdulobiT aaSkaravebs, Tu ramdenad moCvenebiTia wesierebis                  sadili an, ubralod, megobrebTan erTad yavis daleva, rom aRaraferi
c ne b a f i l m S i „ T a v i s u f l eb i s f a nt o m i ~ : p a r i z i s   vTqvaT, seqsiT dakmayofilebaze, filmis gmirebisTvis dauZleveli
RirsSesaniSnaobebis turistebisTvis sayvarel Ria baraTebs                       problema xdeba. ambebis ganmeorebadoba da ukacriel trasaze
                                                                               dausrulebeli xetiali miznidan miznamde cirkulirebuli
ise aTvaliereben, rogorc urcxv pornografiul suraTebs, magidis
                                                                               moZraobis ilustrirebaa, romelic gvaniWebs sinamdvileSi
garSemo unitazebze Semomsxdari „keTilSobilebi~ ki, kargad                      siamovnebas da ara miznis saboloo miRweva.
gazrdili adamianis TavdaWerilobiT musaifoben da moSiebulebi,                        `survilis es bundovani obieqti~ uwoda bunuelma Tavis
bodiSis moxdiT, tualetSi ganmartovdebian.                                      bolo films da amiT xazi gausva im gaurkvevlobis labirinTs,
    realuris (fsiqologiuri realobis) saCveneblad bunueli,                      rasac subieqti-obieqtis urTierTmimarTeba warmoadgens.
an pirdapir mimarTavs sizmrisa, Tu xilvis narativs, an iyenebs                 sagulisxmoa, rom `survilis obieqts~ ori msaxiobi: anxela
„dainteresebuli mzeris~ metaforas, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, igive                    molina da karol buke asrulebs, Tanac ise, rom erTi-ori
gadaserili Tvali Tu WuWrutanaSi TvalTvali, rasac sxva                          epizodis garda (vTqvaT, roca flamengos mocekvave konCitas
zerealobaSi gadavyavarT, iq, sadac Cveni survilebi aRar iTrguneba              espaneli anxela molina asaxierebs), maTi rolebis gacvla-
da sadac isini realurni xdebian. Tumca, rogorc ukve aRvniSne,                  gamocvla aranairi logikiT ar ganisazRvreba, anu didi
fantaziis sivrce sulac ar aris survilebis asrulebis asparezi.                  mniSvneloba ar aqvs, am konkretul momentSi karol buke
    „oqros saukunis~ gamosvlis Semdeg salvador dali aRniSnavda,                iTamaSebda Tu anxela molina _ e. i. Sesabamisad, Tavad survilis
rom scenaris werisas miznad isaxavda Tanamedrove sazogadoebis                  obieqti ar aris gansazRvruli, ar aqvs mkafio saxe, an ufro
dampali meqanizmis gamoaSkaravebas; bunueli ki umatebda: `CemTvis              swori iqneba, Tu vityvi, rom arsebobs ltolvis survili,
                                                                               obieqti ki, SeiZleba nebismieri iyos.
ki es umTavresad iyo filmi Smag siyvarulze, dauZlevel Zalaze,
                                                                                    erTgan konCita eubneba senior mateos: `Tqven CemSi giyvarT ara
romelic adamianebs erTmaneTs Caaxutebs, Tumca xvdebian, rom ar                 me, aramed is, vinc uargyofT~ da mogvianebiT agrZelebs: `Tu mogcemT
SeuZliaT erTad yofna~.9 dauokebeli, mwvave vnebis motivi, romelic              imas, rac gindaT, gadagiyvardebiT~. senior mateos SfoTva swored
uamravi dabrkolebiT aris SeboWili, ukve `andaluziur ZaRlSi~                    am survilis obieqtis moxelTebisa da saboloo dauflebis
Cndeba, sadac sikvdilisa da erotikisadmi ltolva erTmaneTSi                     SesaZleblobas ukavSirdeba, amitomac Cndeba yvelaze sanukvar momentSi,
ixlarTeba da sazogadoebaSi tabuirebuli Temebis Tamami                          roca mizanTan ase axlosaa, yvelaze absurduli dabrkolebebi:
provocirebiT warmoCndeba.                                                      gardacvlili meuRlis foto sawolTan, quCidan Semosuli xmauri,
    amitomac reagirebda Zalze mwvaved `kargad gazrdili                         qalwulobis qamari da a.S. zedmetad miaxloebis gamo periodulad
sazogadoeba~, rom bunuelis filmebi Tavis koSmarul sizmrebs                     gauCinarebuli survilis obieqtis nostalgia senior mateos mudam
agonebda, romlidan gamofxizlebac simSvides ubrunebda: `es                      Tan sdevs da pirobasac debs: `Tu kidev gamoCndeba, me mas aRarafers
xom mxolod sizmari yofila!~ bunueli ki, daJinebiT da                           vTxov, vijdebi masTan, rac SeiZleba moSorebiT...~
ironiulad CasCiCinebs: swored es aris realuri, is riskenac                           `oqros saukunidan~ sakmaod mogvianebiT davubrundi ra
iltviT da risic geSiniaT. maTi, rac unda pativsacemi da                        isev qalis sxeulis dauflebis SeuZleblobas, vcdilobdi, mTeli
momxibvlelebi iyvnen, survilebi Zalian mwiria: Wama, seqsi da                  filmis ganmavlobaSi Semeqmna Tavdasxmisa da daucvelobis
sxvisi ganadgureba.                                                            atmosfero, romelic gvtanjavs yvelas, sadac unda viyoT~ _
    filmi `burJuaziis mokrZalebuli xibli~ mTlianad sizmrebis                   wers Tavis mogonebebSi bunueli da ixsenebs, Tu ra incidentebi
moyolazea agebuli da zustad gamoxatavs lakaniseul mosazrebas                   mohyva filmis gamosvlas: los-anjelesis erT-erT kinoTeatrSi

258                                                                                                                                             259
Teo xatiaSvili

bombis afeTqeba, firis oTxi babinis dakargva, reJisoris mimarT                                                   qeTevan janeliZe,
muqarisa da Seuracxmyofeli warwerebi da a.S. 10 Tumca
                                                                                                  xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,
realobidan wamosuli am Tavdasxmebis gamo SeSfoTeba mxolod
                                                                                                             asistent profesori
Tavis Sefarebaa im ususurobisa da daucvelobis gancdisgan
TavisdasaRwevad, rasac realuris anu sakuTari daTrgunuli
survilebis `Tavdasxmisas~ ganvicdiT.                                     Semotanili produqcia da qarTuli
    berlinis wlevandel saerTaSoriso festivalze, sadac yovelTvis                     sinamdvile
Zalze gaazrebulad da konceptualurad igegmeba retrospeqtivebi,         `importuli animacia~ gmirebi, ideologia,
bunuelis Semoqmedeba iyo warmodgenili; ratom bunueli? _ svamdnen                      morali
kiTxvas Tavad organizatorebi, ramdenadac, rogorc tradiciulad
miRebulia xolme, reJisoris arc iubile, arc gardacvalebis an             aqsiomaa, rom bavSvebs Zalian uyvarT multfilmebi. yvela
raime aRsaniSnavi TariRi ar yofila. da pasuxad CamoTvlidnen         bavSvs hyavs sayvareli gmiri. saerTod, mozardis aRzrdaSi
varaudebs, Tu rogor dascinebda `saukunis Tvalad~ monaTluli          didi mniSvneloba erovnul multi plikacias, sabavSvo filmebs
reJisori `mowevis akrZalvasa, Tu Casaxvis sawinaaRmdego debatebs,   eniWeba... swored amitom, am brendze moTxovna mudmivadaa. wesiT,
rogor galanZRavda saxelmwifos SeWras privatul sferoSi da            arc erTi mSobeli ar unda yidulobdes animaciur films,
ramdens imkrexelebda religiisken ukanmibrunebis Taobaze, kiCur      sadac xdeba agresiis, tyuilisa da sizarmacis propaganda da
papsaze, axal biurgerebsa da axal faseulobebze~...11                bavSvisTvis filmis yureba ar unda iqces drois mokvlis
    aRmoCnda, rom bunuelis mZafri da saRi mzera kidev ufro          gauazrebel saSualebad.
mniSvnelovani da bevrad Tanamedrove xdeba neopuritanizmis               animacuri filmebi metad mniSvnelovan sainformacio masalas
gamZvinvarebisa da mzardi fundamentalizmis epoqaSi. bunuelis        Seicavs, saidanac mozardma unda Seimecnos samyaros
mier samarTebliT gadaserva _ es sxeulis gaSiSvlebaa, fizikuri       kanonzomiereba, sikeTe, Camouyalibdes zneobrivi kriteriumebi.
realobis, garsis garRveva, raTa kargad dainaxo is, rac SigniT       feradovani, Sinaarsiani multfilmi bavSvis mexsierebaSi tovebs
aris, ris Sedegadac iZens mxolod mkafio gamosaxulebas               mkafio magaliTebs, romelTac man cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi unda
survilis bundovani obieqti.…                                        mibaZos. universalur, sayovelTao zneobriv kanonebTan erTad
                                                                    arsebobs erovnuli Sinaarsis mqone zneobrivi maqsimebi. aqedan
                                                                    gamomdinare, animaciuri filmi, romelic ama Tu im sazogadoebis
                                                                    moraliTaa Seqmnili, SesaZloa, Sefasebis sxva kuTxiT
1. s. JiJek, gliadia skvoz. (rusul enaze);                          informaciulad mniSvnelovani ar aRmoCndes.
2. iqve;                                                                saqarTveloSi ar Catarebula arc erTi seriozuli
3. iqve;                                                            gamokiTxva, Tu sociologiuri kvleva, rac saSualebas mogvcemda
4. iqve;
                                                                    gagverkvia, Tu romeli gmiria CvenSi ufro popularuli. Tu
5. iz istorii francuzskoi kinomisli (rusul enaze);
                                                                    kinoTeatrebis salaros SemosavlebiT vimsjelebT, ra Tqma unda,
6. m. iampolski. pamiat tireseia. (rusul enaze);
7. bunuel o bunuele (rusul enaze);                                  qarTuli animacia ucxour filmebs konkurencias veranairad
8. JiJekis dasaxelebuli naSromi;                                    ver uwevs. Tumca, savse darbazebi da salaros Semosavlebi
9. bunuelis dasaxelebuli naSromi;                                   pirobiTi cnebebia da mxolod xarisxze damokidebuli araa. aq
10. iqve;                                                           didi wilobrivi procentiT muSaobs reklama da produqtis
11. Vanity Fair, specialuri gamoSveba 2008 wlis berlinalesTvis.     distributoris promouteruli saqmianoba. Tumca mxatvruli

260                                                                                                                             261
                                                                                                          Semotanili produqcia da qarTuli
qeTevan janeliZe                                                                 sinamdvile `importuli animacia~ gmirebi, ideologia, morali

Rirebuleba mainc erT-erT amosaval punqtad rCeba, romelic              naxati filmi aRaravis sWirdeba. xeliT naxats disneis studiac
mozards Zalian sWirdeba.                                              ki TiTqmis aRar iyenebs.
    aris Tu ara ucxouri, Cvens qveyanaSi importirebuli,                   saqarTveloSi masStaburi animaciuri proeqtis Seqmnaze
anim aci a im denad sr ul fas ov ani da mis aR eb i C veni            msjeloba jer naadrevia. iseTi didi SesaZleblobebisa da
sazogadoebisTvis, rom saerTod ar vifiqroT tradiciul qarTul            potencialis qveyana, rogoric ruseTia, sul ramdenime welia,
personaJebze da siuJetebze? ufro koreqtuli iqneboda sakiTxis          rac aseTi ti pis filmebs awarmoebs. magaliTad, filmi
Semdegnairad dayeneba _ rodis daubrundeba mayurebels                  `krakatuki~. es rusuli zRapris imdenad Tanamedrove versiaa,
Tanamedrove qarTveli gmiri misi Cveuli qarizmatulobiT da              rom dednis amocnoba saerTod Wirs. aq aris iumori da lirika,
komediurobiT? amave dros, dramaturgiac ar unda iyos                   draivi da filosofia, kung-fu, siyvaruli, hi p-hopi da rok-en-
yuradRebasmoklebuli.                                                  roli, megobroba da siZulvili, spec efeqtebi, jadoqroba da
    Tanamedrove popularuli hitebis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT,            interneti. rusuli animaciis Zalian mniSvnelovani warsulis
mwarmoeblebi ZiriTadad irCeven situaciebis komedias, an               miuxedavad, erovnuli xasiaTis SenarCuneba, am cnebis klasikuri
komediur miuzikls. es erTgvari warmatebis garantiaa. 3D               gagebiT, verc iq SeZles.
animacia sakmaod Zviri siamovnebaa da amitom mwarmoeblebi da              tradiciul qarTul ojaxSi bavSvebs pirveli wlebidan
produserebi cdiloben maqsimalurad Seamciron danaxarjebi.              ukiTxaven qarTul xalxur zRaprebs, sadac moxerxebuli
    Zalian xSirad aseT multfilmebSi dramaturgiuli qarga               nacarqeqia da xuTkunWula devs amarcxeben; salamura, wiqara
daculi ara aris. arada, filmis yurebisas mTavari marto                da irmisa borotebaze imarjveben. keTili, Tu boroti gmirebi
sicilis efeqtis miRweva ki araa, aramed mayureblisTvis                erovnuli niSan-Tvisebebis matareblebi arian. qarTul zRaprebSi
Tanagancdis momentis Seqmnac. magaliTad, `dreamworks~-is              imdeni saintereso personaJia, rom aTeulobiT animaciur proeqts
produqcia, romelic SeiZleba brendad miviCnioT, arcTu                  eyofa. da isini Tavisuflad SeiZleba CavTvaloT ucxouri
maRalxarisxovania produqciis Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT.              reklamirebuli gmirebis konkurentebad.
    `Sreki 1~-is originaluroba male Seewira amerikul meTods               kinogamqiraveblebi yvela gziT cdiloben bavSvebis yuradReba
_ ekonomia filmze, didi danaxarjebi sareklamo kampaniaze.             miqcevas. amerikuli multfilmebis reklamirebisas farTodaa
samwuxarod, jerjerobiT saqarTveloSi enTuziastebi, romlebic            gavrcelebuli sareklamo triuki, rodesac msaxiobis popularoba
investiciebs erovnul multi plikaciaSi Cadeben da amiT                 mis mier gaxmovanebul personaJis popularizaciisaTvis
maRalxarisxovani erovnuli produqciis Seqmnas Seuwyoben xels,          gamoiyeneba. sareklamo rgolebi daJinebiT gvamcnoben, rom es
ar arian, xolo saxelmwifo pirdapir investirebas aRar axdens,          roli edi merfim, an anjelina jolim, kameron diasma da ase
arc kanoni saavtoro uflebebis Sesaxeb arsebobs. aqedan gamomdinare,   Semdeg gaaxmovana... magram qarTvel mayurebels xom es xmebi ar
potenciuri avtor-Semsrulebeli iZulebulia daemorCilos                  esmis, kinoTeatrebSi rolebi qarTuladaa dublirebuli. amas
damkveTs, sponsors. sxva SemTxvevaSi, moZiebuli Tanxa imdenad         qarTvelebis sareklamo `triukic~ emateba. anjelina jolis,
cotaa, rom avtori SemoqmedebiTad maqsimalurad SezRudulia da           edi merfis da sxvebs zvio, Sonzo, nanuli Tu `qlab Sous~
es ZiriTadad ideologiis, xarisxis xarjze xdeba.                       biWebi axmovaneben. aseve qarTuli sareklamo `triukis~
    aseT viTarebaSi, marTlac, Znelia upasuxo kiTxvas: ras irCevs      moTxovnebiT, originali teqsti icvleba da viRebT saSinel
qarTuli auditoria? `importul~ Tu qarTul animacias? da,                mutants. xSir SemTxvevaSi, teqstis Targmani mdare an sruliad
saerTod, ramdenad koreqtulia sakiTxis ase dasma?                      Secvlilia, intonacia _ vulgaruli, gamoyenebulia bilwi slengi,
    ucxoeTis yvela msxvili kompania acxadebs, rom 3D                  politikuri frazeologia, rac sruliad Seusabamoa TviT
teqnologiis gamoyeneba metad momgebiania, Sesabamisad, xeliT
262                                                                                                                                    263
                                                                                                      Semotanili produqcia da qarTuli
qeTevan janeliZe                                                             sinamdvile `importuli animacia~ gmirebi, ideologia, morali

filmisaTvis da, wesiT, miuRebeli unda iyos mayureblisaTvis,       araa. aucilebelia praqtikuli gamocdilebac. filmis Seqmnisas,
radgan is Rirebulebac ikargeba, rac nawarmoebs realurad aqvs.     ZiriTadi xarjebi gadamRebi jgufis xelfasebia. jgufis wevrebis
    sabolood, Cven winaSe ormagi damangreveli standartia: jer     koordinirebuli muSaobiT ki iqmneba srulfasovani nawarmi da
erTi, TviT originalis saTuo Rirebuleba da, meorec, mdare          amis garantias mxolod da mxolod kargi prodiuseri iZleva.
qarTuli teqstis Sedegad filmebis saerTod gaqarwylebuli                aseve, Zalian mniSvnelovania gaxmovaneba da musika, rac
esTetika. Rirs Tu ara amaze yuradRebis gamaxvileba? aucileblad,   kolosalur TanxebTanaa dakavSirebuli, radgan srulfasovani
radgan dRes es metad aqtualuria. aqedan modis im bavSvebis        saundis Sesaqmnelad 50-dan 100-mde musikaluri Temaa saWiro,
tradicia, istoria da moraluri aqcentebi, romlebic aseT filmebs    rom Semdeg moxdes misi morgeba naxatze. xma, sabolood `5+1~
uyureben da momavalSic naxaven.                                   formatSi unda.
    arsebul produqciaSi zneobrivi maqsimebis arqonas                  jerjerobiT ki `dreamworks~ da `pixar~ weliwadSi aTeul
mwarmoeblebi sabalagano sareklamo banerebiT didi warmatebiT       proeqts uSveben. saqarTveloSi gvaqvs ramdenime axali proeqti:
cvlian. xolo cnobili saxeebis sareklamod gamoyenebis zemoT        lado sulaqveliZis `angalo~, `oqros Tevzi~, `legenda Rvinoze~,
moyvanili magaliTi, imis dasturia, rom am filmebSi aqcentis       gia kereseliZis `imedi~, papuna daviTaias `mZleTamZle~, akaki
gasamaxvilebeli sxva Rirebulebebi TiTqmis arcaa da mSobeli,       lomsaZis `Soba~, zaliko sulakauris kidev ramdenime
iZulebuli xdeba waiyvanos Svilebi aseTi filmebis sanaxavad,       satelevizio proeqti, magram am produqcias miuxedavad misi
sul ubralo mizezis gamo: ar arsebobs xarisxiani qarTuli           mxatvruli Rirebulebebisa, araTu konkurenciis gaweva ar
produqcia, romelic konkurencias gauwevda imports.                 SeuZlia, aramed SeuZlebelia maTi ekranebze naxvac.
    aucileblad unda vimsjeloT qarTveli multmwarmoeblebis              unda iTqvas, rom kargad reklamirebulma saeWvo mxatvruli
SesaZleblobebze. vinc filmwarmoebaSi cotaTi mainc erkveva,        Rirebulebis mqone animaciurma produqciam dai pyro ara marto
misTvis gasagebia, Tu ra Sromatevadia, Sinaarsiani da amave       qarTuli, aramed mravali qveynis sakmaod didi ekranuli sivrce.
dros, originaluri animaciuri proeqtis Seqmna. amisTvis,           es viTareba gansakuTrebul saSiSroebas uqmnis qarTul kulturas,
upirvelesad, saWiroa Sesabamisi SemoqmedebiTi jgufis arseboba.    radgan misi mwiri ekonomikuri SesaZleblobebi saSualebas ar
    ramdenime wlis win yvela fiqrobda, rom kompiuteruli           iZleva am mRvrie masas principulad daupirispiros erovnuli,
animacia erT-erTi damxmare faqtoria multfilmebis Sesaqmnelad.     jansaRi produqcia. amave dros Taobis agresia gamowveuli
xolo dRes umsxvilesi kompaniebi TiTqmis uaryofen xeliT            adgilobrivi Tu globaluri mizezebiT, metismetad saSiS tandems
naxat proeqtebs. saqarTveloSi jer kidev arian iseTi               qmnis zemoTdaxasiaTebul produqciasTan erTad saimisod, rom
profesionalebi, romelTac araCveulebrivi naxati filmebis           ganadgurdes erovnuli, zneobrivi Tu mxatvruli Rirebulebebi,
Seqmna ZaluZT. magram, rac Seexeba 3Danimacias da sakuTari        rac Tavis mxriv erovnuli katastrofis momaswavebeli iqneba.
masStaburi proeqtebis ganxorcielebas, aq yvelafris nulidan
dawyeba gviwevs. xolo am gamocdilebis arqona imis erT-erTi
winapirobaa, rom warmatebuli proeqti kidev didxans ar Sedgeba.
    arian adamianebi, romlebic aseT programebs icnoben, magram
maTi ricxvi imdenad mcirea, rom rTulia jgufis Seqmna.              http://www.disneyshorts.org/;
Sesabamisad, saWiroa materialur teqnikuri bazac.                  www. animator.ru;
    erovnuli multwarmoebis upirvelesi problema reJisorebis        The Encyclopedia of Animated Cartoons (Paperback) by Jeff Lenburg
simcire da iseTi produserebis ararsebobaa, romlebsac proeqtis     and Chris Bailey (Paperback - Oct 30, 2008).
srulfasovnad marTva SeeZlebaT. mxolod codna da niWi sakmarisi
264                                                                                                                                265
                                                                     irine abesaZe,
xelovnebaTmcodneoba                                              sruli profesori

                            firosmanologiis, rogorc axali
                                 saxelovnebaTmcodneo
                        mimarTulebis Camoyalibebis perspeqtivebi

                          meoce saukune mravali axali samecniero dargis
                      CamoyalibebiT aRiniSna. samecniero-teqnikuri revoluciebis
                      SedegebiT gapirobebulma da gabeduli eqsperimentebiT
                      moniSnulma axalma sakvlevma arealebma, upiratesad
                      sabunebismetyvelo, zust mecnierebaTa rkali gaarRvies, Tumca,
                      arc humanitaruli dargebi darCenilan saerTo epoqaluri
                      xasiaTis novaciebisadmi gulgrilni. kvlevis sistemurma meTodma
                      humanitarebs TvalnaTliv uCvena interdisci plinarul-
                      kompleqsur midgomaTa safuZvlianoba. xelovnebis dargebis
                      morfologiuri SeswavlisaTvis dRes ufro aqtiurad iyeneben
                      semiotikas da hermenevtikas. es dargTaSorisi e. w.
                      instrumentariebi xom saukeTeso saSualebaa uZveles miTopoetur
                      daqaragmebul teqstTa wakiTxvisa da maTSi daunjebul niSanTa
                      sistemis amoxsnisaTvis. magram ra vuyoT iseT teqsts, romlis
                      welTaRricxva mxolod         erT saukunes miiTvlis da TviT
                      teqstualuri qsovilis struqturac, erTi SexedviT, saocrad
                      martivia, Tumca masSi Cakvirveba mraval `amoucnob qimerebs~
                      gvTavazobs. amgvaria niko firosmanaSvilis fenomenis kvlevis
                      istoria. 1912 wlidan, anu firosmanis pirveli `aRmoCenidan~
                      _ dRemdem, niko firosmanis Semoqmedebis qarTvel, Tu araqarTvel
                      mkvlevarTa mier Seiqmna sxvadasxva xarisxis didZali samecniero
                      produqcia, romelTa sistemurma dalagebam saSualeba mogvca
                      `firosmanianis~ sagamomcemlo jgufs, maT Soris me, TvalnaTliv
                      dagvenaxa, rogor Seisxa xorci xelovnebaTmcodneobis axalma
                      mimarTulebam _ firosmanologiam.
                          firosmanologia xelovnebis is axalgazrda dargia, romelic,
                      xandazmul rusTvelologiis msgavsad, moiTxovs imgvar
                      meTodologiur midgomas, romelic xels Seuwyobs momaval
                      firosmanologebs gaTavisufldnen im apokrifebisa da
                      legendebisagan, romelsac `Txzavda~ TiTqmis yvela (qarTveli
266                                                                             267
                                                                                  firosmanologiis, rogorc axali saxelovnebaTmcodneo
irine abesaZe                                                                                mimarTulebis Camoyalibebis perspeqtivebi

Tu ucxotomeli), vinc ki Sexebia am araCveulebrivad saTuT         nawarmoebTa umetesoba mecxramete saukunis miwuruls Seiqmna,
Temas. avi zraxvebisgan daclili es `mezRapreni~, ZiriTadad       genialuri mxatvris Semoqmedebam xeli Seuwyo meoce saukunis
firosmanis `dostebi~ _ meduqneebi Tu gadmoxvewili mileTelebi,    universaluri avangarduli kulturuli Rirebulebebis
simbolistebi da futuristebi; mxatvrebi, poetebi, reJisorebi,     damkvidrebas saqarTveloSi.
mwerali-dramaturgebi, musikosebi, mogviano xanis mecnier-            axalze ~dageSili~ es araCveulebrivi instiqti Semoqmedisa,
interpretatorebic ki, mxatvris mimarT gamoxatuli pativiscemis    pirvelad swored saqarTveloSi `Camoxvewilma~ mileTelma
dasturad qmnidnen firosmanis miTologemas. amavdroulad, am        futuristebma SeigrZnes da 1912 wels sazogadoebas amcnes.
erTi saukunis ganmavlobaSi, firosmanaSvilis Semoqmedebis         am droidan moyolebuli Seiqmna mravali gamokvleva, ese,
irgvliv gamoiTqva mravali metad sayuradRebo mosazreba,           publikacia, leqsi, poema, dramaturgiul-literaturuli,
romelTa erT korpusad Tavmoyra udaod naTels mofens mxatvris       memorialur-epistoluri xasiaTis nawarmoebi, foto-kino-tele-
R Rem de dau dg enel b i og r a fi u l m o na c emeb s. x ol o   xelovnebis nimuSi, musikaluri da saxviTi xelovnebis sxvadasxva
maRalprofesiul doneze Sesrulebuli laboratoriuli                  saxis produqcia, iqmneboda mravali legenda, apokrifi, sadac
eqspertiza, bolosdabolos, WeSmaritad firosmanaSvilis             mxatvris pirovnuli da SemoqmedebiTi portretis gamoZerwvis,
xelTqmnil Sedevrebs klonirebuli `tyupis calebisagan~             masTan mimarTebis dadgenis sazogadoebrivi survili gacxadda.
ganacalkevebs. firosmanis memkvidreobisa da mis Sesaxeb          aRsaniSnavia, rom 1912 wlidan dRemde niko firosmanisadmi
literaturis interpolaciebisagan gaTavisuflebisaTvis,             interesi araTu Semcirda, aramed geometriuli progresiiT
eTnofsiqologebis, kulturologebis, xelovnebaTmcodne-              gaizarda, rasac gansakuTrebiT xeli Seuwyo mxatvris
eqspertebisa da istorikosebis damcxrali gonebisa da grZnobis     nawarmoebTa gamofenebis sxvadasxva geografiul ganedze
erToblivi ZalisxmeviT, kompleqsuri xasiaTis kvleva aris          triumfalurma svlam, maT mier msoflios wamyvani muzeumebis
Casatarebeli.                                                    da galereebis sagamofeno sivrceebis `dapyrobam~. XXI saukuneSi
    is, rom saqarTvelos, rogorc sakacobrio istoriis JamTa        eleqtronuli informaciis arxebiT isic irkveva, rom
svlisas SemorCenil erT-erT uZveles civilizacias, dRemde          firosmanisadmi msoflio sazogadoebis damokidebuleba arasdros
axsovs droiT gamowrTobili Cvens eTnomexsierebaSi Cakiruli        yofila uangaro. Sou-biznesis da komerciuli interesebis
da Taobidan TaobaSi uryevad translirebuli uZvelesi               gadakveTam siRaribeSi, upatronod gardacvlili genialuri
miTopoeturi saxeebi gasakviri rodia. am zRapriseul-              mxatvris saxelis tiraJirebam mravali milioni moutana
kosmologiur saxeebs is istoriuli personaJebic Seematnen,         restornebis, sastumroebis, televiziebis, sareklamo saagentoebis,
romelTa garSemo saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mravali legenda         samodelo saxlebis, maRaziebis mepatroneebs sxvadasxva qveyanaSi.
iqmneboda da istoriul realiebs romantikul samoselSi xvevda.          cnobili rusi poeti qalis, marine cvetaevas, eses
gamorCeul moRvaweTa saxelebs qarTveloba leqsad `amoTqvamda~      saxelwodebas Tu davesesxebi `Cemi puSkini~, firosmanis saxeliT
da amiT, Jamidan-JamiT ganmtkicebul gansakuTrebul pativgebas     Seqmnil yvela am maravalferovani produqtis avtors Tavisi
adasturebda.                                                     sakuTari mimarTeba aqvs mxatvarTan gulwrfeli, uangaro, Tu
    sakvirveli aris mxolod is, rom `gaucxoebis~ sindromiT        angarebiani, zedapiruli, magram sakuTriv misi da amdenad
Sebyrobilma, ukiduresad pragmatul-racionalurma meoce             mniSvnelovani. nu viqnebiT mkacri msajulni maT mimarT, vinc
saukunemac Seqmna axali miTologemebi da erT-erTi maTgani         firosmanis saxeliT erTgvar mogebas eZebs. es xom axali
niko firosmanaSvilia.                                            pragmatuli epoqis markeria. Tumca, gamijvna, zRvaris dadeba,
    ocdameerTe saukunis mkvidrT, dRes dabejiTebiT SegviZlia      zomierebis dacva, albaT, aucilebelia. didi mxatvris saxelis
ganvacxadoT, miuxedavad imisa, rom niko firosmanaSvilis          gamoyeneba mogebis mizniT, naklebi danaSaulia imasTan SedarebiT,
268                                                                                                                              269
                                                                                    firosmanologiis, rogorc axali saxelovnebaTmcodneo
irine abesaZe                                                                                  mimarTulebis Camoyalibebis perspeqtivebi

rodesac ganaTlebuli, niWieri, firosmanis Semoqmedebis              ar dawerila imdeni, ramdenic niko firosmanaSvilze~.1 Cemi
damfaseblebi cdilobdnen misi Semoqmedebis klonirebas. Tumca,       mxriv, davumateb, rom arc erT mxatvarze imdeni legenda ar
gasaRebis bazarze momravlebuli didi mxatvris mier Seqmnili         Seqmnila, ramdenic firosmanze. tyuili da marTali ise airia
cxoveluri samyaros binadarTa „tyupis calebi~ WeSmarit              erTmaneTSi, rom bolos Tavgza TviT mxatvris Semoqmedebis
originalebTan paeqrobisas, damarcxebisaTvis arian ganwirulni,      gulmxurvale qomagebsac aebnaT, mag., kirile zdaneviCs sxvadasxva
radgan SeuZlebelia unikaluri RvTiuri madliT mosili im              gamocemaSi erTmaneTis sapirispiro cnobebi gaepara. mxatvris
SemoqmedebiTi inspiraciis gameoreba, romelmac Seqmna, amouxsneli   gulubryvilo naTesaoba da naTel-mironni, Tanamedroveni, Tavs
saidumlos matarebeli firosmaniseuli irmebisa Tu saaRdgomo          „nikalas~ uaxloes garemocvaSi rom moiazrebdnen, ase
batknebis, meliebisa Tu daTvebis, lomisa Tu Jirafis momnusxveli    moulodnelad saxelmoxveWil TanamoZmisadmi interess
gamometyveleba. amiT firosmanma Tavisi ganumeorebeli               fantastikuri, Znelad dasajerebeli ambebiT apurebdnen. maT
SemoqmedebiT sakuTari Tavi yvelaze ukeT daicva. Tumca, aqve        arc niko firosmanis geniis aRmomCenni da inteleqtualuri
unda iTqvas, rom dRemde niko firosmanaSvilis xelovnebis            elitis warmomadgenlebi CamorCebodnen. xelovans, romelsac
amsaxvel albomebSi mainc gvxvdeba nawarmoebebi, romelTa            sityviT aRmerTebdnen, realurad, rogorc cidan Camovardnil
firosmanisTvis mikuTvnebuloba saeWvoa, maSin, rodesac zogierT      meteors ucxod miiCnevdnen da maTTan sulier erTobas danatrul
maTgans firosmanis xelweris damadasturebeli saeqsperto             xelovans, faqtobrivad, sakuTari samyarodan riyavdnen. didi
daskvna axlavs. vinaidan azrTa sxvadasxvaobas iwvevs               ilias cnobilma maqsimam „Catexili xidis~ arsebobis Sesaxeb,
eqspertizisas, mxolod vizualur-zedapiruli daTvalierebiT            swored „naswavl~ da „uswavlel~, profesiul, rafinirebul
Semofargvla. vfiqrob, droa saxelmwifom gamoyos Tanxebi             (akademiur) xelovnebas da daumuSavebel, sinamdvileSi ki mis
imisaTvis, rom saeWvo warmomavlobis nawarmoebebs Cautardes         dambad xalxur madans Soris iCina Tavi. im mistifikaciaSi
Tanamedrove saeqsperto teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT                   garkvevis saxeliT, romelsac SeeZlo met-naklebi sizustiT
kvalificiuri laboratoriuli atribucia. uaxlesi meTodebiT            amoexsna firosmanis fenomeni Catarda seriozuli xasiaTis
warmoebuli gamokvlevis am procesSi unda CarTon firosmanis          kvleva-Zieba. sacnauria, rom xSir SemTxvevaSi swored garedan
Semoqmedebis, rogorc qarTveli, ise ucxoeli aRiarebuli              momzirali Tvali ukeT Seicnobda da SeigrZnobda firosmanis
mkvlevarebi, raTa erTxel da samudamod gairkves mxatvris            gansakuTrebulobas. ase iyo maSin, rodesac frangi mixeil le-
SemorCenili originalebis zusti raodenoba. es ki Seavsebs da        dantiu 1912 wels Tavis megobar kirile zdaneviCTan erTad
rig SemTxvevaSi koreqtivebsac Seitans saqarTvelos kulturis,        pirvelad ewveva Tbiliss da mis mzeras monusxavs, Zveli Tbilisis
ZeglTa dacvis da sportis saministros mier dReisaTvis               erT-erT duqanSi warmodgenili niko firosmanis namuSevari.
aRnusxul niko firosmanaSvilis nawarmoebTa eleqtronul               man pirvelma miaqcevina yuradReba mxatvar kirile zdaneviCs
sapasporto monacemebSi, romelic mxolod saqarTvelos masStabiT       am araCveulebriv qmnilebebze. kiriles, dediT qarTvels, mamiT
aris gamovlenili. monacemTa bazas aklia ucxoeTis saxelmwifo        polonels, romelic TbilisSi karga xnis Camosaxlebuli iyo,
da kerZo sacavebSi daculi Sedevrebi. firosmanis WeSmarit           safiqrebelia, manamdec araerTxel enaxa am TviTnaswavli mxatvris
originalTa raodenobis zusti dadgena ki, Tavis mxriv, aRkveTs       namuSevrebi, romliTac, misive sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, mofenili
firosmanis nawarmoebTa gayalbebis yovelgvar mcdelobas da           iyo Zveli Tbilisis duqnebi. megobris es aRfrTovaneba kiriles
wertils dausvams yalbismqmnelTa Sesaxeb arsebul moarul             gadaedo da Tavis Zma-iliasTan erTad, male erTgvar „saxadad~
versiebs, romelTac mraval pativsacem adamians Crdili miayenes.     eqcaT da sicocxlis bolomde gahyvaT Zmeb zdaneviCebs. swored,
    rogorc akad. vaxtang beriZe niko firosmanaSvilis Sesaxeb       mixeil le-dantiu, niko firosmanis WeSmariti `pirvelaRmomCeni~,
daweril monografiaSi aRniSnavs: `arc erT qarTvel mxatvarze
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                                                                                     firosmanologiis, rogorc axali saxelovnebaTmcodneo
irine abesaZe                                                                                   mimarTulebis Camoyalibebis perspeqtivebi

1912 wlis miwurulSi aRtacebuli miswers werils sakuTar               Cven Tvalwin gadaiSala sxvadasxva SemoqmedebiTi inspiraciiT
dedas: „guSin Tbiliseli joto vixileo~.                              Seqmnili erTi xelovnis portretuli galerea, romlis Tvalis
    rogorc ukve aRvniSne, dRes ukve SeiZleba saubari                gadevnebac gvarwmunebs, im ucilobel WeSmaritebaSi, rom did
xelovnebaTmcodneobis axali mimarTulebis _ firosmanologiis           xelovnebas sazRvrebi ar gaaCnia. amitomac iyo, rom iuneskom
Sesaxeb... mecnierebis es axali dargi xandazmul rusTvelologiis      niko firosmanaSvilis Semoqmedeba Seitana sakacobrio
msgavsad, moiTxovs yvela saxis masalis sistematizacias, mogviano    mniSvnelobis kulturuli memkvidreobis im saganZurSi, romlis
xanis interpolaciebisagan gaTavisuflebas, legenda, apokrifis        dacva-gafrTxileba ganaTlebuli msoflios valia.
WeSmaritebisagan gamijvnas, biografiuli cnobebis saboloo                Tavmoyrili masalis retrospeqciaSi ganxilva imasac
dazustebas, kvlevas, romelSic didixania, oRond erTmaneTisagan       warmoaCens, Tu rogor xdeboda TandaTanobiT garkveuli
damoukideblad, xSir SemTxvevaSi erTmaneTis nakvlev-naazrevis        koreqtivebis Setana im ukve Stampad qceul mcdar debulebebSi,
gauTvaliswinebladac ki, CarTuli arian sxvadasxva qveynis            mxatvris SemoqmedebisaTvis primitivizmis sazomis morgebas,
xelovnebaTmcodneebi, literatorebi, kulturologebi,                   rom cdilobda, rac mxatvris Sesaxeb arsebul adreul gamocemebs
filosofosebi, zusti sabunebismeTyvelo mecnirebaTa                   axlda. gamoCnda agreTve isic, Tu rogori saocrad sicocxlis
warmomadgenlebic. gasuli saukunis ociani wlebidan dawyebuli         unariani aRmoCnda mxatvris biografiis misamarTiT
araerTxel yofila mcdeloba firosmanis Sesaxeb arsebuli               dafiqsirebuli Semdgomi firosmanologiuri kvleva-ZiebiT
masalis sistemurad dalagebisa da erT korpusad warmodgenisa,         gadasinjuli mravali aSkara faqtologiuri xasiaTis Secdoma.
magram es mcdeloba, samwuxarod, dRemde srulad ar yofila             firosmanologiis erT-erT ZiriTad mizans swored am
realizebuli. erTgvari `firosmanianis~ Seqmnis am ganzraxvas,        kliSeebisagan saboloo ganTavisufleba unda warmoadgendes.
romlis sulisCamdgmelic poeti giorgi leoniZis Semdeg iyo             es, pivel rigSi, exeba polemikas mxatvris warmomavlobis Sesaxeb,
mxatvari da firosmanis Semoqmedebis Cinebuli mcodne Tengiz          dabadebisa da gardacvalebis TariRebis dazustebas, rac ukve
mirzaSvili, yovelTvis raRac eRobeboda win, ZiriTadad finansuri      warmatebiT gakeTda Jurnalist neli kobiaSvilisa da istorikos
xasiaTis dabrkolebebi, Tumca am araCveulebrivi ideiT Sepyrobil      manana xomerikis mier, aseve gardacvalebis da dakrZalvis adgilis
mxatvars far-xmali ar dauyria da bolo ori welia winamdebare         saboloo dadgenas, rac jer kidev dadgenas moiTxovs.
striqonebis avtorTan erTad, miuxedavad mZime, ganukurnavi senisa,       rac Seexeba firosmanis Semoqmedebis geneziss, amis Sesaxeb
arnaxul i energii T muS aobda, ra Ta a mjera d ma inc               mravali sagulisxmo azria gamoTqmuli rogorc qarTveli, aseve
ganexorcielebina Tavisi sanukvari ocneba. samwuxarod, mxatvrs       ucxoeli xelovnebaTmcodneebis mier. rogori sxvadasxva
ar dascalda. Tengiz mirzaSvilis gardacvalebis miuxedavad,           misamarTebic ar unda SemogvTavazon mkvlevrebma, iqneba es
Cvenma sagamomcemlo jgufma miznad daisaxa, bolomde miiyvanos        xalxuri sarewebi, votivuri nimuSebi, saflavis qvis reliefebi,
mxatvris es wamowyeba. Sromatevadi samuSao dasrulebulia, am         Teatraluri sanaxaoba, `kamera obskura~, dageroti pia da sxva.
gamocemis realizebisaTvis saWiroa saxelmwifos, an kerZo             erTi ram cxadia, firosmanis miTologemis mizezi unda veZeboT
sponsoris keTili neba, raTa bolos da bolos am mniSvnelovanma        firosmanis warmomSob qarTul wiaRSi, im erovnul tradiciebSi,
gamocemam dRis sinaTle ixilos. gamocemaze muSaobis procesma         romlisTvisac ucxo ar iyo saidumloebiT moculi fantastikuri
TvalnaTliv dagvanaxa, Tu rogor iSleba droiTi da sivrciTi            xilvebi da romelnic, poet boris pasternakis TqmiT, TavianT
barierebi, roca saqme exeba firosmanis fenomenisadmi sxvadasxva     TavSi „mesianizmisa da mistikis Semcvelni, adamianis warmosaxviT
droisa da qveynis mkvlevarTa mier gamovlenil interess. did          unars amdidrebdnen~.
xelovanTan pirdapir `kavSirze gasvla~, anu misi metnaklebad             geografiuli mdebareobis gamo kroskulturul sivrceSi
adekvaturi SegrZneba mxolod erTeulebma SeZles. TiTqos               myofi saqarTvelo meoce saukunes Sinagani winaaRmdegobebiT
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                                                                                  firosmanologiis, rogorc axali saxelovnebaTmcodneo
irine abesaZe                                                                                mimarTulebis Camoyalibebis perspeqtivebi

aRsavse socialuri da Sesabamisi kulturuli viTarebiT Seegeba.     firosmanis Semoqmedebis damfasebelTa aseTi integraciuli
cxovrebis disharmoniam natvrad aqcia xelovnebis nawarmoebSi      sulieri erToba?! vfiqrob, es is kiTxvebia, romlebzec pasuxebs
maradiuli harmoniis, monumenturi sawyisis da panTeisturi         mxolod sxvadasxva eris firosmanologTa momavali kompleqsuri
ganwyobis asaxva. „mxatvruli qarTulobis~ Zieba, erovnuli         kvlevis Sedegad miviRebT. aqve isic unda aRiniSnos, rom kvlevis
mxatvruli forma, _ ai, is, riskenac iswrafvoda axalgazrda        miRma arc im mkveTrad uaryofiTi damokidebulebis mizezi
xelovanTa kohorta daviT kakabaZis, lado gudiaSvilis, Salva       unda darCes, romelic Tavis droze gamoTqmuli iqna mxatvris
qiqoZis, elene axvledianis, qeTevan maRalaSvilis da sxvaTa       Semoqmedebaze im droisaTvis sakmaod cnobili avtoritetebis
SemadgenlobiT. dazgur suraTSi monumenturi wyobis                 mier. Cemi mxriv, vityvi firosmanis Semoqmedebis momnusxveli
miRwevisaTvis mxatvarTa axali Taoba daewafa rogorc Sua           Zala, albaT, upirveles yovlisa, im R v T i u r i n a T l i s
saukuneebis monumentur xelovnebas, aseve, bedad, im dros         esTetikaSia, romelic niko firosmanis xelovnebis zneobrivi
„aRmoCenil~ niko firosmanaSvilis Semoqmedebas. niko firosmanis   sispetakis ganmsazRvrelia. sinaTlis es esTetika warmarToba
aRmoCena axalgazrda qarTveli mxatvrebisaTvis abedis kvesi        gamovlili Suasaukuneebis qarTuli eikonuri xatebidan
iyo, romelic ganaxlebis aucileblobis winaSe mdgom Taobas         SemoaRwevs mxatvris nawarmoebebSi. amitomaa, firosmaniseuli
qarTuli ferweris WeSmarit gzas gaunaTebda. niko                  yurZnis mtevani gasaocari Suq-mfeni, orTaWaleli turfebis
firosmanaSvilis saxeli male „erovnul energiasTan~, mis sulTan    Tmebi mzis sxivebiT naferi, saaRdgomo kvercxebi nakverCxlebiviT
iqna gaigivebuli. „uyureb firosmans da gjera saqarTvelo~ _       mbzinavi. saocari ki is aris, rom niko firosmanaSvils arcerT
ityvis `cisferyanwelTa~ ordenis ideologi grigol robaqiZe,        nawarmoebSi mze ar dauxatavs, magram yvelaferi mzis energias
axali qarTuli mxatvrobis ideuri sulisCamdgmeli daviT             asxivebs. imavdroulad mxatvars Zalze uyvars mTvaris gamosaxva,
kakabaZe ki, kidev ufro daakonkretebs: `arc erT mxatvarTan ar    radgan Zveli qarTuli warmarTuli panTeonis umniSvnelovanesi
Semxvedria firosmanis msgavsi Zalumi SegrZneba saqarTvelosi~.    RvTaeba _ mTvare _ wminda giorgis qristianul saxeSi iyo
sainteresoa, Tuki qarTvelisTvis niko firosmani erovnuli          personificirebuli. im wmindanis saxeSi, romelic mxatvris
TviTidentifikaciis sazomi gaxda, maS, raRa xiblavda im           gadmocemiT mudam Tavze adga xelSi qamriT da xatvisaken
oTxmocamde araqarTvel avtors, romelTac araCveulebrivad           mouwodebda: `nikala xateo~. TviT mxatvris mier gacemuli es
gaiTavises da SeigrZnes mxatvris Semoqmedebis gansakuTrebuli     araCveulebrivi axsna sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi inspiraciisa, is
xibli. ufro metic, ucxo Sefaseba didad daexmara qarTvelT         gasaRebia, romliTac SegviZlia nawilobriv mainc amovxsnaT
sakuTari miTologemis SeqmnaSi, axsna amisa, vfiqrob, mxatvris    mxatvris miTologemis xasiaTi. niko firosmanaSvilis
SemoqmedebiTi inspiraciis araCveulebriv universalobaSia,         daqaragmebuli azrovneba ki is xalxuri misterialuri
„martivis sidiadeSia~, _ rogorc marTebulad aRniSna Tavis         warmosaxvaa, romelmac tradiciis konstantobaze unda
droze xelovnebaTmcodne oTar firaliSvilma.                        migvaniSnos. amrigad, niko firosmanis SemoqmedebiT warmarTulma
    swored am universalizmiT, qristianuli mimteveblobiT,         eikonurma s axeebma _ qris tianul simboli kaSi
simboluri azrovnebiT, sakuTari profesiisadmi ritualuri           transformirebulma, XX s.-is pirvel aTwleulebamde SemoaRwia,
kultmsaxurebis msgavsi damokidebulebiT firosmanis Semoqmedeba    radgan mxatvris goneba da suli ar dabindula rTuli da
gascda viwro erovnul CarCoebs da igi sxvadasxva kulturaTa        wiaaRmdegobrivi civilizaciuri danaSrevebiT.
dialogis konteqstSi ikiTxeba.                                        niko firosmanaSvilis Semoqmedebis misamarTiT, angariSgasawevi
    mainc ra faqtorebma ganapirobes firosmanaSvilis              azri aqvs gamoTqmuli filosofos mamuka biWaSvils. igi cdilobs
miTologemis amgvari interaqtiuri xasiaTi?! ra mizezebma Sekra    Caswvdes firosmanis naratiuli diskursis siRrmiseul sawyisebs
                                                                 da am aspeqtiT miaCnia, rom firosmanis esa Tu is namuSevari
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irine abesaZe

gaazrebul unda iqnes ara mxatvrul asaxvad, aramed TviTkmar da                                                           nato gengiuri,
TavisTavad fenomenad, romliTac yofiereba aCvenebs Tavs. firosmani                                                    sruli profesori
am azriT SeiZleba CaiTvalos yofierebis pirvelsawyisebze
mTxrobelad. filosofosi, rakiRa ikvlevs firosmanis                                       arqiteqturis simbolika
SemoqmedebaSi sawyisiseul fenomenebs, erT uTuod gasaziarebel                              (qristianuli saqarTvelo)
sakiTxsac wamoswevs. igi mxatvris SemoqmedebaSi xedavs arqauli
periodisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSans, romelic xasiaTdeba                        sazogadoebis istoriuli ganviTarebis TiToeuli etapi
sxvadasxva pirobiTi sceniT gamoxatuli SetyobinebiT, rac erTgvar            gviCvenebs, rom simboluri azrovneba kulturis ganuyofeli
piqtografiul etaps uaxlovdeba, im Soreul warsuls, roca                     nawilia. Tumca isic aSkaraa, rom simboloTa arsi ar aris
damwerloba da mxatvroba erTmaneTisgan jerac ar iyo gamijnuli.              erTxel da samudamod SemuSavebuli da yovel kulturas axali
aqedan gamomdimare, m. biWaSvilis azriT, n. firosmanaSvilis                sistema, niSan-Tvisebebi anda Zvelis gadasxvafereba moaqvs.
kompoziciebi imgvarive wakiTxvas eqvemdebareba, rogorc es, arqaul              simbolo gansakuTrebul Taviseburebebs iZens qristianul
kedlis mxatvrobaSi iyo. filosofosi Tvlis, rom firosmanis                   epoqaSi da yalibdeba erTian sistemad, romelic SesaZloa,
fenomeni im arqauli gagebiT aris saintereso, romelic gvarwmunebs,          erTdroulad axasiaTebdes mTels saqristianos anda adgilobriv
`rom sagani imdenad ki ar aRiniSneba naxatiT, ramdenadac Tavad             kulturebSi gansxvavebulad svamdes aqcentebs.
sityvaa gacxadebuli sagani~.3                                                  erTi SexedviT, iseT `funqcionalur~ xelovnebaSi, rogoric
    niko firosmanis Semoqmedebis SesaniSnavi mkvlevarebis: erasti          arqiteqturaa mistikuri azri da farul mniSvnelobaze
kuznecovis, qeTevan bagratiSvilis, giorgi xoStarias, gaston                miniSnebebi naklebad unda vlindebodes. magram es mxolod
buaCiZis da reJis geros msgavsad, filosofosi yuradRebas                    erTi SexedviTaa ase... gamokvlevebi mowmobs, rom arqiteqtura
miapyrobs firosmanis mier sakuTari nawarmoebebis saxeldebis                Tavisi `abstragirebuli~, geometriuli formebiT ideebisa da
arastandartulobaze da maTi (saxelwodebaTa) mxatvruli                       idumali mniSvnelobebis damtevi da gamomxatvelia. arqiteqturis
kompoziciebis organul nawilad qcevaze.                                     formebSi idumali azris amocnoba, misi simbolikis gaSifvra
    es ki firosmanis is gzavnilia, is Setyobinebaa                         misi Seswavlis erT-erTi amocanaa da es meTodi ucxour
STamomavlobisadmi, romelic msoflios nebismieri moqalaqisaTvis              xelovnebaTmcodneobaSi ukve didi xania arsebobs. dasavleT
zneobrivi simarTlis aRmniSvneli sityvad qceuli gamosaxulebaa,              evropaSi taZris calkeuli nawilisa da misi mTeli organizaciis
maradiul miTologemad aRqmuli.                                              mniSvnelobis ganmarteba istoriul wyaroebSic dasturdeba
                                                                           da es arqiteqturis simbolur axsnaSi arsebiTia. CvenTan am
                                                                           mxriv gansxvavebuli suraTia: Zveli qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis
                                                                           kvlevas stilisturi analizis meTodiT ukve didi xnis istoria
                                                                           gaaCnia. magram misi simbolikis, arqiteqturul formebSi
1. vaxtang beriZe, niko firosmanaSvili, Tb. 2008;                          saRvTismetyvelo Tvalsazrisis gamoxatvis Taviseburebani Cvens
2. niko firosmanaSvilis Sesaxeb naSromebis miTiTeba ix. i. abesaZe,        xelovnebaTmcodneobaSi ar gamxdara sagagngebo kvlevis sagani.
q.bagratiSvili, dimitri SevardnaZe, Tb., 1998. gv.183-209; aseve, albomi   aRniSnuli midgomiT dawerili ramdenime statia mxolod
`Нико Пиросманашвили (вступ. статья Э. Д. Кузнецова), каталог              ukanasknel xans gamoCnda. es garemoeba mkvlevarTa winaSe axal
К.Багратишвили, Л., 1985;
                                                                           amocanebs svams. gasarkvevia simboluri mimarTebebi qarTuli
3. m. biWaSvili, instrumentariebi firosmanis naratiuli diskursis
                                                                           xuroTmoZRvrebis calkeuli nimuSis da aseve sxvadasxva
formaluri analizisaTvis, `axali paradigmebi~, #1,1998, gv 68-82.
                                                                           istoriuli etapis zogadi maxasiaTeblebi, arqiteqturis
276                                                                                                                                 277
nato gengiuri                                                                                                 arqiteqturis simbolika

simbolikisadmi, misi konkretuli gamovlinebisadmi Cveni da          axali centri gaxda. swored mis garSemo moxda SenobaTa
saqristianos sxva qveynebis xuroTmoZRvrebis msgavseba-             koncentracia. pirvel rigSi, Sendeba sveticxovlis uZvelesi
Taviseburebani da sxva sakiTxebi, romelebic sabolood gvexmareba    taZari, magram amas garda sxva saintereso faqtebsac aqvs adgili:
individualuri kulturis axali Sreebi gavacnobieroT.                 mtkvris napiras, mcxeTelebis monaTvlis adgilas daarsda,
bunebrivia, am mcire moxsenebaSi yvela aRniSnuli sakiTxi ver       beTlemis eklesia (mRvimeSi). saxelwodeba beTlemi, bunebrivia,
iqneba warmoCenili. Tumca calkeuli dakvirvebebis warmodgena        SemTxveviTi araa: qarTvelTa monaTvla simbolurad asocirdeboda
savsebiT SesaZlebelia.                                             sulier SobasTan.
    niSandoblivia, rom qriatianobis gavrcelebis pirvel                 aSenda aseve Taboris eklesia, romelic wm. ninos mier
saukuneebSi wminda mamebma uari Tqves taZris mSeneblobaze.         feriscvalebis dRes kerpebis Semusvris aRsaniSnavad dafuZnda.
maT ar sjerodaT, rom materialur sagnebs SeuZliaT sulier            wm. ninos locvis adgilas, mTaze, didi jvari aRimarTa. Semdgom
gamomsaxvelobas flobdnen: `ra taZari unda avuSeno, roca            iq jvris taZrebi aSenda. es adgili golgoTad iwodeboda.4
mTeli es samyaro, mis mier Seqmnili, mas ver itevs?~1 _            sveticxovlis garSemo aSenda sxva eklesiebic: geTsimania,
kiTxulobdnen isini da sjerodaT, rom ufals ar esaWiroeboda          antioqia.5 rogorc vxedavT, eklesiaTa saxelwodebebi pirdapir
saxli, specialurad aSenebuli samyofeli, morwmuneebs is sakuTar     ukavSirdeba wminda miwas, kerZod, qristes cxovrebasTan
gonebaSi da gulSi unda SeeSvaT.                                    dakavSirebul adgilebs: beTlemi _ qristes Sobas, Tabori _
    IV s-is dasawyisSi mdgomareoba mkveTrad icvleba: 313 wlis      qristes feriscvalebas, geTsimania _ qristes ukanaskneli
milanis ediqtiT qristianoba romis mTeli imperiis masStabiT         locvisa da RvTismSoblis saflavis adgils, golgoTa _
oficialurad aRiares da daiwyo eklesiaTa intensiuri                 jvarcmas... amdenad, qalaqis arqiteqtura mTavari siwmindeebis
mSeneblobani. magram Zveli Teologiuri Sexedulebebi ar              _ eklesiebis _ ganlagebiT simboluri paralelebis princi ps
Secvlila. qristianobis pirvel saukuneebSi Camoyalibebuli           eqvemdebareba. qristianuli mcxeTa simbolurad ierusalims
princi pebi ara Tu rCeba, ganmsazRvreli orientiris rolsac          imeorebda da amiT is acxadebda qristianuli samyaros wilobas.
ki asrulebs: amieridan qristianuli taZari idealuri samyaros            saintereso isicaa, rom mogvianebiT, rodesac Tbilis-qalaqis
gamomxatveli unda gamxdariyo. amitom im droisaTvis cnobili         mSenebloba daiwyo, igive princi pi iqna arCeuli: imTaviTve
arqiteqturuli kompoziciebi `qristianuli ideebis samyaroSi          `arqiteqturulad~ moiniSna qalaqis wminda adgilebi da isini
gadaitanes~.2 qristianuli arqiteqtura da misi calkeuli             ierusalimuri saxelwodebebiT akurTxes: beTlemi, sioni, Tabori,
elementi Teologiuri warmodgenebis, samyaros kosmiuri               metexis RvTismSobeli, romelic `ierusalimSi geTsimaniis baRSi
agebulebis da urTierTkavSirebis gamomxatveli gaxda.                RvTismSoblis saflavze agebul eklesias mianiSnebda.~6 mcxeTisa
    sainteresoa, ras gviCvenebs qarTuli masala. am kuTxiT          da Tbilisis magaliTze kargad Cans, rom qristianobis
mimovixilav arqiteqturaSi simbolikis gamovlenis sam dones.         damkvidrebisTanave qalaqebic ki simbolurad iqna gaazrebuli.
erTi es gaxlavT qalaqTa arqiteqtura, meore _ TviT eklesiaTa        isini ganixileboda wminda miwis simbolur xatebad. am fonze
agebuleba da mesame, calkeul arqiteqturul formebTan                aSkaraa, rom saqarTveloSi aSenebuli eklesiebic SeuZlebelia
dakavSirebuli simbolika.                                           yofiliyo `SemTxveviTi~ formisa, is warmoadgenda religiuri
    1. cnobilia, rom qristianobamdeli mcxeTis centri da            azris nivTier gamoxatulebas, religiuri moTxovnebis Tavisebur
ZiriTadi ubnebi iq ar iyo, sadac axlaa: is mtkvris marjvena        mxatvrul pasuxs.
sanapiroze mdebareobda.3 mcxeTam IV s-Si, gaqristianebis Semdeg,       2. TviT sakulto Senobaze saubrisas am mcire moxsenebaSi,
icvala saxe: axal mSeneblobebs safuZveli Caeyara mtkvris           bunebrivia, ver gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas yovel konkretul
marjvena sanapiroze. uflis kvarTis dakrZalvis adgili ki            ti pze da gamovlinebaze da zogadi mniSvnelobis momentebiT
278                                                                                                                             279
nato gengiuri                                                                                                 arqiteqturis simbolika

SemovifarglebiT: eklesiis xuroTmoZRvruli forma didwilad          aniWebs. igive iTqmis svetebis kapitelebze ganTavsebul
ganpirobebulia misi sakraluri mniSvnelobiT. upirvelesad is       reliefebze, romelic samoTxis da samoTxisken swrafvis
warmoadgens samyaros Tavisebur xats, miwaze arsebul sakralur     simboluri gansaxierebaa. amave mizans emsaxureba karze
sivrces, sadac kedlebi gaiazreba ori samyaros _ saaqaosa da      ganTavsebuli reliefi, romlis Temac konkretul Sinaarsze
sauflos _ simbolur sazRvrad. sarkmlebi da Sesasvlelebi           migvaniSnebs. magaliTad, kompoziciebi irmebiT an SvlebiT
ki am sazRvarSi, zRudeSi gaWrili Riobebia, ori samyaros          morwmuneTa RvTisken swrafvas ganasaxierebs (bolnisis sioni,
makavSrebeli rgolebi. SigniT eklesia ori umTavresi nawilis       atenis sioni) da xazs usvams eklesiis karis mniSvnelobas,
momcvelia: morwmuneTaTvis gankuTvnili ZiriTadi sivrce da         rogorc am miswrafebis dakmayofilebis gzas. sxva SemTxvevaSi
sakurTxeveli. Sida sivrcis umTavresi siwminde, sakurTxeveli      karis timpanze gvxvdeba `qristes amaRlebis~ (mcxeTis jvari,
naxevarwriuli moxazulobis kedliT _ afsidiTaa gamoyofili.         qvemo bolnisi), `RvTismSoblis amaRlebis~, anda `jvris
amasac Tavsi mniSvneloba gaaCnia: wre, rogorc usasrulobis        amaRlebis~ scenebi. aqac konkretuli miniSnebaa: macxovari TviTon
simbolo, zeciur samyaroze mianiSnebs iseve, rogorc gadaxurva,    acxadebs: `me var kari: Cem mier Tu vinme Sevides cxondes~
romelic, gamonaklisis gareSe, kamarovania da ara brtyeli da      (ioane, 19; 7,10).
amiT zeciuri sauflos maradisobis gamomxatvelia. amdenad,             eklesiis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani momenti taZris qveynis
eklesiis agebuleba da calkeuli nawilis forma konkretul           mxareebze orientirebaa. cnobilia, rom eklesiis mTavari
azrs itevs, magram am azrisa da mniSvnelobis xazgasma            sakraluri adgili _ sakurTxeveli, aRmosavleTiT aris
mravalferovani mxatvruli xerxebiT xdeba da Seesabameba           ganTavsebuli da es mTeli saqristianos sayovelTao wesia.
erovnuli xuroTmoZRvrebis individualur esTetikas, xasiaTs,        bunebrivia, es qveynierebis mxareebis simbolur gagebas ukavSirdeba:
ostatis SemoqmedebiT alRos.                                      aRmosavleTi, saidanac mze amodis, saidanac sinaTle ibadeba
    adreqristianul xanaSi eklesiis sxvadasxva nawilis            qristesTan da sarwmunoebriv sinaTlesTan aris gaigivebuli.7
simbolur azrze miniSnebas qarTveli xuroTmoZRvarni                dasavleTi ki, piriqiT, sibnelesTan da eSmakeul ZalebTan, radgan
mxatvruli xerxebis Taviseburi gamoyenebiT axdenen. gvaqvs        iq mze Cadis, sinaTle qreba. samxreTi sinaTlisa da siTbos
uZvelesi eklesiebis nimuSebi, sadac kamara, sakurTxeveli, kar-   mxarea, xolo CrdiloeTi _ Crdilisa da sicivis. erTia
sarkmelTa garSemo kedlebi gansxvavebuli feris masaliT Sendeba,   warmodgenebi, simbolika da meore is, Tu rogor gamoixata
gamoiyofa rogorc gansakuTrebuli areebi da amiT maT Sinagan       azri formaSi, ra dabada religiisa da xelovnebis kacSirma.
azrze xdeba miniSneba. magaliTad, qvemo bolnisis VI s-is         unda iTqvas, rom am warmodgenaTa mxatvruli Sedegi
taZari, sadac sakurTxevelis kuTxeebi, konqi, kamara mocisfero-   gansxvavebulia sxvadasxva kulturaSi. ase magaliTad, dasavleT
firuzisferi qviT aris aSenebuli da eklesiis sxva                 evropul sataZro xuroTmoZRvrebaSi romanul da guTur
moyviTaloqviSisferi kedlebis fonze gamoikveTeba.                 arqiteqturaSi mkafio mxatvruli aqcentia dasmuli eklesiis
    ramdenadac eklesiis Sesasveli sauflosTan Sexvedris           dasavleT fasadze. es mxare mdidruladaa gaformebuli da
saSualebaa, misi aqcentireba, arqiteqturul-mxatvruli xerxebiT    CuqurTmiTa da qandakebebiT morTuli mTavari karic am mxares
gamoyofa gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens; es mravali qarTuli    Tavsdeba. Tu qristianTa warmodgenaSi dasavleTi boroti
Zeglis magaliTzec dasturdeba. isini gviCvenebs SesasvlelTa       Zalebisa da sulieri sibnelis mxarea, ratomaa, rom guTur
sxvadasxva mxatvruli xerxiT gamoyofis magaliTs: jer kidev        taZarSi mdidrulad morTuli dasavleTi fasadia mTavari? es
V s-is bolnisis sionSi gvxvdeba TaRebiT gaxsnili karibWe,        unda ganasaxierebdes miwieri samyarodan qristianTa sulier
romelic fasadze Sesasvlels gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas            sinaTleSi _ eklesiaSi _ gadasvlis simbolur azrs. aq


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nato gengiuri                                                                                                       arqiteqturis simbolika


mniSvnelovania sxva arqiteqturuli formebic, romelic dasavleT        orafsidiani struqtura hqonda da romlis nimuSebic moipoveba
fasadis aucilebeli elementia. esaa koSkebi, romelnic,               rogorc dasvleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. qristianuli
Cveulebriv, cixe-simagreTa nawilia da qristianuli                   sanaTlavisaTvis orafsidiani formis miniWeba unda
warmodgenebiTac mtruli, bneli Zalebisagan dacvis azrs atarebs.8     ukavSirdebodes naTlobiT sulieri ganbanvis, xelaxla Sobis
swored am azriTaa koSki moxseniebuli fsalmunSic: `...Sena           asociaciur xats.
xar Cemi mfarveli, Zlieri koSki xar mtrisagan damcveli~                 yovelive mowmobs, rom religiuri warmodgenebi erTia mTeli
(fsal. 60,4).                                                       saqristianosTvis, konkretuli ganxorcieleba, mxatvruli
    sxva suraTia adreuli periodis qarTul eklesiebSi.                gadawyveta gansxvavebul nawarmoebebs warmoSobs. religiisa
eklesiebi TiTqos `zurgs aqceven~ dasavleTs: SemorCenil uadres       da xelovnebis kavSiriT ibadeba ganumeorebeli nawarmoebebi,
nagebobebs (nekresis bazilika – IV s., samTavros mcire eklesia      romelnic adgilobrivi tradiciisa da esTetikuri SegrZnebiT
– IV s., zeganis wm. marine _ V s., bolnisis sioni _ V s., qvemo-   aris nakarnaxevi da qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis TviTmyofad
bolnisi, ruispiri, _ VI s., mcxeTis jvari – 586/587-604/605         saxes gansazRvravs. swored ise, rogorc locvisas: `mamao Cvenos~
ww., atenis sioni VII s., samwevrisi VII s. da a.S.) dasavleTiT,    Sinaarsi yvelasTvis erTnairia, magram yvela enaze is
an sruliad yru kedeli aqvs, karis gareSe, anda mcire zomis          gansxvavebulad JRers.
SesasvleliT gamoiyofa maSin, rodesac samxreTidan kari xSirad
TaRebiani karibWiT aqcentirdeba. qarTuli eklesiebisTvis
gansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovania aRmosavleTi da samxreTi
fasadebi, rogorc sinaTlis mxareebi, xolo dasavleTisa _
umeteswilad mxatvruli aqcentirebis TvalsazrisiT
ignorirebulia.
    TviT Senobis nawilebis arqiteqturuli forma zogjer
`asociaciur simboloebs~ warmoadgens. am momentze pirvelad           1. Октавий Марка Минуция Феликса, XXXII. «Сочинения древних
yuradReba gaamaxvila r. krauthaimerma 1940-ian wlebSi. man          христианских апологетов», М., 1867 стр. 358;
SeamCnia, rom adreqristianul romSi gavrcelebuli sanaTlavebi         2. Комеч А. И.. Символика архитектурных форм в раннем
                                                                    христианстве, в книге: «Искуство западной Европы и Византии», М.,
oqtogonuri formisa. amiT maTi forma imeorebda antikuri
                                                                    1978, стр. 214;
samarxebis arqiteqturas. is ki Tvlida, rom baptisteriumis           3. a. afaqiZe, g. gobejiSvili, a. kalandaZe, g. lomTaTiZe. mcxeTa,
kompozicia antikuri samarxis agebulebas eyrdnoba da es kavSiri      arqeologiis kvlevis Sedegebi, t.I, Tb. 1955;
misi Zveli funqciis simboluri gadaazrebiTaa ganpirobebuli:          4. saqarTvelis Zveli qalaqebi. mcxeTa, Tbilisi, 2006, gv. 35;
qristianebisTvis naTlisRebisas morwmune simbolurad imeorebs         5. sxva eklesiebi aSenda wm. ninos moRvaweobis adgilebSi. mag.
qristes gardacvalebas da kvlav aRdgomas, sulier dabadebas.          samTavro;
    CvenSi sanaTlavebis sul sxva forma dasturdeba, magram           6. saqarTvelis Zveli qalaqebi. Tbilisi, Tbilisi, 2006, gv. 19;
simbolur asociascasTan aqac unda gvqondes saqme. bolnisis           7. Becker U., Lexikon der Symbole, Freiburg-Basel-Wien, 1992;
sioniSi9 SemorCa sanaTlavebis adreuli orafsidiani varianti.         8. Osb D.F., Die Welt der Symbole, Insbruck-Wien-München, 1967, P. 393;
misi forma gansxvavebulia romauli sanaTlavisagan. is ar             9. sanaTlavebi SemorCa aseve, javaxeTis wyarosTavSi, ninowmindaSi
                                                                    (da, albaT, manglisSic). g. CubinaSvili, qarTuli xelovnebis
aris oqtogoni, mas orafsidiani kompozicia aqvs. amiT bolnisis
                                                                    istoria, Tb. 1936.
sanaTlavi uaxlovdeba antikuri abanos sivrces, romelsac msgavsi,


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                                        qeTevan kinwuraSvili,     gadatanili, axal konteqstSi moqceuli, magram mainc misi
                                           sruli profesori        ganmeoreba _ citata. Semdgom, wlebis ganmavlobaSi, xelovnebis
                                                                  nimuSebi sul ufro mravalferovan da rTul konteqstSi Cndebian
  interteqstualuri TamaSi da `narativis                           mesxiSvilis namuSevrebSi da amis erT-erTi magaliTia mis mier
    intriga~ giorgi aleqsi-mesxiSvilis                            2007 wlis bolos Seqmnili maketebi Sileris dramisaTvis
        scenografiul namuSevrebSi                                 `don karlosi~ (reJisori Temur CxeiZe, peterburgis didi
                                                                  dramatuli Teatri).
    gogi mesxiSvili Tavis scenografiul da aseve ara-saTeatro          speqtaklisTvis mxatvarma ramdenime gansxvavebuli maketi Seqmna.
namuSevrebSi xSirad iyenebs xelovnebis cnobil nimuSTa             pirvelive variantSi yuradRebas iqcevs erTmaneTze gadabmuli
reproduqciebs. amis yvelaze naTeli da yvelasTvis nacnobi          gadaSlili wignebis mwkrivebi scenis kedlebze, rac epoqebTan,
magaliTia `kavakasiuri carcis wre,~ sadac leonardo da vinCis      teqstebTan, warsulTan dialogze migviTiTebs. garda amisa, scenaze
`madona lita~ piesis da speqtaklis mTavar Temas usvamda           gamarTul ekranze proecirdeba espaneli keTilSobili qalis
xazs da metaforul mniSvnelobas iZenda. amgvarad, mas erTgvari     gamosaxuleba. es aris reproduqcia velaskesis suraTisa -
teqstis funqcia hqonda, romelic dakvirvebul mkiTxvels unda        `qali maraoTi.~ es gamosaxuleba SeiZleba aRviqvaT dedoflis
`waekiTxa.~1                                                      portretad, romelic mis apartamentSi hkidia. Tumca, es ufro
    Teatris mxatvrisTvis sxvadasxva epoqis gasacocxleblad         anareklia, warsulze fiqria, masTan dialogia, miT umetes, rom
xelovnebis nimuSebi da maTi reproduqciebi mniSvnelovan            ekranze proecirebuli gamosaxuleba gabundovanebulia da
dokumentebs warmoadgenen. magram gogi mesxiSvilTan, rogorc        ganaTebiT Secvlili. uSualod sasceno moedanze moTavsebul
postmodernulad moazrovne mxatvarTan, es saSualeba vizualur        figurebs velaskesis `meninebis~ da sxva espaneli mxatvrebis
dokumentur wyaroze gacilebiT Rrma da mravalferovan                suraTebis asociaciebiT Seqmnili kostiumebi mosavT. TiToeuli
mxatvrul-Sinaarsobriv datvirTvas iZens. warsulis mxatvruli        kostiumi erTi feris aris, magram morTulia Sesabamisi feris
nimuSebi masTan asociaciebis asaxvis, drosTan dialogis,           brWyviala detalebiT. iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos
esTetikuri samyaros Seqmnis (da ara epoqis restavrirebis),        figurebi zardaxSidan arian gadmosulebi (zardaxSa is nivTia,
azris (ideis) niSnebSi Cvenebis, gaxsnis safuZvelia.              romelsac sakvanZo mniSvneloba eniWeba Sileris piesaSi) da
    `kavkasiur carcis wreSi~ reproduqciebi pop artistuli          yvelaferi erTad kriala Sav iatakSi airekleba. garemoSic da
scenuri kolaJis nawilebs warmoadgenda. isini citatebis saxiT      kostiumebSic Savi feri dominirebs, romelic espanel
iyo mowodebuli. am xerxma Semdgom mesxiSvilis sxva namuSevrebSi   keTilSoblTa maTi portretebidan cnobil CacmulobasTan
pova ganviTareba, scenazec da mis miRmac _ dazgur kolaJebSi.      asocirdeba. kidev erTi elementia Semodgomis foTlebis grovebi,
reproduqciebis saSulebiT mxatvari ara mxolod esTetikur,           romlebic mxatvris CanafiqriT scenaze unda iwvodes xolme
aramed fabulur kodebs qmnida da yvela SemTxvevaSi                 da, ra Tqma unda, don karlosis da dedoflis da, saerTod,
postmodernis xanis inteleqtualur damTvalierebels an               siyvarulis poetur metaforas warmoadgens. piesasTan mimarTebiT
wamkiTxvels eloda, romelic interteqstualuri kodebisTvis           es imiTac aris gamarTlebuli, rom zogi scena dramis mixedviT
Tvalis gadevnebiT siamovnebis miRebasTan erTad axali              samefo baRSi mimdinareobs. amgvarad, rogorc Tanamedrove
informaciis miRebisaTvis aris ganwyobili.                         scenografiul modelSi aq zRvari interiersa da eqsteriers
    am adreul etapze reproduqcia an misi fragmenti                Soris waSlilia.
mesxiSvilTan pirvelwyaros aslia _ sasceno sivrceSi, kolaJSi           meore maketSi wignebis motivs ufro meti mxatvruli
an asamblaJSi CarTuli, Sesabamisad gansxvavebul masStabSi         datvirTva eniWeba. gadabmuli wignebis rigebia kedlebze da
284                                                                                                                              285
                                                                                        interteqstualuri TamaSi da `narativis intriga~
qeTevan kinwuraSvili                                                               giorgi aleqsi-mesxiSvilis scenografiul namuSevrebSi

saTamaSo moedanzec. ganaTebis sxivebTan erTad swored wignebi     da iqmneba uxmo mini speqtaklebi, sadac monawile pirTa modelebi
qmnian scenografiul garemos. iataki ar krialebs. saerTo          `asruleben rolebs.~
koloriti ufo naTelia. msaxiobebis Cacmuloba siluetebis               mTeli es procesi erTgvari interteqstualuri TamaSia _
da faqturis mixedviT ufro sada da gaTanamedovebulia.             gadaZaxili epoqebTan, literaturis da xelovnebis nimuSebTan,
    velaskesis suraTma da piesis fabulam mxatvars, etyoba        Tavad mxatvris namuSevrebTan. ideasTan TamaSi asociaciuri
kidev meti saidumloTi moculi scenis Seqmnisken ubiZga da         TamaSia. aq amgvari TamaSi mravalferovan da mravalgvar Sedegs
momdevno variantSi velaskesis suraTi scenis centrSi did          iZleva da seriebis saxiT fiqsirdeba, sadac Cven mxatvris
linzaze gadainacvlebs. is aRiqmeba rogorc uzarmazari             fiqris procesis Tanamoziareni vxdebiT.
medalioni. medalioni kidev erTi nivTia, romelzec                     am TvalsazrisiT is, rasac mxatvari saxeebiT warmogvidgens,
gamaxvilebulia yuradReba piesis teqstSi da remarkebSic.          erTgvari teqstia, monaTxrobia, am SemTxvevaSi eleqtronuli
mTlianad saTamaSo moedani am SemTxvevaSi cilindrSia moqceuli,    teqstic kia, radgan is yovel axal scenas dijitaluri failis
romelic ixsneba da ixureba da idumalebiT mosavs scenaze          saxiT inaxavs.
warmodgenil istorias. cilindrTan mdgari figurebis ganlageba          am dros nawilobriv icvleba saxeebi, garkveul Sinaarsobriv
da maTi saidumlos Semcvel sivrcesTan mimarTeba mogvagonebs       cvlilebasac aqvs adgili, magram ZiriTadi, rac marTavs mTel
velaskesis suraTs `mediCis vila,~ romelic aseve figurirebs       am process, ar icvleba. es literaturul da mxatvrul saxeebSi
mesxiSvilis mier am speqtaklisTvis Sekrebil `Sav~ masalaSi.      Sefarul saidumlosTan TamaSis, misi idumalebis warmoCenis
    Semdgom variantSi imave linzaze mxolod niRabafarebuli        da idumalebiTve Semosvis procesia. umberto ekos sityvebs
Tvalia datovebuli da es gamosaxuleba ukve gogi mesxiSvilis       Tu gamoviyenebT, `...intriga imaSia, rom axali istoria gansxvavdeba
adreul namuSevrebTan povebs gadaZaxils, pirvel rigSi, kolaJTan   winamorbedisgan, magram sinamdvileSi naratiuli intriga ar
- `Tvali,~ romelic CarTuli iyo mis mier qarTuli anabanis         icvleba.2
Temaze Seqmnil     instalaciaSi (2001). kolaJSi mxatvari             umberto ekosve ganmartebiT, interteqstualuri dialogi
gamoxedvis idumalebas asaxavs, afiqsirebs, cdilobs gaxsnas, Tu   warmoadgens fenomens, rodesac mocemul teqstSi eqosaviT
ganmartos. `don karlosis~ am maketSi ganaTebis zemoqmedebiT      gamoZaxils povebs winamorbedi teqstebi.3 gogi mesxiSvilis am
centraluri linza mTlianad Tvals emsgavseba xolme.                namuSevrebSi gamoZaxils povebs Sileris piesis teqsti;
    TiToeul SemTxvevaSi mesxiSvili qmnis sasceno saTamaSo        araverbaluri, velaskesiseuli `teqsti,~ radgan mesxiSvilTan
models, sadac arc interieria asaxuli, arc eqsterieri.            mimdinareobs dialogi didi espanelis saxeebTan; TviT
konkretuli drois SegrZneba nivelirebulia. Tu aris miniSneba      mesxiSvilis adreuli namuSevrebi; da konkretuli
drosa da adgil ze, mxolod _ as oc i ac iu ri da                  speqtaklisTvis Seqmnili winamorbedi variantebi.
interteqstualuri. reproduqcia anareklis, Soreuli miniSnebis          Sedegad viRebT SesaZlebel samyaroTa variantebs an maT
saxiT aris mowodebuli da ara pirdapiri saxiT. garemo             modelebs, konceftualur saxeebSi dafiqsirebul mxatvrul
asociaciuri niSnebiT aris datvirTuli, magram es niSnebi          `teqstebs,~ seriebs, romelTa Tvalis gadevneba da `wakiTxva,~
agresiul xasiaTs ar atareben, ar iTxoven `amoxsnas,~ aramed      fabuluri molodinebi gvaniWebs xelovnebis nimuSTan gacnobis
atmosferoSi gviTreven, ganwyobas qmnian.                         siamovnebas. am SemTxvevaSi variaciuloba - dausruleblad
    yoveli varianti mxatvris xeliT kidev mravlgvarad             varirebis SesaZlebloba - warmoadgens formalur princi ps
gardaiqmneba, radgan is ganaTebis zemoqmedebiT da figurebis      da, swored, am princi pSi mdgomareobs mesxiSvilis namuSevarTa
da detalebis adgilebis SenacvlebiT cvlis ganwyobas, Sinaarss,    inovaciuroba. aq naivuri adresati warmoudgenelia. dasaSvebia
emociur muxts. am scenebs mesxiSvili fotoaparatiT afiqsirebs     mxolod kritikuli adresati (ekos diferenciacia),
286                                                                                                                               287
qeTevan kinwuraSvili

romlisTvisac sainteresoa Tavad Seqmnis procesi. swored
procesisaTvis Tvalis gadevneba uqmnis damkvirvebels                kulturologia
kmayofilebas, anu akmayofilebs mis esTetikur mgrZnobelobas.


                             * * *

    `don karlosis~ maketebi, rodesac scenaze ori – dedoflis
da don karlosis figurebia datovebuli, mogvagonebs gogi
mesxiSvilis ferweruli namuSevrebis vrcel serias – `paemani.~
msgaveba mJRavndeba kompoziciur wyobaSi, figurebis ganlagebaSi
da urTierTmimarTebaSi, maT Soris aRmocenebul ganwyobaSi da
sxva. es `mesxiSvilis Teatris~ damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa –
Temebi, motivebi, calkeuli detalebi mis SemoqmedebaSi erTi
sferodan meoreSi gadainacvleben da erTsa da imave dros,
Zalian individualur da Zalian mravalferovan gamoxatvas
poveben.
    procesualoba, seriuloba, droSi ganvrcoba, sinamdvilis,
rogorc TamaSis, gancda, postmodernuli azrovnebis paradigmebia.
    gogi aleqsi-mesxiSvilis mier `don KkarlosisaTvis~
Seqmnili maketebi da eleqtronuli seriebi gviCvenebs, rom,
rodesac Txrobas ar wyvets da muSaobis process afiqsirebs,
is sakuTari Teatris reJisoria. mas speqtaklis scenografiuli
variantebi moqmedebaSi aqvs warmodgenili. amasTan, TiToeuli
am variantebidan Tavisufali interpretaciebisTvis aris
gaxsnili da reJisors farTo asparezi rCeba sakuTari
koncefciis SemoTavazebuli variantebidan SerCeul garemoSi
gasaxsnelad. es imitom, rom mxatvrisaTvis wamyvani TamaSis
momentia _ TamaSis, romelic Teatris arss warmoadgens.



1. q. kinwuraSvili, robert sturuas Teatri da kolaJi postmodernul
epoqaSi, literatura da xelovneba, #9, 2007, gv. 68-71;
2. inovacia da ganmeoreba: modernisa da postmodernis esTetikaTa
Soris,” 1994, Пост-Модернизм, Энциклопедия, Минск, 2001, с. 325;
3. iqve.

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             P                              revaz balanCivaZe,     misi xsenebac ki araa, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT Cems wigns
                                            sruli profesori        `pedagogikis filosofiuri safuZvlebi da Cemsave statias
                                                                   `anTropologiuri pedagogika~ Tu `pedagogiuri anTropologia~,
      anTropologiuri pedagogika rogorc                             unda ewodos `anTropologiuri pedagogika~ da ara `pedagogiuri
             ganaTlebis mecniereba                                 anTropologia~.
                                                                       raki axali disci plinis saxelwodebis sakiTxi uaRresad
    XX saukune bevri axali samecniero disci plinis                 princi puli sakiTxia da, faqtobrivad, masze damokidebulia
CamoyalibebiT aRiniSna.PfilosofiaSi aseTi axali disciplinebia:     Cveni Semdgomi msjeloba, aseT faqts gavixseneb: cnobili
`filosofiuri anTropologia~, ~aqsiologia~, ~kulturologia~.          germaneli filosofosi da pedagogikis uTvalsaCinoesi
XX saukuneSi daiwyo da axlac grZeldeba filosofiis kidev            warmomadgeneli oto bolnovi kargaxans xmarobda termins:
erTi axali dargis - `ganaTlebis filosofiis~ Camoyalibebis          `pedagogiuri anTropologia~, magram Tavisi bolo wigni, romelic
procesi. Yyvela am filosofiuri disci plinis gaCenas erTi           1983 wels gamovida, man ase daasaTaura: `anTropologiuri
saerTo safuZveli /Ziri, mizezi/ gaaCnia da amitomac yvela          pedagogika~.Ees, cxadia, SemTxveviT ar momxdara, Tumca, samwuxarod,
maTgani erTimeores ukavSirdeba da erTimeores ganapirobebs.         bevrisTvis SeumCneveli darCa.
    filosofiuri disci plinebis Camoyalibebis paralelurad               garda oto bolnovisa, `pedagogiur anTropologiasa~ da
yalibdeba axali kerZo, specialuri mecnierebebi. erT-erTi           `anTropologiur pedagogikaSi~ saintereso naSromebi Seqmnes
aseTi specialuri mecnierebaa `anTropologiuri pedagogika~,          rotma, derbolavma, karl dineltim, loxma, langevelgma, finkma,
romlis araTu princi pebze, saxelzedac ki ver SeTanxmebulan         dikopma, zdarzilma, lidtkem da sxvebma.
jerjerobiT mecnierebi. zogi mas `anTropologiur pedagogikas~            gasaTvaliswinebelia kidev erTi garemoeba: `anTropologia~,
uwodebs, zogic _ `pedagogiur anTropologias~. umetesoba             romelic aq pedagogikis msazRvrelad gamodis, aris filosofiuri
orive am saxelwodebas paralelurad xmarobs, rogorc identur          anTropologia /anu, mecniereba adamianis arsis Sesaxeb/ da ara
cnebebs. magram, cxadia, isini identuri cnebebi ar arian.          sabunebismetyvelo anTropologia, romelic swavlobs adamianis
elementaruli logika gveubneba, rom `anTropologiur                  sxeuls /simaRle, wona, proporciebi, kanis feri, Tavis qalis
pedagogikaSi~ mTeli aqcenti pedagogikaze keTdeba.                  forma da a. S. da romelic gansxvavebuli ti pebis dadgenas
`anTropologiuri~ is predikatia, romelic pedagogikas miewereba      cdilobs. pedagogika arc erTs sWirdeba araferSi da arc
da, piriqiT: `pedagogiur anTropologiaSi~ anTropologiaa             meores. Ppirvels imitom, rom adamianis arsi pedagogikis gareSec
mTavari, pedagogiuri ki midgomis kuTxea mxolod.                    da pedagogikis `Carevis~ SemTxvevaSic erTi da igivea, meores
    meore mxriv, aqvs ki ufleba pedagogikis specialists,           imitom, rom gansxvavebuli anTropologiuri ti pebis dadgenas
ilaparakos ama Tu im saxis /Tundac pedagogiur/                     pedagogika veraferSi daexmareba.
anTropologiaze? Dda Tu mainc ilaparakebs, risi specialisti             ai, pedagogikas ki namdvilad sWirdeba anTropologia /
gamodis is /nebsiT Tu ineblieT/ - pedagogikis Tu                   cxadia, folosofiuri/. Yyovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT,
anTropologiis? TavisTavad cxadia, pedagogikis specialisti          Cveni azriT, pedagogikis specialistebma `pedagogiur
ar unda gascdes pedagogikas da uneblied sxva dargis qomagad        anTropologiaze~ ki ar unda ilaparakon, aramed `anTropologiur
ar unda mogvevlinos. Aamitom ra gansazRvrebac ar unda uZRodes      pedagogikaze~, Tuki surT, rom Tavisi dargi Tavadve ar gaauqmon.
win pedagogikas, ZiriTad cnebad /sagnad/ pedagogika unda darCes.       aris kidev ori garemoeba, ris gamoc pedagogikis
amitom Cven migvaCnia, rom axal pedagogiur disciplinas, romelic    specialistebi anTropologiur pedagogikasTan SedarebiT dRemde
jer kidev Camoyalibebis procesSia /sazRvargareT. Torem CvenSi      `pedagogiuri anTropologiis~ termins aniWeben upiratesobas.
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revaz balanCivaZe                                                               anTropologiuri pedagogika rogorc   ganaTlebis mecniereba

Ppirveli kantis avtoritetia. Mman adamianis /da ara bavSvis/        cnobiers, xolo, meore mxriv, warmoCindeboda, xan rogorc gonieri
Semswavlel pedagogikas ratomRac `anTropologiuri pedagogika~         arseba, xanac rogorc zneobrivi, religiuri, esTetikuri,
uwoda, meore ki is, rom `anTropologiur pedagogikas~ xmarobda        socialuri da a. S. arseba, Sesabamisad, gaCnda aRzrdis iseTi
uSinski, Tumca masSi sabunebismetyvelo anTropologias                saxeebi, rogorebicaa: fizikuri aRzrda, gonebrivi aRzrda,
gulisxmobda da ara filosofiur anTropologias.                        zneobrivi aRzrda, esTetikuri aRzrda, religiuri aRzrda,
    orive SemTxvevaSi kontrargumenti erTi da igivea da              saojaxo aRzrda da a.S.
umartivesi: arc kantis da arc uSinskis dros `filosofiuri                aRzrdis saxeTa simravles sulac ar gauadvilebia aRzrdis
anTropologia~ ar arsebobda. amitom kanti `pedagogiuri               cnebis definicia. piriqiT, kidev ufro daabundovana da Znelad
anTropologiiT~ xazs usvamda pedagogikis mier adamianis              misawvdomi gaxada igi.
Seswavlis aucileblobas. xolo uSinski gulisxmobda im                     droTa viTarebaSi aRzrdis zemoCamoTvlili saxeebidan, xan
sabunebismetyvelo anTropologias, romelic mis dros arsebobda.        erTi xdeboda prioritetuli, xan – meore. ase magaliTad,
    axla, roca arsebobs filosofiuri anTropologia Tavisi             spartelebTan fizikuri aRzrda iyo prioritetuli, sofistebTan
didi warmomadgenlebiT – SeleriT, geleniT, roTakeriT da a.           – gonebrivi, sokratesTan gonebrivi da zneobrivi /ramdenadac
S., saxelwodebiT `anTropologiuri pedagogika~, imas esmeba           sokrates miaCnda, rom yvela mcodne, gonieri kaci imavdroulad
xazi, rom Tanamedrove pedagogika unda daefuZnos `filosofiuri        zneobrivicaa/, aristotelesTan –politikuri, Sua saukuneebSi
anTropologiis~ monacemebs. raki pedagogikam unda aRzardos           _ religiuri da a. S. Sesabamisad, icvleboda aRzrdis cnebis
adamiani, unda izrunos misi msoflmxedvelobrivi poziciisa            Sinaarsic. masSi xan codnas eniWeboda upiratesoba, xan –
da RirebulebiTi orientaciis Camoyalibebaze, sworad                  zneobas, xan – rwmenas, xan – inteleqts, xan – sulierebas.
gaucnobieros mas Tavisi cxovrebis sazrisi, misi amqveyniuri             aRzrda-ganaTlebis sakiTxi mTeli simwvaviT dadga XX
vali da daniSnuleba, amitom anTropologia ki ar unda daSendes        saukunis meore naxevarSi.Aamis upirvelesi mizezi gaxda
pedagogikaze, aramed, piriqiT, pedagogika unda daefuZnos
                                                                    mecnierebisa da teqnikis arnaxuli winsvla. am winsvlam, jer
filosofiur anTropologias, anu, unda gaxdes filosofiur-
                                                                    erTi, gaaCina termini `mecnierul-teqnikuri revolucia~, xolo,
anTropologiuri pedagogika. aseTia Cveni mtkice pozicia da,
                                                                    meore mxriv, mravali mavne socialuri Sedegi mohyva. maT Soris
vfiqrobT, es imdenad naTelia, rom aRarc ki aris saWiro damatebiTi
                                                                    erT-erTi bunebis /haeris, wylis, miwis/ dabinZureba-gaWuWyianebaa,
argumentebis Zieba am azris WeSmaritebis dasasabuTeblad.
    anTropologiuri pedagogikis upiratesobis ukeT warmoCenis         meore ki – adamianis damsgavseba manqanasTan, misi robotizacia,
mizniT igi unda davupirispiroT Zvel, tradiciul pedagogikas,         misi qceva `homo faberad~.
romlis upirvelesi da umTavresi nakli is iyo, rom igi,                   yovelive es ki iman gamoiwvia, rom teqnikam da adamianma
rogorc empiriuli mecniereba, imTaviTve gaemijna filosofias/         gacvales adgilebi. is, rac adre mizani da umaRlesi Rirebuleba
man ise daiwyo bavSvis /adamianis/ aRrzda-ganaTlebaze zrunva,       iyo, axla iqca teqnikis winsvlis saSualebad, xolo is, rac
rom arc ki dauyenebia kiTxva: ra aris adamiani, anu ra /vin/        adre saSualeba iyo, anu teqnika, Tavad iqca miznad. yvelasaTvis
aris is, vis aRzrdasa da ganaTlebasac igi eswrafvis /igulisxmeba,   naTeli gaxda teqnikis winsvlas gamodevnebul adamians Seswavlis
rom laparakia adamianis arsze, mis ucvlel bunebaze da ara           gareSe darCa sakuTari Tavi da arc im kiTxvaze gaaCnda pasuxi,
empiriul adamianze, romlis arseboba araviTar sagangebo              Tu ra aris adamiani, raSi mdgomareobs misi arsi, misi sakuTari
dasabuTebas ar saWiroebs, yovel SemTxvevaSi, kerZo                  buneba, magram ra aris adamiani ara cxovelTan, sazogadoebasTan
mecnierebebisaTvis mainc/.                                          an RmerTTan mimarTebaSi, aramed TavisTavad.
    da raki empiriuli adamiani, erTi mxriv, TavisSi mraval              aRniSnulma viTarebam yvelasaTvis gaxada naTeli: bunebis
sxvadasxva fenas moicavs: boilogiurs, fiziologiurs, fsiqikurs,      damorCilebis dauokebeli surviliT Sepyrobil, teqnikiTa da

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revaz balanCivaZe                                                                 anTropologiuri pedagogika rogorc   ganaTlebis mecniereba

teqnologiebis winsvliT gatacebul adamians Seuswavleli darCa          asakSi ki ar unda ainteresebdes, aramed – nebismier asakSi.Aamitom
sakuTari Tavi, gamorCa misTvis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis               man Tavis sakvlev sagnad adamianis aRzrda unda gamoacxados
mqone kiTxva: ra aris adamiani? yovelive aman ki aucilebeli          da ara marto - bavSvis.
gaxada, Seqmniliyo specialuri filosofiuri disci plina,                   axali pedagogikuri disci plinis `anTropologiuri
romelic gaarkvevda adamianis arss, upasuxebda kiTxvebs: ra           pedagogikis~ upiratesoba tradiciul pedagogikasTan SedarebiT
aris adamiani? raSi mdgomareobs misi cxovrebis sazrisi da            isaa, rom igi aris mecniereba adamianis aRzrda-ganaTleba-formirebis
amqveyniuri vali, misi Tavisufleba da pasuxismgebloba. aseTi         Sesaxeb. amasTan, es pedagogika umWidroesad aris dakavSirebuli
filosofiuri disciplina, marTlac Seiqmna da mas `filosofiuei          filosofiasTan, kerZod, filosofiur anTropologiasTan.
anTropologia~ ewoda.                                                     filosofiuri anTropologiis Seqmnam pedagogika `aiZula~,
    filosofiuri anTropologiis Seqmnam dRis wesrigSi                  rom gadaexeda Tavisi cnebiTi aparatisaTvis da, pirvel rigSi,
garduvlad daayena pedagogikis modernizaciis, an sulac axali          gaeTvaliswinebina adamianis is axali gageba, romelic damuSavda
pedagogikuri disci plinis Seqmnis sakiTxi, romelic aRadgenda         filosofiur anTropologiaSi.
gawyvetil kavSirs filosofiasTan da, pirvel rigSi, mWidro                 ramdenadac adamianis is axali gageba, romelic filosofiurma
kontaqts daamyarebda filosofiur anTropologiasTan, rogorc             anTropologiam wamoayena, imdenad mniSvnelovani gamodga
adamianis Semswavlel filosofiur disci plinasTan. Aamgvari            pedagogikisaTvis, rom igi `anTropologiur pedagogikad~ iqca
mWidro kontaqtis xazgasasmelad am axalma pedagogikam                 /ufro zustad, apirebs qcevas/, SedarebiT vrclad SevCerdeT
`anTropologiuri pedagogika~, `pedagogiuri anTropologia~              masze.
uwoda Tavis Tavs /am saxelwodebaTagan romelia ufro marTebuli,            kiTxvaze: ra aris adamiani? filosofiurma anTropologiam
amaze zemoT ukve gvqonda msjeloba da amitom aq aRar                  upasuxa, rom adamiani aris erTaderTi arseba, romelsac ara
gavimeorebT/, xolo aRzrdis obieqt-subieqtad bavSvi ki ara,           aqvs winaswardadgenili arsi, gamokveTili da ucvleli buneba.
aramed adamiani gamoacxada.                                          gansxvavebiT cxovlisagan, romlis buneba ucvlelia, adamianis
    is viTareba, rom tradiciuli pedagogika bavSvis AaRzrdis          buneba cvalebadia.Ees ase unda gavigoT: axaldabadebuli
Sesaxeb mecnierebad Camoyalibda, cxadia, Secdoma iyo. Tu             nebismieri cxoveli /vTqvaT, ZaRli/ imad gaizrdeba, radac daibada.
mecnierebaTa Seqmnisa da ganviTarebis istorias gadavavlebT           igi ar icvlis jiSs, `zneobas~. axaldabadebuli bavSvi ki
retrospeqtul mzeras, Cven ver vi povniT verc erT SemTxvevas,         aravin icis, rogor pirovnebad Camoyalibdeba momavalSi.
roca mecniereba Tavis sakvlev sagans nawilobriv ikvlevdes            Camoyalibdeba rogorc didi mecnieri, eqimi, inJineri, mxatvari,
da ara mTlianad. warmoudgenelia, magaliTad, biologiam                musikosi, Tu iqceva ukanasknel naZiraladYyvelaferi
sicocoxlis kvleva amebiT daiwyos da sadRac, romeliRac                damokidebulia imaze, Tu rad aqcevs is Tavis Tavs.
doneze SeaCeros, anu ar miiyvanos es procesi bolomde. raki               es gansxvaveba imdenad princi pulia, rom maqs Seleri
biologia aris sicocxlis Sesaxeb mecniereba, igi swavlobs             kategoriuli winaaRmdegia adamianis cnebis amgvari definiciis:
kidec sicocxles amebidan dawyebuli adamianiT damTavrebuli.           `adamiani aris cxoveli, romelic... `Selers miaCnia: rogoradac
aseve iqceva zoologiac /isic yvela cxovels swavlobs/ da              ar unda gavagrZeloT es definicia, ra specialuri niSnebic ar
fsiqologiac /yvela fsiqikur fenomens ikvlevs/. pedagogikis           unda mivaweroT adamians /azrovneba, metyveleba da a. S./, saqmes
mxridan imis Tqma: me adamiani marto bavSvobis asakSi mainteresebs   ukve araferi eSveleba, radgan ukve naTqvamia is, rac ar unda
da meti arao, mxolod imis Sedegia, rom pedagogikis Teoriuli          Tqmuliyo – adamiani gamocxadebulia cxovelad. cxadia, Seleri
baza veraviTar kritikas ver uZlebda. Tu sxva mecnierebaTa            ar uaryofs, rom realuri adamiani biosocialuri arsebaa, magram
analogiiT vimsjelebT, maSin pedagogikas adamiani marto bavSvobis     WeSmariti adamiani /adamianoba/, misi azriT, iqidan iwyeba, saidanac
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is wyvets kavSirs cxovelTan. pirveli niSani imisa, rom adamiani          gons rom SeuZlia daupirispirdes sxeuls, es Zalian kargad
princi pulad gansxvavdeba cxovelisagan, swored isaa, rom mas        Cans Tavganwirvis magaliTze – adamians SeuZlia, saWiroebis
ara aqvs winaswardadgenili arsi, erTxel da samudamod mocemuli       SemTxvevaSi gawiros Tavi, anu, sakuTar sicocxleze Tqvas uari.
ucvleli buneba. Tavis arss is TviTon qmnis Tavisi sicocxlis              goni rom fsiqika-cnobierebisagan gansxvavebuli fenaa
ganmavlobaSi.Aamas dRes bevri filosofosi aRiarebs, maT Soris,       adamianSi, es iqidanac kargad Cans, rom arsebobs mecniereba
p ir v el ri g Si , f i lo s of i ur i a nTr o po l og i is a da    fsiqologia, romelic ikvlevs rogorc fsiqikas, ise cnobierebas.
eqzistencializmis warmomadgenlebi, magaliTad, Jan pol sartri.       xolo is, rac cnobierebas ikvlevs, cnobierebaze maRla xom
adamianis am TvisebaSi igi xedavs mis Tavisuflebas.Dda marTlac,     unda idges, masze meti xom unda iyos?
imaze didi da ukeTesi Tavisufleba ra unda iyos, rac aris is,             gonis sferoa zneobis sfero, WeSmaritebis sfero, rwmenis
rom mouxsna adamians yovelgvari garegani determinanti               sfero. tradiciuli pedagogika ar icnobda gonis sferos. igi
/bediswera, RmerTi, aracnobieri, socialuri garemo/ da Tavad         fsiqika-cnobierebis iqiT ar midioda. Ffilosofiuri
gaxado sakuTari Tavis ufali.                                        anTropologiisaTvis gonis cneba erT-erTi centraluri cnebaa.
    adamianis amgvari Tavisufleba iZleva, sxvaTa Soris,             anTropologiurma pedagogikam, upirveles yovlisa, es cneba
pedagogikis mecnierebis arsebobis SesaZleblobis dasabuTebas.Dda     gadaiRo filosofiuri anTropologiisagan, ramdenadac igi
ai, ratom: Tu warmovidgenT, rom adamianis buneba /arsi/ ucvlelia,   adamians ganixilavs rogorc goniT arsebas.
Tu mas, cxovelis msgavsad, aqvs erTxel da samudamod mocemuli             Tu adrindeli /tradiciuli/ pedagogika sagangebod ar
arsi, maSin mis aRzrda-ganviTarebasac yovelgvari azri daekargeba.   ganixilavda adamianis, pirovnebis, individis, me-s cnebebs,
igi iseTive uazroba gaxdeba, rogorc adamianis aRzrda bedis          anTropologiurma pedagogikam ara marto am cnebebis is gageba
fataluri garduvalobis arsebobis pirobebSi.                          unda wamoiRos filosofiuri anTropologiidan, rac aq dadginda
    adamianis amgvari Tavisuflebis aRiareba imis saSualebasac       ukve, aramed iseTi cnebebic unda gadmoiRos, rogoricaa
iZleva, rom sworad gadaiWras empirizmisa da nativizmis              kulturisa da civilizaciis cnebebi da, rac mTavaria, is
urTierTobis sakiTxi pedagogikaSi. Tu adamianis arsi icvleba         gansxvaveba, rasac filosofiuri anTropologia adasturebs am
/sikeTis an borotebis mimarTulebiT/, Tu adamians SeuZlia,           cnebebs Soris.
rogorc piko dela mirandola ityoda, daeSvas cxovelamde an                 aRiarebs ra gons specifikur adamianur niSnad,
amaRldes angelozamde, es imas niSnavs, rom adamianis adamianad      anTropologiurma pedagogikam goni da misi `gavrcelebis~
qcevaSi socialur garemosTan erTad aRzrdas gadamwyveti               sfero /mecniereba, xelovneba, kultura, religia/ unda ganixilos
mniSvneloba eniWeba.                                                rogorc adamianis formirebis specifikuri garemo. filosofiur
    meore ZiraTadi debuleba filosofiuri anTropologiisa              anTropologiaze dayrdnobiT anTropologiurma pedagogikam
isaa, rom adamiani aris goniTi arseba da rom goni aris adamianis    unda aCvenos, rom swored gonia is, rac adamians aucileblobis
specifikuri niSani.                                                 samefodan gamoiyvans da Tavisuflebis samefoSi daamkvidrebs.
    qmnis ra adamianis fenaTa Teorias, maqs Selers miaCnia, rom          Sesabamisad, anTropologiurma pedagogikam adamiani Tavisufal
adamianis arsebul fenaTa Soris sakuTriv adamianuri aris             arsebad unda Camoayalibos, Tumca es Tavisufleba sazogadoebis
goni. gansxvavebiT fsiqika-cnobierebisagan, romlebic uSualod        w i na S e p a s u x i s m g eb l o b i T u nda i y o s g a j er eb u l i .
arian dakavSirebulni sxeulTan /fiziologiurTan/, gons araferi        anTropologiurma pedagogikam adamians unda gaucnobieros misi
sarTo ara aqvs sxeulTan. igi ara Tu ar eqvemdebareba sxeuls,        cxovrebis sazrisi, misi amqveyniuri vali da daniSnuleba. tradiciuli
aramed araviTar angariSs ar uwevs mas. Uufro metic, goni            pedagogika ki amas arc akeTebda da, cxadia, verc gaakeTebda.
umetes SemTxvevaSi upirispirdeba sxeuls.
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    roca axali anTropologiuri pedagogikis upiratesobebze            avtoritetis xelyofa. maswavlebeli kvlav rCeba avtoritetad,
vlaparakobT tradiciul pedagogikasTan SedarebiT, isic unda           pirovnebad, romelsac aqvs moswavleze meti codna, meti
aRvniSnoT, rom, Tu gonismecnierebis dilTaiseul koncepcias           gamocdileba da, Tu gnebavT, zneobrivi simyare da pasuxismgebloba,
eWvqveS ar davayenebT, maSin axali anTropologiuri pedagogika        magram maswavleblis amgvari Sefaseba ar unda iyos
ueWvelad Seva       gonismecnierebebSi da misTvis, rogorc           avtokratizmis safrTxis Semcveli.
gonismecnierebisaTvis, mTavari meTodi iqneba gagebis /da ara            vamTavrebT ra `anTropologiur pedagogikaze~ msjelobas,
axsnis/ meTodi/. samwuxarod, qarTul pedagogiur mecnierebaSi         Cven kargad gvesmis, rom aq wamoyenebuli debulebebi Txoulobs
dRemde am meTodis ara Tu gamoyeneba ar xdeba, aramed ubralo         mis Semdgom gavrcobas da siRrmiseul dasabuTebas, magram, Cveni
xsenebac ki ar aris/. arada, anTropologiuri pedagogikis             mxriv, mkiTxvels vTxovT, gaiTvaliswinos is specifikuri viTareba,
gamocxadeba gonismecnierebad, xolo mis ZiriTad meTodad gagebis      romelTanac mocemul SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs saqme: Cven aq mxolod
meTodis miCneva, sruliad axal perspeqtivebs Slis                    imis Cvenebas visaxavT miznad, rom aucilebelia anTropologiuri
anTropologiuri pedagogikis, rogorc mecnierebis, da                  pedagogikis dafuZneba – Seqmna. Mmisi princi puli sakiTxebis
pedagogiuri praqtikis winaSe.                                       damuSaveba ki momavlis saqmea. amJamad vmuSaobT vrcel
    gagebis meTodis mTavari damaxasiaTebeli niSani da               monografiaze, sadac filosofiuri anTropologiis yvela
upiratesoba isaa, rom igi eZebs adamianTa /moswavleTa/ qcevebsa     princi puli sakiTxi iqneba ganxiluli, met-naklebi siRmiTa da
da msjelobebSi sazrisian kavSirebs, cdilobs ki ar axsnas,           seriozulobiT/cxadia, Cveni SesaZleblobis farglebSi/.
aramed gaigos es qcevebi da msjelobebi misi hermenevtikuli
analizisa da interpretaciis gziT.
    imis dasadgenad, Tu rogor moxerxdeba Teoriuli codnis
misadageba praqtikasTan, unda gavixsenoT gonis erT-erTi Tviseba:
mas SeuZlia gasagneba, SeuZlia iqces leqsad, musikad /notebad/      r.balanCivaZe, v. asaTiani, pedagogikis filosofiuri safuZvebi, 1997;
, ornamentad, qandakebad, naxatad da, Tu Cven aqamde marto          r. balanCivaZe, aRzrdis filosofiuri sakiTxebi, wignSi: `skolaSi
mecnierebas viyenebdiT adamianis ganaTlebis, misi codnis            saaRmzrdelo muSaobis aqtualuri problemebi~, 2000;
amaRlebis mizniT /sxvaTa Soris, arsebiTad imave mizniT viyenebdiT   Temur JRenti, revaz balanCivaZe, pedagoguri anTropologia Tu an-
                                                                    Tropologiuri pedagogika, kulturisa da xelovnebis universite-
mSobliuri literaturusa da istoriis gakveTilebs/, amieridan
                                                                    tis samecniero Sromebis krebuli,111,2005;
am saqmeSi farTod unda CavrToT xelovnebis nebismieri dargi,         r. balanCivaZe, `aRzrdisa~ da `ganaTlebis~ cnebebi pedagogikasa da
romelic swored sulierad gaafaqizebs da gaakeTilSobilebs             ganaTlebis filosofiaSi, saerTaSoriso konferenciis masalebi, Jurn.
adamians da ara marto codnas miscems mas. sxvaTa Soris,             `logosi~, 2008;
swored es viTareba gaxda mizezi im didi interesisa, rasac           naTela vasaZe, pedagogika, 2000;
e.w. kreatuli pedagogikisadmi iCens Tanamedrove sazogadoeba.         Больнов Отто, Мера и чрезмерность человека, 1962;
    axali anTropologiuri pedagogikis Taviseburebad da               · М. Шелер. Положение человека в космосе, в книге: Проблема человека
upiratesobad isic unda miviCnioT, rom aq mkveTrad Seicvleba         в западной философии. 1988;
damokidebuleba rogorc aRsazrdelis, ise aRmzrdelisadmi.              V. Frankl. Der Mensch vor der Frage nach dem Sinn. Munchen, Zurich,
ase magaliTad: aRsazrdeli gagebuli iqneba, ara rogorc aRzrdis       1979;
                                                                    Fromm Erich,Die Seele des menschen, Berlin, Wien,1981;
obieqti, aramed rogorc partniori aRsazrdelTan mimarTebaSi,
                                                                    Fromm Erich, Escape from Freedom, 1941;
rameTu aRzrda-ganaTlebis procesi arsebiTad dialogis wesiT           Fromm Erich, Marx`s concept of Man, 1961.
unda warimarTos.Aaman, cxadia, ar unda gamoiwvios maswavleblis
298                                                                                                                                   299
                                              qeTevan elaSvili,         qarTuli sityvis Sinaganma bunebam ver igua erotizmis Sesatyvisi
                                         asocirebuli profesori          leqsika – anu, ar Seqmna am nakadis metyveli sistema da, Sesabamisad,
                                                                        mkveTrad aqcentirebuli erotiuli mwerloba.
      erotizmis diapazoni qarTul sityvaSi                                   miuxedavad amisa, qarTuli sityvis `gamsityvelobiTi Zalis
                                                                        madli da Tvinier Sinagani buneba~ (sulxan-sabaseuli ganmartebis
    qarTuli sityvis masStabi da diapazoni, misi filosofiur-             perifrazi) SegrZnebaTa am emociur piksac afiqrebinebs da
ezoTeriuli plasti Tu emociur-warmosaxviTi buneba ratomRac               Sesabamisad asaxavs kidec. erotizmis sityvieri diapazoni qarTul
`daCrdilulia~ anda, egeb, sagangebod tabuirebuli mxolod                 mwerlobaSicaa saZiebeli, oRond es nakadi araa imgvarad
erTi mimarTulebiT – esaa sityvis erotiuli aspeqti... bunebrivia,        TvalSisacemi, rogorc esaa gansxvavebul eTnokulturul
es araerT Tavsatexs gviCens. friad sainteresoa imis dadgena,            tradiciebSi: `Tavad romauli komedia iseve, rogorc sazogadod
Tu ram ganapiroba am saxis `semantikuri vakuumis~ warmoSoba             literatura da saxviTi xelovneba, qmnis erotikuli kulturis
qarTul eTnofsiqologiaSi da rogor aisaxa es Cvens mwerlobaSi.            im sawyis Sres, romelzedac Semdgom aRorZinebis xanis
    grZnobis fenomeni, sityvaSi gacxadebuli, saocar eqspresias          `grZnobadi~ Sedevrebi Seiqmneba miniSnebebiTa da simboloTa
iZens da sityvieri xatis meSveobiT distanciuri tkbobisa Tu              mdidari mwkriviT. Tavis mxriv, bokaCos `dekameronis~ `xalisiani
Trobis emociur efeqts badebs. amitomac gansakuTrebuli                   erotizmis~ tradicias agrZelebs fransua rables `gargantiua
sisaTuTe da sifaqizea saWiro sulieri gaSiSvlebis Jams, rom              pantagriuveli~ _ sicocxlis mZafri da jansaRi aRqmiT, rusos
es gamoTqma ar iqces banalur `sityvaTa TamaSad~... miT ufro             `aRsareba~... yovlive is, rac, saboloo jamSi, ganapirobebs
sariskoa, roca martooden xorcieli siSiSvlis asaxvis                     daxvewili erotikuli plastis arsebobas.
tendencias miiCneven erotizmis umTavres winarexatad da                      msgavsi plasti islamur kulturaSic arsebobs, amas `aTas
aviwydebaT, rom erotizmi, upirveles yovlisa, grZnobadi speqtris         erTi Ramis~ zRaprebic mowmoben; is miniaturebic, romlebic
Tavisufali gamomsaxvelobiTa da miniSnebebiT unda iyos                   mogolTa islamuri dinastiis dros iqmneboda indoeTSi; is
mowodebuli. Zalzed rTulia am SegrZnebaTa asociaciuri                    grZnobadi Srec, romelic sufizmSi arsebobs da romelic esoden
gacxadeba sityvaSi ise, rom uxamsobis nakadi ar SemoiWras... es         xatovnad aisaxa Suasaukunovan sparsul poeziaSi.
sacalfexo bilikia da yvela eTnokulturaSi gansxvavebuli                      Tavisi daxvewili erotikuli kultura hqonda iaponiasac;
saxiTaa warmodgenili.                                                   sakmarisia gavixsenoT Tundac gamorCeuli literaturuli niWiT
    saqarTveloSi, erTi SexedviT, tabuirebulia es Tematika               dajildovebuli sefe-qalebis sei-senagonisa, an murasaki sikibus
(rogorc winare, aseve qristianuli cnobierebis WrilSi) da                intimuri lirizmiT gamsWvaluli dRiurebi, sikubusave prozauli
Sesatyvisad ar xdeba qarTuli sityvis definiciac am                      Sedevri – romanis `ambavi mefiswul genZisa~ harunobisa, Tu
mimarTulebiT. arada, swored erotizmis siRrmiseuli gaazreba              utamaros natifi grafikis gabeduli mizanscenebi, swored imitom
daedo safuZvlad renesanss _ adamianuri, anu miwieri, qmedebanis         ar gexamuSebaT, rom Tavad iaponur mentalobaSi ar aris
`mSvenieri TvaliT~ aRqma... `klasikuri epoqis filosofosebTan            evropelTaTvis Cveuli `tabu~... uxamsobas gamoricxavs
erosi ganasaxierebda adamianur swrafvas sikeTis Secnobisa da            saukunovani iaponuri tradicia `erotizmis esTetikisa~
RvTaebrivi mSvenierebisadmi~ (z. kiknaZe... 2003: gv.20). renesansuli   (z., abzianiZe, q. elaSvili, 2007: gv72).
azrovneba CvenSi gacilebiT adre aRmocenda, vidre mTel evropaSi,             qarTuli mwerlobis uZvelesi tradiciis miuxedavad,
oRond qarTuli bunebidan gamomdinare, miwieri vnebani gacilebiT          nayofierebis sawesCveulebo ritualebma ar aRmoacenes is
SefarviT amoiTqmeboda _ `surviliT TmobiTa~ Tu `sulisTqmis               kulturul-esTetikuri plasti, romelic friad metyvel da
daokebiT~, magram emociaTa am WrilSi mainc gamokrTeba xolme             daxvewil erotikul nakads warmoSobda qarTuli literaturis
gareSe TvalTagan dafaruli Zalzed intimuri gancdebiT... oRond            wiaRSi. Tumca, mTeli rigi paradoqsi SeimCneva: sakmaod Zneli

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 qeTevan elaSvili                                                                                aerotizmis diapazoni qarTul sityvaSi

warmosadgenia, rom swored sasuliero mwerlobis ZeglSi               SeniRbuli, aragamomwvevad TvalSisacemi saxiT, mainc gamokrTa
fiqsirdeba grZnobis saocari siRrme da imavdroulad udidesi          swored Zvel mwerlobaSi – aRmosavluri bangnarevi, meditaciur
tragizmiT... ar meguleba emociurad imaze ufro tevadi da            poeziis zeobis Jams da qarTul mxatvrul azrovnebaSi evropuli
gamomsaxveli sabediswero gancda, rogoricaa, aSot kurapalatis       impulsis mcired SemoWrisas _ da savsebiT bunebrivia, rom es
mier amoTqmuli: `netar mas kacssa, romelic cocxal arRar            iyo XVIII saukune da, kerZod ki, daxvewili xiblis mqone
ars~ (Zeglebi, 1963, gv. 237), anda umSvenieresi sefeqalis e. w.   poetis _ besikis _ poezia. oRond, am literaturul sivrceSi
`siZvis diacis~ aRsareba: `ver Tavisufleba siyvarulze~... da       erotikuli asociacias da Zlier impulss qmnis TiToeuli
grZnobis sabediswero zeoba TviT mefe-mijnurze...                   bgeris saocari xmovaneba da sityvaTa imgvari TanaSezrda Tu
    renesansuli cnobierebis arqeti pi SeimCneva swored am          plastika, rom Cndeba metyveli, vizualuri gancda da gaqvs
hagiografiul ZeglSi (`grigol xanZTelis cxovreba~), romelic         SegrZneba, rom TiTqos Cvens erovnul samosSi saguldagulod
ukve daxvewili da srulyofili saxiT gvevlineba                      dagmanuli qarTveli qalis natifi sxeuli aRmosavluri rokviT
`vefxistyaosanSi~, sadac `grZnobis zneobis~ poetur-filosofiuri     uzadod irweva da tydeba... da amitomac es cecxlovani gzneba
interpretaciebia zogadadamianuri tendenciebiT nasazrdoebi.         da absoluturad zusti emociuri aqcenti saocrad daxvewil
    sruliad gansxvavebuli Strixebi ikveTeba qarTuli mTis           erotikul elfers sZens besikis mTel poezias da erTgvarad
poeziaSi, romelic Tamam impulsebzea aRmocenebuli –                 aqarwylebs Cem mier zemoTqmul mosazrebas – qarTul
TviTmyofadia da Tavisufali. mTis JReradobaSi bunebrivi da          cnobierebaSi `erotizmis esTetikis~ ararsebobis Sesaxeb. aq
arauxamsi, magram baris mkvidrTaTvis sruliad gaugebari,            uTuod gasaTvliswinebelia misi boboqari, magram imavdroulad
warmoudgeneli da, rac mTavaria, amoucnobia uZvelesi wes-           saocrad romantiuli piradi peri petiebic...
Cveulobani _ `wawloba~ Tu `sworfroba~ (mixeil javaxiSvilTan
da grigol robaqiZesTan Sesatyvisi mxatvruli metamorfiziT              `tano tatano, gulwamtano, ucxod marebo!
mowodebuli...) `arc is yofila SemTxveviTi, rom orive mwerali          zilfo-kavebi, momklavebo, ver sakarebo!
Tanabrad iyo dainteresebuli sworfrobis CveulebiT. orives              warb-wamwam-Tvalno, misaTvalno, Semazarebo!
                                                                      Zowlal-bageo, damdageo, sulT wamarebo!
undoda amoecno, Tu ra iyo es ucnauri Cveuleba. `sastiki,              piro mTvareo, momigone, mzisa darebo!~
saamuri mavne sworfroba-wawloba _ uzenaesi Zmuri siyvarulis           (`tano tatano~, besiki, Tb., 1948,
mkacri adaTi _ dResac ar vici, veluri Tu zekacuri, RvTiuri            gamomcemloba `sabWoTa mwerali~, gv. 12)
Tu satanuri (`TeTri sayelo~). rasac `TeTri sayelos~ elizbari
ganicdis, zustad imasve ganicdis grigol robaqiZis `engadis~           anda `me Seni mgone, Wirs Semkone, damwvi mal alo,
                                                                      zilfo naSalo, SemaSalo, mkvlelo dalalo...
giorgi valuevi~ (a. baqraZe, 1999: gv. 105). am uCveulo qmedebas      (`me Seni mgone~, besiki, Tb., 1948,
gareSeTaTvis _ `iq dabla~ martooden erotikuli elferi                  gamomcemloba `sabWoTa mwerali~, gv. 20);
dahkravT da dakarguli aqvT Tavisi pirvandeli – siRrmiseuli
gaazreba; mamakacuri znis erTgvari gamocda Tu tkbili, tanjva          `ra guli davage Senad sareblad,
                                                                      muniTgan vards mifer miTam arebiT~.
_ `survilT Tmobis~ daokebiT. am dagmanul impulsTa metyveli            (`ra guli davage Senad sareblad~,
amosunTqvaa swored kafiebSi gacxadebuli, magram isic                  besiki, Tb., 1948, gamomcemloba
sagulisxmoa, rom am SegrZnebis swori aRqmisaTvis mTis                 `sabWoTa mwerali~, gv. 28).
mizanscenebia gasaTvaliswinebeli (v. kotetiSvili, 2006).              besiks sul sxva yaidaze, erTi SexedviT, aratradiciul
    Tumca amgvari xedva erTgvarad atrofirebuli iyo sazogadod       qarTul leqswyobaze aqvs awyobili aramarto TiToeuli sityva,
qarTul eTnofsiqologiaSi da amitomac qarTuli mwerlobis              aramed bgerac ki da amiT aRwevs SegrZnebaTa srulyofas.
wiaRSi ar ganviTarda `erotizmis esTetika~, magram erTgvarad        albaT, amitomac swyalobdnen agre rigad Cveni `cisferyanwelebi~

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 qeTevan elaSvili

mas. besiks isini Tavis did winaprad miiCnevdnen da Tanamedrove                                                rusudan mircxulava,
simbolur JReradobasac swored mis leqsebs miawerdnen                                                         asocirebuli profesori
(literaturuli gemovnebis TvalsazrisiT) sakmaod pretenziuli
Cveni simbolistebi _ `besikis baRSi vrgav bodleris borot                gardasaxvis fsiqologiuri SesaZleblobis
yvavilebso~ _ werda ticiani... am maradiulma tabuirebam Tavisi                           Sesaxeb
damRa daamCnia qarTuli sityvis bunebriv diapazons, erTgvarad
Caketa kidec. `es daemCna Sesabamisi leqsikis simwiresac, rac              gardasaxva ara mxolod Teatrisa da xelovnebis TeoriisTvis,
esoden arTulebs xolme Sesabamisi samecniero Tu mxatvruli               aramed fsiqologiisTvisac saintereso sakiTxad iqca.
literaturis Targmans, sadac an wminda samedicino                       daukavSirda ra Tanamedrove fsiqo-treningsa da fsiqoTerapias
terminologias mimarTaven an Jargons. saukunovani tabuireba             (kerZod ki, `roluri TamaSis~ meTodebs), gardasaxvis problema
erotikuli Tematikisa, raRa Tqma unda, daemCna Cvens mwerlobasac,       axleburi mniSvnelobiTa da SinaarsiT daitvirTa.
sadac, mixeil javaxiSvilis garda, Cveni saukunis dasawyisamde,             rogorc cnobilia, Teatrisa da fsiqo-Terapiis kavSiri
faqtobrivad, veravin gabeda Sexeboda am erTob sarisko sakiTxs.         uxsovari droidan modis da saTaves preistoriuli xanis
Tavis mxriv, erotikuli kulturis simwirem ganapiroba Sinagani           ritualuri sanaxaobidan iRebs; rodesac rituali religiur,
atrofirebuli cenzuris oficiozuri cenzuriT Senacvleba                   samedicino, fsiqologiur, esTetikur da yofiT _ utilitarul
da rodesac es `oficiozi~ moiSala, Cven sruliad                         aspeqtebs amTlianebda. art-Terapiisa da treningis meTodebSi
dezorientirebulni aRmovCndiT, rac esoden savalalod daemCna             swored am dakarguli mTlianobis nostalgia ikiTxeba.
qarTul `erotikul prozas~ (oriode gamonaklisi ar cvlis                      `TamaSis meTodebi~ ara mxolod Sinaarsobrivad Tu
saerTo suraTs)~. (z., abzianiZe, q. elaSvili, 2007: gv. 72).           funqciurad amdidreben art-Terapiasa da trenings, aramed aseve
    da, dasasrul, kidev erTi, Tavad erotikuli kultura ar               produqtiul niadags qmnian Tavad Teatris fenomenis mecnieruli
warmoSobs saCoTiro da uxerxuli situaciebs, amas ganapirobebs           SeswavlisTvisac. am TvalsazrisiT, fsiqo-drama da drama-Terapia
im SemoqmedTa daintereseba am TematikiT, romelTac RalatobT             (rogorc erTdroulad Taviseburi laboratoria da art-studia)
taqti, an saerTod ar gaaCniaT Sinagani kultura, mxolod am              Teatris Teoriisa da fsiqologiis interesTa kveTis ared, maTi
SemTxvevaSi iWreba uxamsobis nakadi da amitomac araerTgvanovani        erToblivi Ziebis sferod SeiZleba (da, albaT, unda) iqces.
azri Cndeba sazogadoebaSic.                                                Tanamedrove art-Terapia iSviaTad mimarTavs termins _
                                                                       `gardasaxva~. samagierod, operirebs iseTi terminologiiT,
                                                                       rogoricaa: `roli~, `rolTan gaigiveba~, `magiuri _ Sen
 abzianiZe z., elaSvili q. 2007: abzianiZe z. elaSvili q. simboloTa   warmoidgine!~ art-Terapiuli meTodebis Seswavla aCvenebs, rom
ilustrirebuli enciklopedia, gamomcemloba `bakmi~, II, Tb.: 2007;       gardasaxvis fenomeni aq ara mxolod xelSemwyob pirobad, aramed
 baqraZe 1999: baqraZe a. kardu anu grigol robaqiZis cxovreba da      fsiqikaze zemoqmedebis mZlavr instrumentad da, ufro metic,
Rvawli, Tb.: `lomisi~, 1999;                                           Terapiul efeqtad, mkurnalobis rezultatad miiCneva.
 besiki 1948: besiki, gamomcemloba `sabWoTa mwerali~, Tb.: 1948;
                                                                           aqve ismis ara erTi sakiTxi; kerZod, ra unda CaiTvalos
 kiknaZe... 2003: kiknaZe z., n. tonia. saymawvilo miTologiuri
enciklopedia, I, bondo macaberiZis gamomcemloba, Tb.: 2003;            klientis (pacientis) gardasaxvis (an rolis aTvisebis)
 kotetiSvili 2006: kotetiSvili v. moukreafvni (qarTuli                kriteriumad? ramdenad realuria gardasaxvis fenomeni Terapiisa
skabrezuli folkloris nimuSebi), Tb.: `diogene~, 2006;                  da treningis procesSi? xom ar gulisxmobs gardasaxva
 Zeglebi 1963: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi,        zedapirul imitacias? da bolos, xom araa Tanamedrove etapze
I (V-X ss.), il abulaZis (redaqtorobiT), `mecniereba~, Tb.: 1963.
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rusudan mircxulava                                                                                 gardasaxvis fsiqologiuri SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb

gardasaxvis (erTgvari metamorfozis) fenomenze saubari                         magaliTad, erTi da imave pirovnebis `rolTa repertuarSi~
sazogadod moZvelebuli?                                                        arsebuli mSoblis roli mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba Svilis
     miTiTebuli sakiTxebidan TiToeuli problemuri xasiaTisaa.                  rolisgan (faqtobrivad, es antagonisturi rolebia), miuxedavad
ase magaliTad, gardasaxvis obieqturi kriteriumis                              imisa, rom maT erTi da igive pirovneba asrulebs. mSoblis
erTmniSvnelovani gansazRvra TiTqmis SeuZlebelia. tradiciulad,                 rolis arss aqtiuri zrunva da pasuxismgebloba Seadgens
amgvar kriteriumad miiCneva sasceno moqmedebis `rezultati~ –                  maSin, rodesac Svilis rolisTvis damaxasiaTebeli _ SedarebiT
auditoriis ukukavSiri. kerZod, auditoriisa da, gansakuTrebiT                  pasiuri mimReblobaa. (magaliTisTvis Segnebulad SeirCa
ki, Teatraluri kritikis Sefaseba (sxva sityvebiT, TamaSis aRqma).             stereoti pad Camoyalibebuli varianti: aqtiuri mSobeli _
     magram aRqma da Sefaseba (miT ufro, myisieri Sefaseba)                   pasiuri Svili. Tumca, ra Tqma unda, realurad SeiZleba sruliad
subieqtur xasiaTs atarebs. auditoriis yoveli wevris emociur-                  Seicvalos roluri Sinaarsi: Svilma aqtiuri, xolo mSobelma
afeqturi, kognitur-azrobrivi Tu motorul-fizikuri reaqciebi                    pasiuri roli, anda orivem erTggvarovani rolebi itvirTon.)
_ subieqturi da unikaluri bunebisaa. Sesabamisad, auditoriis                      `CvenSi brboa!~ _ am fraziT r. asajoli adamianSi arsebul,
ukukavSiri sasceno gardasaxvis kriteriumad ver CaiTvleba.Aaseve               erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebul, mravalricxovan da mravalferovan
saeWvoa kriteriumad Tavad msaxiobis Sinagani, subieqturi                      personaliebze (an rolebze) miuTiTebs.Ppirovneba qve-pirovnebaTa
gancdebis aRiareba, radganac Teatraluri xelovnebis arss                       erTobliobaa da TiToeuli maTgani TviTgamovlenisa da
msaxiobis swored auditoriasTan mimarTeba Seadgens.                            TviTrealizebisken iswrafvis. pirovnebas, sardlis msgavsad,
     gardasaxvis sakiTxi art-TerapiaSi wminda praqtikul WrilSi                misi `fsiqikuri armiis~ integracia, koordinireba da garkveuli
moiazreba. kerZod, Tuki fsiqo-dramisa da drama-Terapiis                       miznebisken mimarTva evaleba.Aam amocanas arTulebs isic, rom
procesSi klientis (pacientis) fsiqikuri Tu fizikuri                           yoveli personalia (an roli) sakuTari moTxovnebisa da
mdgomareoba umjobesdeba (risi obieqturi registraciac                          `pretenziebis~ matarebelia. amasTan erTad, rolebs fiqsirebis,
SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva fsiqologiuri da samedicino meTodiT),                  anu, sakuTari princi pebis Tavs moxvevis tendencia axasiaTebT.
maSin SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rom klientma warmatebiT gaarTva                         pirovnebis yoveli personalia (an roli) mentalur
Tavi `mxatvrul_Terapiuli~ gardasaxvis amocanas da SeZlo                       struqturaSi dominirebisken da gamorCeuli, `centraluri
axali rolis gaTaviseba. rogorc vxedavT, gardasaxvis                           adgilis~ dakavebisken iswrafvis.Mmas mTeli pirovnebis mocva
kriteriumad am SemTxvevaSi Terapiuli efeqti saxeldeba.                        da fsiqikaSi sakuTari, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli moTxovnebis
     sainteresoa, Tu ras gulisxmobs Tanamedrove fsiqologia                    ganfena swadia,Aamitomac gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens
`rolis~ (an, ufro swored, `fsiqologiuri rolis~) fenomenSi.                    fsiqikuri integraciisa da koordinirebis fenomeni, romelSic
a R ni S nu l i s a ki Tx i s g a S u q eb i s a s v i x el m ZR v a nel eb   mTeli fsiqikuri arsenalis urTierT SesabamisobaSi moyvana,
`fsiqosinTezisa~ da `ganwyobis Teoriis~ debulebebiT.                          gamTlianeba an, asajolis terminis Sesabamisad, fsiqo-sinTezi
     `fsiqo-sinTezis~ (r. asajoli) sabaziso ideis mixedviT,                   igulisxmeba.
yoveli pirovneba calkeul qve-pirovnebaTa, `personaliaTa~ (sub-                    fsiqologiur literaturaSi `rols~ uwodeben ara mxolod
egos) an rolTa erTobliobaa. pirovnebis struqturaSi Semavali                   pirovnebaSi arsebul, profesiasTan da socialur qcevasTan
TiToeuli roli (mSoblis, Svilis, meuRlis, profesionalis,                       dakavSirebul ganwyobaTa an tendenciaTa sistemebs; am
megobris, moqalaqis da sxva) SeiZleba gagebul iqnes, rogorc                   ukanasknelTa aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneba ufro konkretuli termini
calkeuli qve-pirovneba an qve-`me~ (sub-ego), vinaidan mas sakuTar            _ `socialuri roli~. magaliTad, aseTia mSoblis, Svilis,
moTxovnilebaTa, orientirTa an ganwyobaTa sistema axasiaTebs.                  profesionalis, studentis, moqalaqis da sxva rolebi. qve-


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rusudan mircxulava                                                                       gardasaxvis fsiqologiuri SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb

pirovnebas (an rols) uwodeben aseve pirovnebis ama Tu im                `fsiqosinTezSi~ mniSvnelovani adgili eTmoba `gaigivebis~
konkretul Tvisebasa Tu unars. magaliTad, rogoricaa: sijiute,        fenomens; pirovneba axdens gaigivebas ama Tu im konkretul
patriotizmi, filantropia, kreatuloba, sizarmace, altruizmi,         personaliasTan (an rolTan). magaliTad, qali SeiZleba srulad
pesimizmi, aqtiuroba da sxva.                                       gaigivdes dedis rolTan, anu, misTvis arsebobis erTaderT formad
    miTiTebuli Tvisebebis aRsaniSnad termini `roli~ SemTxveviT      da gamarTlebadac deda-Sviluri urTierTobebi iqces.
an mxolod metaforuli mniSvnelobiT rodi SeirCa. aRniSnuli                mTeli pirovnebis mxolod erT, konkretul rolTan gaigiveba
terminiT xazi gaesmis pirovnebis SedareT Tavisuflebas misive        ara mxolod calmxrivs xdis pirovnebas, aramed aseve iwvevs
Tvisebebis mimarT; msaxiobis msgavsad, pirovneba irgebs, swavlobs   seriozul fsiqologiur da socialur problemebsac.
da iTvisebs ama Tu im rols (an Tvisebas). zogierTi rolis            `gaigivebis~ fenomenis saintereso paralelia profesionali
aTviseba SedarebiT iolia, zogierTis ki _ rTuli da                   msaxiobis `Stampi~, `kliSe~ anda amplua. calmxrivi amplua,
pirovnebisgan mniSvnelovan Zalisxmevas saWiroebs. magaliTad,        arc Tu iSviaTad, msaxiobis moqmedebas xelovnurobis niSniT
qalisTvis dedis rolis aTviseba, am rolis wminda biologiuri          aRbeWdavs da Semoqmedebis dayvanas axdens meqanikur
Zirebidan gamomdinare, Cveulebriv, TavisiT, didi Zalisxmevis        avtomatizmamde.
gareSe xdeba. Tumca, am SemTxvevaSic ki arsebobs                        pirovnebis, rogorc rolTa erTianobis, gageba gardasaxvisa
gamonaklisebi.Aaltruizmi, patriotizmi, kretuloba ki is              da TamaSis instinqtis fenomenebs axlebur JReradobas
pirovnuli niSnebia (is rolebia), romelTa gamomuSaveba               sZens.Ppirovnebis struqturaSi gansxvavebuli rolebis arseboba
seriozul, mizanmimarTul muSaobas moiTxovs.                          imTa viTve gulisxmobs rolur dinamikas a da
    fsiqologiaSi socialursa da fsiqologiur rolebs                   gardasaxvas.Oobieqturi da subieqturi faqtorebidan gamondinare,
ganwyobis fenomenTan (atitudTan) akavSireben. roli Sesabamis        pirovneba permanentuli fsiqologiuri cvlilebis, erTgvari
ganwyobaTa sistemis saxiT gaigeba. rolis aTviseba adeqvaturi        `fsiqologiuri mdinarebis~ an TamaSis statusSi eqceva.
ganwyobis SemuSavebas ukavSirdeba, rolTa dinamika ki _                  Sesabamisad, msaxiobis ostatoba, rogorc specifikuri
ganwyobaTa dinamikas gulisxmobs. rolis ganwyobasTan                 talanti, fsiqologiur rolTa mimarT specifikur `Riaobasa~
dakavSirebiT xazi gaesmis rolis mimarTebas fsiqikis                 da rolidan rolze gadanacvlebis moqnilobas unda
struqturis sabaziso elementebTan. rolis SemuSaveba                  ukavSirdebodes. `TamaSis instinqti~ ki, unda ganixilos im
fsiqikuri struqturis cvlilebas, mis gadastruqturebas                Tandayolil meqanizmTan kavSirSi, romlis mizansac pirovnuli
gulisxmobs.                                                         resursebis sruli realizacia da ganxorcieleba Seadgens.
    pirovneba, rogorc msaxiobi-aqtiori, `rolTa repertuaris~             Cveulebriv, pirovneba fsiqologiur rolTa mxolod nawilis
mflobelia, romelTa SerCevac xdeba ara mxolod garemos                gamovlenasa da realizebas axdens. ama Tu im rols, Cveulebriv,
karnax iT, aramed Tavad pirovnebis mier mi Rebuli                   Sesabamisi situaciuri garemo astimulirebs. magaliTad, pedagogis
gadawyvetilebiTac. unda aRiniSnos, rom pirovnebis zrda (ara         roli vlindeba _ aRsazrdelebTan urTierTobisas, gmiris roli
mxolod asakobrivi, aramed pirovnulic) xels uwyobs `rolTa            _ heroikul (da ara yofiT) situaciaSi da sxva. magram rolisa
repertuaris~ gafarToebasa da gamdidrebas. rac ufro                  da situaciuri garemos mimarTeba yovelTvis aseTi calsaxa
maRalganviTarebulia pirovneba, miT ufro mravalferovania             araa. roli SesaZloa Warbad dafiqsirdes, `miejaWvos~ adamians
miseuli `rolTa repertuari~ anda miT ufro mravali Tvisebis,          da Tavi sruliad Seuferebel situaciaSi iCinos: aseT SemTxvevaSi
unaris, ganwyobisa da tendenciis matarebuli Tu mflobeli             roli situaciisadmi araadeqvaturi sdeba. magaliTad, zrdasruli
xdeba igi.                                                          pirovneba SesaZloa bavSvis rols ver aRwevdes Tavs, saqmiani


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rusudan mircxulava                                                                        gardasaxvis fsiqologiuri SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb

adamiani _ dasvenebasa da garTobas ver axerxebdes, pedagogi _           drama-Terapia da fsiqo-drama roluri qmedebis gziT
yofiT situaciaSic didaqtikiT iyos dakavebuli da sxva. cxadia,       fsiqologiur cvlilebebze, axal ganwyobaTa formirebasa da
rolis aseTi fiqsireba problemebs uqmnis rogorc garSemo              pirovnul zrdazea orientirebuli. gardasaxvaSi aq axal ganwyobaTa
myofT, aseve rolis Semsrulebel pirovnebasac.                        (an RirebulebaTa, TvisebaTa, rolTa) formireba, realizeba da
    r. asajolisa da misi didi maswavleblis, k. iungis, mixedviT,    amiT pirovnebis fsiqologiuri `gamdidreba~ igulisxmeba.
adamiani `mikrokosmia~_ Tavis fsiqikaSi mTeli samyaros                  am TvalsazrisiT, gardasaxva (sityvis pirdapiri gagebiT) swored
matarebelia. Sesabamisad, masSi warmodgenelia yvela roli Tu         art-TerapiaSi iZens gansakuTrebulsa da sruliad gamorCeul
qve-pirovneba, romelTa didi nawilic (ra Tqma unda) realizebis,      mniSvnelobas. imitaciisgan (rogorc gareSes kopirebisgan)
gamovlenis gareSe rCeba. magram fsiqikaSi arsebuli Zalebi da        gansxvavebiT, gardasaxvas aq unikaluri funqcia ekisreba.
maT Soris rolebi funqcionirebis, aqtivobis tendenciiT arian             da bolos, ismis sakmaod mniSvnelovani (da, albaT,
damuxtuli; maTTvis sruliad miuRebelia stabilurad in-                filosofiuri) sakiTxi: gardasaxva, Tundac terminis
aqtiuri, pasiuri mdgomareoba. Sesabamisad, pirovneba `iZulebulia~   etimologiidan gamomdinare, `sxvad yofnas~, sakuTari pirovnebis
moqmedebaSi moiyvanos mTeli fsiqikuri arsenali da aseve,            CarCoebidan gasvlas, transcendencias niSnavs (msaxiobi sxva
rolTa mTeli mentaluri sistemac; am TvalsazrisiT, pirovneba          pirovnebad gardaisaxeba, gardaiqmneba). ramdenadaa es ukanaskneli
iZulebulia iyos msaxiobi!                                           gaTvaliswinebuli gardasaxvis SemoTavazebul gagebaSi?
    fsiqikaSi warmodgenili `rolTa diapazoni~ ara mxolod                 art-Terapiuli midgoma (gansakuTrebiT ki, r. asajolos
SesaZlebels xdis gardasaxvas, aramed _ aucilebelsac!                `f siq osi nTez uri ~ s kol a) mis tikur m eta mor foz as
fsiqologiuri rolebis gamovlena-gaTamaSeba adamianis fsiqikuri       utilitarulsa da pragmatul `kalapotSi~ aqcevs da Tavad
balansis SenarCunebisa da misi normaluri funqcionirebis             pirovnebis fsiqikaSi arsebuli resursebis aRmoCenas, wvdomasa
pirobad iqceva. gardasaxva, am TvalsazrisiT, sakuTari pirovnebis    da gamoyenebas ukavSirebs.Aamitomac am SemTxvevaSi
srulad, srulyofilad amoqmedebaa! da Tuki imitacia gareSes           transcendencia (sakuTari, pirovnuli sazRvrebidan gasvla)
mxolod wabaZvaa da xelovnuri, zedapiruli gameoreba, gardasaxva      sakuTarsave fsiqikis (da uwinaresad ki, pirovnuli da
_ pirovnebis struqturaSi mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs, erTi              koleqtiuri aracnobieris) wvdomasa da mis xelaxal aRmoCenas
mdgomareobidan meoreSi gadasvlas anda, sxva sityvebiT, ganwyobaTa   gulisxmobs. Sesabamisad, r. asajolis pozicia (iseve, rogorc,
dinamikas gulisxmobs.                                               ra Tqma unda, misi didi maswavleblis, k. iungis, pozicia)
    sagangebod unda iqnes ganxiluli `fsiqologiuri rolis~            antikuri Segonebis _ `yovelove axali, kargad daviwyebuli
`scenur rolTan~ mimarTebis sakiTxi. art-Terapiis erTob              Zvelia~ _ Tanamedrove variaciad unda miviCnioT.
`maqsimalisturi~ poziciis mixedviT, sasceno gardasaxvisgan
gansxvavebiT, art-Terapiis manZilze axali pirovnuli niSnis
(rolis) aTvisebas, pirovnebis Sida-struqturuli cvlilebebi
gansazRvraven. fsiqologiuri roli, scenuri rolisgan
gansxvavebiT, pirovnebis `gadastruqturebas~,Mmis sistemur
cvlilebebs ukavSirdeba. Tumca, erTeul SemTxvevebSi (rac araa        1. Ассаджоли Р., Психосинтез, М., 1994;
ti puri) SesaZloa scenurma rolmac msgavsi `globaluri~               2. Келлерман П. , Психодрама крупным планом, М., 1998;
cvlilebebi gamoiwvios msaxiobis pirovnebaSi.                        3. Копытин А., Теория и практика арт_терапии, С-П., 2002;
                                                                    4. Роджерс К., Руководящий мотив- тенденция актуализации, В сб:
                                                                    Теории личности, С-П., 1997, стр. 528-573.

310                                                                                                                                 311
                                                         giorgi CarTolani,
mediologia                                          asocirebuli profesori

                    kultura televiziis sainformacio
                              programebSi

                 dRes, Tanamedrove sazogadoebis ganviTarebaSi gansakuTrebuli
             adgili uWiravs masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs.
             sazogadoebriv-politikur Tu kulturul cxovrebaSi
             zedamxedveluri da warmmarTveli rolis gamo, mas `meoTxe
             xelisuflebasac~ uwodeben.
                 `masmedia~ aqtiurad SeimoiWra yoveldRiur yofaSic da
             dRes warmoudgenelia nebismieri Cvenganis arseboba presis,
             televiziisa da radios gareSe. ufro metic, swored masobrivi
             informaciis saSualebebiT mowodebuli informaciebi iqcnen
             orientirebad yvelaze fundamentur cxovrebiseul sakiTxebSic
             ki. igive SeiZleba iTqvas sazogadoebis sulieri da
             kulturologiuli Camoyalibebis procesebzec, raSic Tanamedrove
             masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs gamorCeuli roli unda
             daekisroT.
                 msoflios mraval ganviTarebul qveyanaSi imdenad didia
             masmediis gavlena sazogadoebis TiToeuli wevris cxovrebaze,
             rom am saxelmwifoebis xelisufalnic ki, seriozul angariSs
             uweven am dargSi momuSave personalis mier miwodebul
             informacias da naazrevs. sazogadoebriv-politikuri datvirTvis
             garda, rig qveyanaSi, masmedia eris kulturuli potencialis
             amaRlebas, gemovnebis formirebas da azrovnebis sistemasac
             gansazRvravs. masmediis saSualebebis mravalferovnebis, misi
             Janrobrivi Taviseburebebis Tu teqnikuri mravalferovnebis gamo,
             masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs SeswevT Zala, moicvan
             Tanamerove kulturis TiTqmis yvela sfero da iqcnen kulturis,
             xelovnebis da mecnierebis ara mxolod propagandistebad, aramed
             mematianeebadac. maT SeswevT unari, Seqmnan fondebi da SeinarCunon
             xelovnebis unikaluri nimuSebi.
                 uaxlesi istoriuli warsulis Sedegad, CvenSi masobrivi
             informaciis saSualebebma erTgvarad politizirebuli xasiaTi


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giorgi CarTolani                                                                            kultura televiziis sainformacio programebSi

SeiZina, rac, upirveles yovlisa, ganapiroba Zveli sabWoTa sistemis   Tanamedrove Jurnalistikam SeiZinos qarTuli kulturis da
ngrevis da axli damoukidebeli, demokratiuli sazogadoebis             xelovnebis kvalificirebuli da kompetenturi Semfaseblisa
Senebis urTulesma procesebma. aqedan gamoimdinare, axali             da propagandistis funqciac. amisaTvis ki, pirvel yovlisa,
qarTuli Jurnalistikac ZiriTadad politikuri Jurnalistikis             saWiroa kulturis JurnaklistikaSi moRvawe profesionali
saxiT Camoyalibda. yoveli sainformacio-analitikuri programis         kadrebis arseboba, ris seriozul deficitsac, samwuxarod,
wamyvani, sazogadoebas erTgvar `eqspertadac~ ki evlineba, romlis     ganicdis Cveni Tanamedrove Jurnalisturi korpusi.
azrsac gansakuTrebuli gulisyuriT usmens ara mxolod ubralo                kulturis da mediis urTierToba televiziis warmoSobamde
mayurebeli, aramed politikuri elitac, ramac Cvens sazogadoebaSi      gacilebiT adre daiwyo. pirvelive perioduli gamocemebi did
Jurnalistebis avtoritetis ganuzomeli zrda gamoiwvia.                 adgils uTmobdnen kulturul sakiTxebs, mecnierebis, xelovnebis,
    axali qarTuli saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis procesSi,                ganaTlebis sferoTa mimoxilvas. es ar iyo cnobebi mxolod
mimdinare politikuri bataliebis fonze, seriozulad dazaralda          ama Tu im movlenis Sesaxeb. presa da, zogadad, beWduri media,
qarTuli kultura, arada axali, srulyofili sazogadoebis                gamorCeulad aSuqebda ama Tu im kulturul movlenas. ibeWdeboda
formireba, civilizebuli, demokratiuli faseulobebis                   sxvadasxva saxis statiebi xelovnebaze, ganaTlebis sakiTxebze.
matarebeli, zneobrivad srulyofili da eTikurad daxvewili              swored periodulma presam, Jurnalebma da gazeTebma Semogvinaxes
sazogadoebis Seqmna, romelic orientirebulia liberalur                xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargis istoria.
Rirebulebebze da aRiarebs adamianis Tavisuflebis princi pebs,            xelovnebis dargebis saqmianobis presaSi asaxva, istoriuli
SeuZlebelia kulturuli faseulobebis ganviTarebis da                   Rirebulebebis garda, mis popularizacias da propagandasac
kulturuli Rirebulebebis propagandis gareSe. dRes `masmedia-          isaxavda miznad. xelovnebis nebismier dargs, ise rogorc
eqsperti~ ZiriTadad socialur-politikur da ekonomikur                 sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ama Tu im mniSvnelovan movlenas,
sakiTxebs aSuqebs da Zalian minimalurad da amasTan                   sWirdeboda sazogadoebis farTo auditoriisTvis gacnoba, misi
arakvalificiurad exeba qveynis kulturul faseulobaTa                  mxardaWera da sazogadoebrivi Sefaseba. amitom, zogadad kultura,
analizs. faqtobrivad, ar axdens kulturul RirebulebaTa                rogorc sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis, gemovnebis da cxovrebis
propagandas. sazogadoebamac daiviwya, rom mis cxovrebaSi, sul        wesis ganmsazRvreli, gamorCeul da mudmiv adgils iWerda
cota xnis win, am sferoebs mniSvnelovani roli ekava da               perioduli gamocemebSi.
TandaTan gaCnda bzari kulturasa da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis              xelovnebis da literaturis sakiTxebze werdnen ara mxolod
danarCen sferoebs Soris. es damRupveli bzari Tu gaRrmavda,           literatorebi, aramed xelovnebis da literaturis kritikosebi,
Semdgom ukve SeuZlebeli iqneba misi amovseba, rac qarTuli            presis is muSakebi, romlebic uSualod specializdebodnen
civilizebuli sazogadoebis daSlis dasawyisi iqneba. am bzaris         kulturis JurnalistikaSi. kritikul werilebs Soris, sadac
amovsebaSi dRes ise, rogorc arasdros, udidesi roli swored            sWarbobda kulturis TeoretikosTaAmecnierul-analitikuri
Jurnalistikam unda itvirTos misi ganuzomlad didi                     statiebi, TandaTan gaCnda wminda Jurnalisturi da
sazogadoebrivi avtoritetis gamo. masobrivi informaciis               publicisturi publicisturi werilebi, esseebi, feletonebi
saSualebebma gansakuTrebuli da gamorCeuli yuradReba unda             da mxatvruli Jurnalistikis sxva Janris nawarmoebebi. gaizarda
dauTmon qveynis kulturul cxovrebaSi mimdinare movlenebs,             am statiebis mimarT sazogadoebis interesi. maTi mkiTxvelebi
itvirTon imgvari eqspertis da makontroleblis roli, rogoric           iyvnen ara mxolod saxelovnebo dargebis specialistebi, aramed
maT dRes politikur Tu socialur-ekonomikur sferoebSi                  farTo auditoria. aman ganapiroba saxelovnebo statiebis enis
ukaviaT. masmediis didi avtoritetis gamoyeneba unda SesZlon          cvla _ samecnierodan Jurnalisturisken. kulturis da
kulturis sferoSi moRvawe obieqtebmac. aucilebelia,                   xelovnebis statiebis avtorTa ena, statiis wyobis struqtura
314                                                                                                                                315
giorgi CarTolani                                                                        kultura televiziis sainformacio programebSi

da stili maqsimalurad dauaxlovda Jurnalistikis sxva              kultura da xelovneba sazogadoebis cxovrebis erT-erTi
Janrebis stils. kulturis Jurnalistika moeqca da                  umniSvnelovanesi mxarea. misi mimoxilvis gareSe warmoudgenelia
daeqvemdebara zogadi Jurnalistikis kanonebs.                     nebismieri saxis sainformaco programis arseboba. am mxriv,
    dRes sruliad warmoudgenelia nebismieri mediis muSaoba        gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsia telekompania `mze~, romelsac
kulturis Jurnalistikis gareSe. gazeTebis specialuri gverdebi     yoveldRiur mTavar sainformacio gamoSvebaSi, kulturis blokis
eTmoba informaciebs, analitikur statiebs Tu interviuebs          garda aqvs yovelkvireuli specialuri sainformacio gamoSveba
kulturis da xelovnebis sakiTxebze. am dargSi moRvawe             _ `mzera _ kultura~.
Jurnalistebi Jurnalistikis korpusis sruluflebiani da                 sainformacio JurnalistikaSi kulturis gaSuqeba
dafasebuli adamianebi arian, bevri maTgani kulturis da           eqvemdebareba sainformacio Jurnalistikis kanonebs. aq siuJetebi,
xelovnebis eqspertadac Camoyalibda.                              reportaJebi Tu kadr-sinqronebi im stilistikaSia mocemuli,
    kulturis Jurnalistikis ganviTarebaSi gamorCeuli roli         rasac moiTxovs sainformacio gadacemis struqtura. magram
iTamaSa radios ganviTarebam, radgan xmovanma mauwyeblobam        aris mcire ganmasxvavebeli niSnebic. sainformacio ena bolomde
SesaZlebloba misca xelovnebis dargebs, damkvidrebuliyvnen        ver ergeba kulturis da xelovnebis dargebs. gabatonebuli
JurnalistikaSi. radiomediis ganviTareba da misi popularizacia    frazeologiebi, romelic axasiaTebs politikuri da socialur-
uSualod ukavSirdeba radiomauwyeblobaSi saxelovnebo               ekonomiuri siaxleebis gadmocemas, ar esadageba kulturis
dargebisadmi miZRvnili gadacemebis warmoSobas. Tavis mxriv,      bunebas. amitom garkveuli sirTule axlavs da specialur
radiom udidesi propaganda gauwia xelovnebis ama Tu im dargsac.   codnas moiTxovs sainformacio formatSi kulturis siaxleebis
specialurad Seiqmna redaqciebi, romlebic swored literaturis,     (`niusis~) enis sakiTxi. erTi mxriv, unda iyos daculi programis
Teatris da musikis popularizacias uwyobdnen xels. ase rom,       stilisturi erTianoba da, meore mxirv, mayurebelma unda igrZnos,
kulturis Jurnalistikis warmomadgenlebi uxvad arian               rom kulturis bloki daiwyo. dauSvebelia kulturis da
radioJurnalistikis sferoSi. redaqtorebis da prodiuserebis        politikuri `niusis~ erTnairi intonaciuri rigiT gadmocema,
garda, ZiriTadAkorpuss warmoadgenen korespondentebi da           ris gamoc kulturis blokebs sainformacio gamoSvebebSi xSirad
reportiorebi. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania kulturis              specialuri wamyvanebi hyavT.
Jurnalistikis ganxriT radioreportiorebis muSaoba.                    kulturis siaxleebis momzadebisas gaTvaliwinebuli unda
    kulturis Jurnalistikam Tavisi ganviTarebis piks              iyos xelovnebis im dargis, im xelovanis individualoba,
televiziaSi miaRwia. televiziam yvela saSualeba Seqmna farTo     romelzec saubrobs Jurnalisti. dauSvebelia, auditorias
auditoriis winaSe kulturis srulfasovnad warmosaCenad.            informacia mxatvarze, reJisorze da musikosze erTnairad
    kultura da xelovneba iqca telemauwyeblobis umTavres          miewodebodes. marTalia, sainformacio Setyobinebis struqtura
rgolad. ar arsebobs Tanamedrove telemauwyebloba, romelic         faqtis konstataciis erTiani kanonebis dacvas gulisxmobs,
ar iyenebs kulturis Jurnalistikas. televiziebis sainformacio     magram rodesac saubaria siuJetze an reportaJze, aucilebelia,
saSualebebis erT-erTi Semadgeneli bloki kulturis siaxleebia.     igi konkretuli SemoqmedebiTi bunebis mqone ambis
sainformacio samsaxurebSi muSaoben kulturis specialuri           Taviseburebasac gamoxatavdes.
korespondentebi, mimomxilvelebi, prodiuserebi, redaqtorebi,          sainformacio gadacemebis kulturis blokebis siuJetebi
reportiorebi, wamyvanebi. sainformacio gamoSvebebSi specialuri   mayurebels informaciis miwodebasTan erTad am mxatvruli
dro mxolod kulturis siaxleebis mimoxilvas eTmoba. es             nawarmoebis xilvis survilsac unda uRviZebdes. Sesabamisad,
bunebrivia, radgan sainformacio gamoSveba sazogadoebis           maT erTgvari propagandistis funqciac unda gaaCndeT. es ar
cxovrebaSi mimdinare movlenebs mimoixilavs da, Sesabamisad,      gulisxmobs siuJetebSi ama Tu im nawarmoebis xilvisaken
316                                                                                                                            317
giorgi CarTolani                                                                          kultura televiziis sainformacio programebSi

pirdapir mowodebas. magram siuJeti ise unda iyos agebuli,          gansakuTrebiT rTulia reportioris pirdapir eTerSi muSaoba,
rom aRZras mayureblis interesi.                                    radgan CarTvis dros man unda SesZlos, mayurebels srulad
    siuJetSi warmodgenili unda iyos ama Tu im mxatvruli            miawodos im movlenis arsi, gadmosces is situacia, romelic
movlenis avtori an Semoqmedi, SemoqmedebiTi jgufis ZiriTadi        axlavs kulturuli movlenis mimdinareobis process. zusti
birTvi da is momxmarebelic, visTvisac is Seiqmna. magaliTad,       informacia unda miawodos mayurebels monawileTa Sesaxeb da,
Tu siuJeti eZRvneba ama Tu im speqtaklis premieras, unda iyos      rac mTavaria, auditorias ganumartos, mxatvruli Semoqmedebis
dasaxelebuli am speqtaklis reJisori, piesis avtori, aseve          ra formas aSuqebs es speqtakli, koncerti, iubile, gamofena,
mTavari rolis an rolebis Semsruleblebi. sasurvelia, siuJetSi       prezentacia Tu mravali saxis sxva kulturuli RonisZieba.
iyos sinqroni an mcire interviu SemoqmedebiTi jgufis wevrebTan.    iyos kvalificiuri, ar Secdes Janrobriv daxasiaTebaSi. winaaRmdeg
aucilebelia, siuJetSi naCvenebi iyos speqtaklis mTavari            SemTxvevaSi, is dakargavs auditoriis ndobas da avtoritets.
saTqmeli, misi problema da aqtualoba. miTiTebuli iyos                  reportaJebi im movlenis Sesabamisi unda iyos, romelic
speqtaklis Janri: tragedia, komedia, drama, miuzikli. es           Suqdeba. Tu Jurnalistis pirdapiri CarTva mimdinareobs Teatris
aucilebelia, radgan mayurebels sxvadasxva Janris speqtakli         Senobidan, sadac dasrulda axali speqtaklis premiera,
moswons. sasurvelia, naCvenebi iyos, rogor miiRo axali speqtakli   Jurnalistma mayurebels unda auwyos am premieris warmateba-
darbazma, agreTve mayureblis sinqronebi, maT Soris Cveulebrivi     warumateblobis, mis SemqmnelTa da masSi monawile msaxiobebis
da profesiuli mayureblis. es aris is aucilebeli, rac               Sesaxeb da a. S. magram Tu Jurnalisti pirdapir eTerSi erTveba
moeTxoveba saTeatro nawarmoebze Seqmnil siuJets. xolo              axalgazrduli TavSeyris adgilidan, rok-koncertidan,
rogori formiT da mxatvruli Jurnalistikis ra xerxebiT               diskotekidan an axalgazrduli festivalidan, misi CarTva
iqneba yovelive gadmocemuli, es ukve Jurnalistis SemoqmedebiT      mimdinare movlenis ganwyobis adekvaturi unda iyos. aseT dros
unarze, mis ostatobazea damokidebuli. es ukanaskneli ki            sasurvelia, Jurnalisti iyos monawileTa Soris, radgan sakuTriv
gansakuTrebiT sWirdeba kulturis JurnalistikaSi momuSave            Jurnalistis movlenaSi monawileoba ufro realisturs xdis
Jurnalists. misi siuJetebi unda iyos saintereso, mxatvrulad        im gancdas, romelic eufleba saxlSi, teleekranis win myof
gamarTuli, gamomgonebluri. magaliTad, Tu Jurnalisti aSuqebs        mayurebels, ufro metad uRuZravs mas movlenis adgilas yofnis
axalgazrdul diskoTekas, mis siuJetSi mayurebelma unda              survils. magram sruliad dauSvebelia saTeatro warmodgenis
dainaxos is ganwyoba, romelic gaaCnda am diskoTekaze myof          mimdinareobis dros Jurnalistis scenaze asvla, romelime
axalgazrdobas, Sesabamisad, siuJeti unda iyos dinamikuri,          msaxiobis rolis morgeba da aseTi saxiT pirdapir eTerSi
ritmuli da diskoTekis suliT gaJRenTili. teqstic da                 reportaJis wayvana, radgan amgvari mcdeloba iqneba xelovnuri,
gamosaxulebac mokle frazebiT da dinamikuri montaJiT                arabunebrivi. mayurebli ar daijerebs, rom Jurnalisti
Sesrulebuli. sxvagvarad unda aigos siuJeti sagamofeno              monawileobda am warmodgenaSi. Sesabamisad, es iqneba
darbazidan, sadac, magaliTad, klasikuri ferweris nimuSebis         arakvalificiuri da yalbi reportaJi. aseTi mcdelobebi
gamofena iyo warmodgenili. aq saWiroa meti darbaisloba, sidinje,   periodulad axasiaTebT damwyeb Jurnalistebs. maTi azriT, Tu
meti kompetenturoba, raTa mayurebelma srulad Tu ara,               Tavad moirgeben xelovanis mantias, amiT met mxatvrulobas da
nawilobriv mainc SeigrZnos am namuSevrebis sidiade.                damajereblobas SesZenen reportaJs. ase rom, aucilebelia
    specifikuria sainformacio redaqciebis kulturis                 zustad gansazRvra, Tu sad aris Jurnalisti kulturuli
reportiorebis muSaobis procesi. kulturis movlenebze                movlenis monawile da sad damkvirvebeli. amis gaTvaliswinebiT,
reportaJis mosamzadeblad isini kargad unda icnobdnen da            unda SemuSavdes reportaJis mxatvruli formebic. Tu
erkveodnen mxatvruli nawarmoebis rTul struqturaSi.                 sainformacio programebis politikuri, socialuri, Tu sxva
318                                                                                                                              319
giorgi CarTolani                                                                              kultura televiziis sainformacio programebSi

saxis siuJetebi TiTqmis ar iyeneben musikalur gaformebas,         kvalifikacia da misi profesionalizmi, kulturis sakiTxebSi
kulturis blokis siuJetebs aseTi gaformeba uxdeba, mas met         ganswavluloba. kiTxvebi, romelsac svams wamyvani, unda iyos
emociur muxts aniWebs da informaciis miRebasTan erTad             profesiuli da gamomdinareobdes respodentis pasuxebidan.
mayurebels im ganwyobas uqmnis, rac kulturul da mxatvrul          Sesabamisad, kulturis blokis wamyvani xelovnebis, kulturis
movlenebs axlavs Tan.                                             istoriis da Teoriis safuZvlebs Tu ar icnobs, Tu mas ar
    sainformacio gamoSvebebis kulturis blokebis wamyvanebis       aqvs zogadkulturologiuri ganaTleba, warmoudgenelia misi
pirdapir eTerSi muSaobac gansakuTrebul formas moiTxovs.           srulyofili muSaoba pirdapir eTerSi, gansakuTrebiT
erTi mxriv, isini unda erwymodnen sainformacio gamoSvebis         interviuebis warmarTvis dros.
erTian struqturas, magram, meore mxriv, ramdenadac isini              ase rom, kulturis Jurnalistebs aucileblad sWirdebaT
warmoadgenen kulturas, aucilebelia kulturisTvis                   ormxrivi momzadeba _ Jurnalisturi da kulturologiuri.
damaxasiaTebeli individualurobis gaTvaliswinebiT, eTerSi          es moTxovna gansakuTrebiT exeba satelevizio JurnalistikaSi
muSaobis gansakuTrebuli stilistikis SemuSaveba.                   momuSave im Jurnalistebs, romlebic kulturisa da xelovnebis
    kulturis wamyvani kargad unda erkveodes kulturisa da          sakiTxebze vrcel satelevizio gadacemebs, programebs, Souebs
xelovnebis procesebSi. misi garegnoba, xma, intonacia da          amzadeben. aseT SemTxvevaSi gamorCeuli roli ekisrebaT ara
metyvelebis manera unda Seesabamebodes kulturis mcodne            mxolod korespondentebs da wamyvanebs, aramed kulturis
adamianis imijs. dauSvebelia, kulturis blokis wamyvans            prodiuserebs da redaqtorebs, gadacemebis avtorebs.
etyobodes arakompetenturoba, radgan mayurebelSi is erTgvar
eqspertad aRiqmeba, romlis azrsac igi emxroba da iTvaliswinebs.
Tu wamyvani aris dabneuli, SeSinebuli da mas etyoba kulturis
da xelovnebis sakiTxebis ar codna, mayurebeli mas ar endoba,
misTvis is ar xdeba avtoriteti, rac Tavad am blokisadmi
interess anelebs da, SesaZloa, kargi siuJetebic ki darCes
mayureblis yuradRebis miRma.
    wamyvani kravs mTel bloks. igi Temidan Temisken,
informaciidan informaciisken unda miuZRvebodes auditorias
da arwmunebdes mis mier miwodebuli informaciis utyuarobasa
da obieqturobaSi. sakadro teqstebi unda iyos dinamikuri,
ritmuli da garkveuli intrigis Semcveli. dauSvebelia, wamyvanis
                                                                  Борев В.Ю., Коваленко А.В. - Культура и массовая коммуникация. М.,
sakadro teqstebSi imave frazebiT meordebodes siuJetSi an          1986;
reportaJSi moTxrobili ambavi. wamyvanis sakadro teqstebi           Олег Беляков - `НЕ ЗАБУДЬТЕ ВЫКЛЮЧИТЬ ТЕЛЕВИЗОР!~, M. 2002
unda iwyebdes siuJetis an reportaJis Temas. sakadro teqstidan      Tелевидение в контексте глобализации культуры, M. 2003;
videomasalaze gadasvlebi ki, iyos organuli da gaazrebuli.          Культурный феномен телевидения, M. 2006;
aseT dros bloki aris Sekruli da srulyofili.                       Media & culture – fifth edition, chapter 14, the culture of journalism. 2006;
    sakadro teqstebisa da siuJetebis wardgenis garda, wamyvani    Elliot P. Intellectuals and the Information Society. // Collins R., Curran J.
xSirad amyarebs kontaqts pirdapir eTerSi CarTul                   (eds.) Media, Culture and Society. Critical Reader. L - Beverly Hills -
reportiorebTan an uSualod xelovnebisa da kulturis                 Newbury Park. 1986. P. 107;
warmomadgenlebTan. aseT dros, gansakuTrebiT Cans wamyvanis        g. CarTolani – `tele-radio Jurnalistika~ naw. I.

320                                                                                                                                         321
                                                                     nele hertlingi - moZraoba `evropis sulisaTvis~ spokpersona.
   saavtoro monacemebi                                               samecniero xarisxi miniWebuli aqvs germanul filologiasa da
                                                                     TeatrSi. 1963-1988 wlebSi dasavleT berlinis xelovnebis mecnierebaTa
                                                                     akademiis mecnier TanamSromeli. berlini - evropis kulturuli
marine (maka) vasaZe _ Teatrmcodne.
                                                                     dedaqalaqi 1988-is samxatvro xelmZRvaneli. 1989-2003 wlebSi
daamTavra Tbilisis Teatraluri institutis TeatrmcodneobiTi            berlinSi hebel Teatris direqtori, `Teatr der veltis~ samxatvro
fakulteti.                                                           xelmZRvaneli 1999. 2003-2007 deades programa xelovnebi berlinSi
xelmZRvanelobs SoTa rusTavelis Taetrisa da kinos universitetis       xelmZRvaneli. 2006 wlidan germaniis xelovnebis akademiis vice-
sauniversiteto gamomcemlobas `kentavri~. aris amave universitetis    prezidenti. qalbaton hertlings didi Svlili miuZRvis 70-ian
gazeT `durujis~ redaqtori, agreTve damaarsebeli da redaqtori         wlebSi qarTuli Teatris popularizaciis saqmeSi dasavleT germaniaSi
gazeTisa `kultura~.
moRvaweobs saerTaSoriso kulturis fond `kavkasiaSi~ menejerad,
aris kulturis saerTaSoriso bazrobis (2003. 2005, 2007) erT-
erTi koordinatori. aris ramodenime wignis redaqtori; sistematiurad
aqveynebs statiebs, werilebs, recenziebs Tanamedrove Teatralur
procesebsa da problemebze. Jurn. ‘sabWoTa xelovneba~, `Teatraluri
moambe~, `Teatri da cxovreba”, gazeTebSi: ‘kultura”, `duruji”.
tel: +995 (95) 30 50 60
el. fosta: vasilisa@yahoo.com



stiv osteni - feliqs meritis fondis mrCeveli (amsterdami,
niderlandebis samefo) kulturis anterpreniori, konsultanti,
publicisti da jgufi `evropi sulisaTvis~ iniciatori. batoni
osteni aqtiurad iyo CarTuli niderlandebis samefosa da evropis
kulturul cxovrebaSi 1966 wlidan, igi iyo iniciatori da erTerTi
organizatori programisa `amsterdami evropis kulturuli dedaqalaqi
1987~. giunter grasTan erTad araformaluri organizacia `guliveris~
damaarsebeli. 1987 wlidan iyo prezidenti feliqs meritis fondisa
da direqtori da pedagogi amsterdam-maastrixtis sazafxulo
universitetisa. aqiurad monawileobla saqarTvelos popularizaciis
saqmeSi evropaSi 1996 wlidan, kulturis sferoSi arasamTavrobo
seqtoris ganviTarebaSi.




322                                                                                                                                 323
THEATRE STUDIES                                                                      CHOREOGRAPHY
Maka Vasadze                                                                         Nele Hertling
                                                                                                  HISTORY OF BALLET AND DANCE
FORMATION OF ROBERT STURUA’S THEATRICAL LANGUAGE                                           HISTORY AND PRESENT OF DANCE AS AN ARTFORM
  (Interpretation of Georgian Classical Literature a la Robert Sturua)
                                                                                                                      (Summery)
                                  (Summery)
                                                                                     Dance is one of the oldest artforms. In some religions it comes even before
In this part of the article I am continuing to discuss Robert Sturua’s plays:        the actual creation of the world. However in christian tradition dance was
‘Betrayal’ (1974) by Sumbatashvil-Iuzhin, ‘Step-mother of Samanishvili’              persecuted for centuries.
(1969) by Kldiashvili (with Chkheidze) and ‘Kvarkvare Tutaberi’ (1974) by            Today dance as an indegenous artform has at last acquired its deserved
Kakabadze.                                                                           recognition and put itself on an equal basis beside other artforms. In the
Robert Sturua’s Georgian classical plays set in the Rustaveli theatre have           Opera it is demonstrated in a form of ballet and represents one of the key
had relative success. Nevertheless, they have become the subject of active           elements. Dance as an independent artform exists mainly in „independent
discussions among the society. Probably reason for this was a completely             groups“ and depends on various formants of this or that particular
new approach by the director.                                                        performance. Anyway throughout history dance as possibly the most human
When setting ‘Betrayal’ the director refuses to accept all other older traditions    of all artforms has always been tightly connected, limited, used and represented
of staging this play, as he had done it in the cases of ‘Step-mother of              in civil and political changes. History of German modern dance is a clear
Samanishvili’ and ‘Kvarkvare Tutaberi’. On the contrary he tries to widen            example. This is the main idea of the following work to try and make this
the events of a concrete epoch and make this national character more universal.      connection clear on basis of the great dancers’ work.
                                                                                     The article examines the contribution of such great representatives of dance
                                                                                     as: Jacque Delcroze (composer), Rudolph von Laban, Mary Wigman (at the
ABOUT AUTHOR                                                                         very heart of an expressionistic dance), Isadora Duncan, Oscar Schlemmer,
Marine (Maka) Vasadze –theater critic                                                Kurt Jooss, Hans Weit, Gret Palucca, Valeska Gertsa, Albrecht Kunst, Tatiana
Has graduated from the faculty of theater art at the Tbilisi Theatrical Institute.   Gzovsky, Gerd Reinholm, Dora Hoyer, Suzann Linke, Reinhild Hoffmann,
Head of Shota Rustaveli Theater and Film University publishing house                 Gerhard Hummel, Joachem Hesper, Gerhard Bohner, Pina Bausch, Iochanes
“Kentavri”. Editor of another newspaper of the same institution “Duruji”             Kresnik, Sasha Waltz.
and a founder and editor of a newspaper “Kultura”.                                   Dance and its potential has gained its recognition nationwide. New conditions,
Holds a position of a manager at the International Culture Fund “Kavkasia”,          requirements and especially „German Dance Plan“ has shown that dance as
is one of the coordinators of the International Cultural Fare (2003, 2005,           an independent artform has gained its derserved appreciation at last.
2007). Is the editor of several books; systematically publishes articles and
reviews on the processes and problems of contemporary theater:                       ABOUT AUTHOR
Magazines: “Soviet Art”, “Theatrical News”, “Theater and Life”.                      Nele Herting - Spokesperson of the initiative “A Soul for Europe”. Degree
Newspapers: “Kultura”, “Duruji”.                                                     in German Philology and Theatre. 1963-1988 Researcher Associate at the
Tel: +995 (95) 30 50 60                                                              Academy of Arts in Berlin (West). Artistic director of “Berlin – Cultural
Email: vasilisa@yahoo.com                                                            Capital of Europe, 1988”. 1989-2003 Director of the Hebbel Theatre in Berlin,
                                                                                     artistic director of the “Theater der Welt” festival (1999). 2003-2007 Head
                                                                                     of the DAAD’s Artists-in-Berlin programme. Since 2006, she has been Vice-
                                                                                     president of the Academy of Arts.

324                                                                                                                                                             325
CULTURE AND POLITICS
Steve Austen and Karolina Nowacki

  THE ROLE OF CULTURE IN THE EUROPEAN UNIFICATION
                     PROCESS

                                  (Summery)

“Let me say it again: Europe is not only about markets, it is also about values
and culture. And allow me a personal remark: in the hierarchy of values, the
cultural ones range above the economic ones. If the economy is necessity for
our lives, culture is really what makes our life worth living.                                 ART AND SOCIAL
The EU has reached a stage of its history where its cultural dimension can no
longer be ignored.”
Artists and intellectuals took the initiative to take the Final Act as a guarantee
                                                                                              SCIENCE FACULTY
of their civil, human and cultural rights and measured their current condition
against the background of these agreed rights. Hence the follow-up process
was dominated by efforts of securing these rights both from political as well                            18 - 19 June 2008
as from civil perspective. Eventually, both efforts blended in and served the
improvement of the whole situation on both levels.
Two aspects became more and more important: firstly, the need for a confident
citizenship, and secondly, the importance of culture for a peaceful unification
process that on the one hand tries to bind individuals, not only countries,
together and in doing so achieves the most valuable results.
In only a few years intellectuals, cultural operators, scientists, artists, pupils
and students, as well as politicians, local, national as well as European have
joined the Berlin process to stimulate the upcoming generation of Europeans          Organizational Group:
to take our future in their hands.                                                   Full Professor - Levan Khetaguri, Vasil Kiknadze, Nato
                                                                                     Gengiuri.
ABOUT AUTHOR
Steve Austen - Permanent fellow of the Felix Meritis Foundation, Amsterdam,          Ass. professor - Lamara Gongadze, Giorgi Chartolani, Nino
cultural entrepreneur, consultant, publicist and member of the group of              Mkheidze, Rusudan Mirtskhulava.
initiators of “A Soul for Europe”. Austen, who has been active in cultural life
of the Netherlands and Europe since 1966, is co-responsible for “Amsterdam
Cultural Capital of Europe 1987”. Together with Günter Grass he co-founded
the informal working body “Gulliver”. Since 1987, he has been president
and lecturer of the Amsterdam-Maastricht Summer.



326                                                                                                                                              327
                                                                                   Maia Goshadze
THEATRE STUDIES                                                                    Ph. D. Art History Ass. professor
Tamar Bokuchava
                                                                                                   AT THE BOTTOM OF PANDORA’S BOX
Art History Ph. D. Ass. professor
                                                                                                                     (Summery)
      FOR THE ASPECTS OF NIGHT, DREAM AND COMIC IN
      SHAKESPEARE’S “A MIDSUMMER NIGHT’S DREAM”
                                                                                   Work “at the bottom of Pandora’s Box” is about the various kinds of hope
                                                                                   motive
                                 (Summery)
                                                                                   On one side, hope is positive feeling, establishing life and is perceived as an
                                                                                   expression of fundament of loving, loosing of which makes human hopeless
The night-side existence in the title of Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s
                                                                                   in face of severe reality.
Dream”, as the key of the main text of the drama.
                                                                                   At the same time, being hope-growing inspiration source that always was, is
The structure of the artistic reality of the play; time, place and circumstances
                                                                                   and will be beyond this sphere. Human is looking at future with hope. Man,
of the action development.
                                                                                   living with hope, chooses hope and expectation of merciful future, in spite of
The aesthetics and images of the night world.
                                                                                   communality, revealed with moving elements of live.
The tasks of the personages’ identity in the world of the night life.
                                                                                   So, loosing hope may become not only life refusing factor, but also defeating
Connection of eroticism and dream in the context of the ritual essence of
                                                                                   fear of taking life with “hopeless”, - even if is desirable, but expressing
comedy.
                                                                                   spiritual virile defeated by aspiration toward numbing in always unmovable
                                                                                   (fixed) future like the past.
                                                                                   It is discussed non-homogeneous hope, expressed in drama or scene art of
Merab Gegia                                                                        different epoch in presented work – even if, it is “Faust” of Goethe, absurdum
Art History Ph. D.                                                                 drama, Chekhov’s plays or “The Cherry Orchard” performed in theater of
                                                                                   Cinema Actors (stage director Giorgi Margvelashvili).
                          RELIGION AND THEATRE
                                                                                   Mikhail Kalandarishvili
                                 (Summery)                                         Art History Ph. D. Ass. professor
1. Origination of theatre from totemism, hunter ritual. Zoomorphism.                          THE MODERNISTIC EXPERIMENT IN TIFLISI
2. Period of Animizm, Magical ritual. Rituals devoted to the idol of fertility.
Origination of sinkret theatre. Antropomorphism.                                                                     (Summery)
3. Tale and story. Origination of verbal artistic creative work. Period of
Polytheoism. Myth as a system of religion. Origination of narrator institute,      Meierhold started his work with tried way in Tiflisi. he repeated the copies of
its gradual inclusion into customary ritual. Unification of myth and customary     simple plays of Art Theatre and tried to change the esthetical criteria of Tbilisi
ritual, theirs compound. Origination of dramatic poetry.                           spectator. but in
4. The Egypt theatre. Priests – First professional actors.                         S. Pshibishevski’s production in “Tovli “( snow) “ there was not left nothing
5. Ancient Greck Theatre. Cult of Dionysos as analogy to the idol of fertility.    naturalistic popular for the spectators. “ even the snow was not white colored
Rapsodes and Aeds. Origination of dramatic genre. Tragedy and Comedy.              it was ultra violet. teh color of the snow was obscure for everyone and the
6. Theatre of Monotheoisms period. Liturgy drama, Mistery, Miracle pley,           producer had to shelter himself behind the scenes from angry spectators. at
Moralite.                                                                          the end the performance had the historical meaning afterwards. in Russia
7. Ideal, utopia as analogy of religion.                                           they call conditionally and first try of the anti naturalistic Theatre.

328                                                                                                                                                             329
Maia Kiknadze                                                                      Guliko Mamulashvili
Art History Ph. D. Ass. professor                                                  Ph. D. Art History

      PUPPET AND SHADE PERFORMANCES IN INDONESIA

                                 (Summery)                                                “TH ‘ASIES” IN PERSIAN SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

Puppet and shade performances were one of the most old and spread                                                   (Summery)
performances in Indonesia. The shade performances were used for religious-
mystical purposes at first, as their origin was connected to the dead cult, to     The work belongs to Iranian, Islamic sheet mystery theatre “Th ‘asies”.
the rituals in honor of the dead ancestries, from the point of view of some         The essence of this theatre, cultural religious roots and its connection will
researchers (Jacob, Goslin). The puppet and shade theatre “Vaiang Purva”           European culture is discussed in it.
supported calling spirits and their show.                                          According to this work it’s the folk theatre which comes from ancient traditions
To prepare “Vaiang” puppets, it was necessary to pass several stages. First of     of Persian religious mysteries and is of great importance not only for the
all they had to prepare the bull skin and then they had to cut out and paint it.   history of Persian theatre but for the century old history of culture between
The color had symbolic meaning in the performance, which expressed the             Georgia and Persian countries.
character and spiritual condition of a personage.
The aim and the reason of the puppet theatre were founded of the belief and
point of view of Indonesian people, for example: if any family wanted to be
its son handsome, they ordered an appropriate play and etc.
Puppeteer – Dalangi’s role and its meaning was unique for puppet
performances. He was an organizer and owner of the theatre, who was even           Nino Machavariani
a sacrifice by his meaning.                                                        Ph. D. Art History
“Vaiang Purva” had its traditional repertoire. The plays were especially
composed and they were passed from generation to generation orally.
Especially Iava versions of Indian epos “Ramiana” and “Mahabparat” were                          EUGENE SWARTZ’S “DRAGON” IN THE
popular.                                                                                               RUSTAVELI THEATRE
The rule of play and performance division was symbolic and it was connected
to the rule of living and religion of a human being. The screen and the puppet                                      (Summery)
box had also the symbolic meaning.
Vaiang was not only an entertaining performance. Its purpose was also              Eugene Swartz is clear for everybody, he came in literature with simple form,
educational and cognitive, which had to influence the young people, as during      but however he could improve formed by artistically his political and personal
the centuries it developed the people’s aesthetics, world outlook, created         belief. Swartz could confluence being of poetry and poetry of being with
culture and protected traditions.                                                  original theatrical form. “Dragon” relation at Robert Sturua’s theatre
                                                                                   problematic to fight et evil, to win kindness and also problematic for powerful
                                                                                   fight. Play “Dragon” its stage metaphors and artistically symbolism typically
                                                                                   images that totalitarian state’s life model, in what it stood.




330                                                                                                                                                           331
Gubaz Megrelidze                                                                 Manana Turiashvili
Ph. D. Art History                                                               Ph. D. Art History Ass. professor


        USHANGI CHKHEIDZE’S UNKNOWN REMINDER                                                        THOUSAND KINDS OF PEOPLE
                                                                                                          Mikhael Chekhov
                                (Summery)
                                                                                                                  (Summery)

Ushangi Chkheidze’s unknown reminder is important to know Kote’ leaving          To create an MKhT studio for the purpose of studying the “system” of
from Rustaveli theatre, with it, there is given position corporation “Duruji”,   Stanislavski. The specifity of Chekhov’s main roles.
which made opposition between K. Marjanishvili and troupe.                       A spiritual crisis of Chekhov intensified by the October Revolution.
There is given creative analysis of Rustaveli theatre of 1924-1926 years.        Resignation from the theatre and life. A great change and return into the life.
Also, there describes gradual effort good interrelation between Kote             Chekhov creates “the studio of Chekhov”.
Marjanishvili and Sandro Akhmeteli and about that mistakes that made Kote        The success in Moscow Art theatre -in Stanislavski’s “Revizor.” Voices-
Marjanishvili.                                                                   Chekhov with his artistic technique covers the leading actors of the art.
Ushangi Chkheidze describes Rustaveli theatre’s Tour in West Georgia in          Chekhovs practical searches into the realm of lightness, atmosphere and
1926 years, to met company of actors and Kote Marjanishvili in Batumi.           improvisation.
There is given analysis result by Kote Marjanishvili and Ioseb Gedevanishvili    Chekhov’s participation in the opera performance of E.Vakhtangov and his
maden staff reduction of actors against K. Marjanishvili.                        gradual separation from Stanislavski’s “system.” The improvement of the
There is given met between the corporation “Duruji’s” members and K.             dramatic style of expression by Chekhov and “drawing with the body.”
Marjanishvili in the country Rioni, where passed made film “Samanishvili         .According to the practice formation of theoretical ideas by Chekhov, about
Step Mother”.                                                                    contrast, form, entirety, improvisation, sketch, lightness, atmosphere e.t.c.
Ushangi Chkheidze’s unknown reminder establishment of the Rustaveli’s            Criticism of the dilettantism.
theatre’s new circumstance difficult period being opposition in group, that      Cognition of the art with humour and how to develop this into the creative
haven’t do in other memories literature and it full being works. Ushangi         prossess. To make inevitable objectivity for the artist with the help of humour.
Chkheidze’s unknown reminder for Georgian theatre history is very important      .With the use of a new dramatic technique the problems of the audience are
acquisition.                                                                     perceived differently by Chekhov during the performance. Chekhov about
                                                                                 the speech.
                                                                                 The principle of “imitation” in “Hamlet.” Confrontation with some thesis of
                                                                                 the Stanislavski’s “system”and the proof of the superiority of Chekhov’s
                                                                                 dramatic technique. Three “egos” of the actor’s consciousness.




332                                                                                                                                                         333
Tamar Kutateladze                                                                     Lamara Gongadze
Ph. D. Art History.                                                                   Art History Ph. D.

            THEATRE’S FUNCTION AND IT’S VALUABLE                                                              PRODUCER , TIME, PER
      (By example of the Kote Marjanishvili’s “Uriel Akosta” restore by                                        (Lily Ioselyani ‘s First play)
                            Sophiko Chiaureli)
                                                                                                                       (Summery)
                                  (Summery)
                                                                                      Lily Ioselyani is an eminent person, a real personality, producer and a
Georgian theatre reformer, the second state theatre constituent Kote                  teacher. From the very outset her pecularitu was expressed in her
Marjanishvili’s creative masterpiece “Uriel Akosta” aspires congenial                 weakness and unprotection, which step by step turned into her strength.
reconstruction in many respects interesting fact. In Georgian theatre workers         Her first fearless desire was revealed when she chose such a manly
are till interesting nostalgia of the declaration Georgian theatre modern in          “job” – a profession of a producer and nobody could manage to make
this success play, till unknown theatrical valuable. For Marjanishvili theatre        her sure to renounce her point of view.
company untiring interest by “Uriel Akosta” notion clearly protest to the             She was invited as a staging producer at the Marjanishvili Theatre.
modern theatre process and unknown aspiration for its reforms.                        The first play that she put on the stage was “Sprinq Morning” by
Past’s masterpiece’s restore is an interesting occurrence for that too, to acquaint   Victor Gabeskirya. This play was satisfying the reguirements of
with formed theatre gains simultaneously in Georgian or foreign theatre               ideological ciche of Soviet Government end responded to the self
process. Process of its development or regress or priorities artificial turn out.     – critical pathos of the system existing in that period of time.
By Sophiko Chiaureli restored play of Kote Marjanishvili was known past’s
gains and today’s state of theatre. Creative thinking theatre constitutive and        Giorgi Tskitishvili
inculcation in the young generation theatre function and principal                    Ph. D. Art History Ass. professor
incompatibility to the valuable.
Kote Marjanishvili’s “Uriel Akosta” had been imaged that process, which                                       I WAS A HUMAN, MAN...
was passed in the modern art of the XX century. Modern play of the 20th
years end was very logical and successful result of those half ages, when                                              (Summery)
continued long creative studies and finds, which went on national and foreign
culture. In “Uriel Akosta” had been shown contrast with life-naturalistic             In any time, on every step of the evolution of humanity History repeated the
theatre at the super theatre, mystical art’s valuable triumph, made musical-          same lessons, but people did the same mistakes again.
symphonic bearer distinct genre, which made new phase to the developed                The aim of this work is to discuss the so called “ex-human” themes, personal
national spectacle culture.                                                           tragedies and dramas, on the basis of some Georgian plays. Both plays,
By Sophiko Chiaureli’s restore “Uriel Akosta” had a sensation of Kote                 which are analyzed in this theme , are create in the second half of XX
Marjanishvili’s “triumph of theatre” aesthetics difficult producers’ partite,         century.
its polyphonically sonorousness, also Marjanishvili’s super actores (Veriko           These plays are: “Dezorganization” of Borys Lavrenev, directed by Shalva
Anjaparidze and Ushangi Chxeidze). Raiser, musical-mannerism perform art,             Gatserelia in the Young spectator’s Georgian theatre and “Haky Adzba ” of
which could happen to made hypnotic on the society.                                   Leo Qiacheli, directed by Temur Chkheidze in Kote marjanaishvili state
                                                                                      theatre. Different works of these different authors are united by the conception
                                                                                      of two producers. They presented spiritually linked drama heroes to the
                                                                                      spectators.
                                                                                      Human’s tragedy was reflected very interestingly on Georgian scene and the
                                                                                      plays, which are analyzed in this work, are the best examples of this.

334                                                                                                                                                              335
Guliko Djavashvili                                                               FILM STUDIES
Art History Ph. D.
                                                                                 Ira Demetradze
                                                                                 Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian Ass. Professor
                         ACTOR’S ONE ROLE
   (In Givi Berikashvili’s play “Berikaoba” (Georgian Carnaval) by M.                                  SUBLIMATED RACISM
                                Eliozishvili)                                            (The Caucasus Ethos myth in Post Soviet Cinematography)
                                (Summery)                                                                         (Summery)
There were many experiments to produced Georgian national (folk) show in         Our contemporary social and cultural environment, where the notions of
the theatre and cinema. In the show of Kote Marjanishvili and Sandro Axmeteli    patriotism and xenophobia are almost identical creates a situation of non-
were made Berikaoba and Keenoba(carnival). They made more and more               reflexive reality. Overcoming mythology is possible only by substituting the
theatrical and original initials, which must study and use for the Georgian      latter by a new one (Rolan Bart). The Soviet transnational mythology has
theatre development.                                                             been substituted by the national mythology. A certain geo cultural Eurasian
The elements of the old national show repeated used by producers, but this       phenomenon has been formed within the post soviet area. There is a
was only performance’s decision way. M. Eliozishvili’s “Berikoni”                widespread opinion that Georgian social reality and values system are oriented
represented straight life of Berikebi, they shown artist’s fate, they narrated   on Western culture while everyday social life is mostly determined by Eastern
their significance. There didn’t show imitation of Berikaoba, but by modern      tradition.
dramatic thinking and artistic figured life.
There were symbols Lale – G. Berikashvili and Iano – S.Chiaureli of the          In films discussed below the national discourse is illustrated by the example
people wisdom, motherland’s love, and love of art.                               of the war in Chechnya (Aleko Tsabadze’s “Russian Triangle”, Nikita
In role of Tavberika shown ability for Givi Berikashvili himself, he passed      Mikhalkov’s “Twelve”, Alexander Sokurov’s “Alexandra”). While this
national wisdom and humors, which was very typical for old national show.        national discourse becomes the subject of artistic speculation and ideologically
In role of Tavberika with all completeness shown actor’s creative national       impartiality in Tsabadze’s and Mikhalkov’s works, Alexander Sokurov’s
character, primitive life-giving, sharp outward outline, improved plastic,       mythology is closer to the tradition of XIX century Russian classic literature.
contagious cheerfulness and sharp reflection were related to Lale at old         A syndrome of so called “sublimated racism” had been apparent in collective
Berikas.                                                                         subconscious since the second half of the last century, which has been even
Performance “Berikoni” and Tavberika Lale with G.Berikashvili’s perfom           transformed into some kind of phobia for the last decade.
certainly is a remarkable phenomenon in Georgian theatre with modern
consider of national, folk forms.




336                                                                                                                                                         337
Nana Dolidze                                                                       Irina Kutsukhidze
Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian. Ass. Professor                                 Doctor of Art. Film Historian. Full Professor

      ELECTIONS AND GEORGIAN TV CHANNELS POLITICS                                  THE OUTLINES OF CINEMATOGRAPH IN THE PERIOD OF NEW
                                                                                   TECHNOLOGIES
                                 (Summery)
                                                                                   (Summery)
On the stage of the today’s Georgian TV space in parallels there is functioning    From the moment invention of the cinematograph the developerment way of
not one or two commercial channels, between them are in the direction themes
                                                                                   the technique and movie design, became inseparable from each other. Often
(Military, Religion, and Pop-music).
All of them are orient on the rating, on the expansion of the lecture-hall and     during the one centurial history the new expressive forms of cinema exactly
on the commercial welfare, on that, all of them made self strait strategies,       have dean determined by the technical achievements. It is enough to cast a
although, today’s in complicated social-political situation, where society are     glance to persuade how the technological and aesthetical processes are
abruptly polarize. TV rating determines sympathy or antipathy to channel’s         connected with each other. But the novelty that has been applied in the
this or that political power.                                                      cinematograph from the decade of the twentieth century may be considered
In parallels of the political taste there is a main factor channels’ financing     as some jinn of revolution. I have in view the digital technologies development
source. In that case is that possible or not to speak about media space freedom    by the cinema, called as “digital cinema” that moved and put under doubt the
and will it become by instrument of society’s manipulation. The second factors     ontological vases and the specificity of its expressive forms that have been
of the TV channels lecture-hall popularity are “entertainment politics” – which    recognized during the decades. On the one hand the merging of cinema
do entertain Georgian spectators?                                                  language, and from another has provided the basis of new tendencies and
- Popular genres of the TV industry and there part in the program net.
                                                                                   priorities – genre and esth
- A different form of herald manages. Post Soviet traditions modern lines.
“News” politic in the Georgian media space.
- Georgian TV channels and elections’ marathon, political advertisement and
political discussion.                                                              Maia Levanidze
                                                                                   Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian Ass. Professor

Lia Kalandarishvili                                                                  GEORGIAN TV SPACE AND ADVERTISING PECULIARITIES
Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian Ass. Professor
                                                                                                                    (Summery)
              THE WOMEN’S FACE IN ENGLISH FILM
                    INDUSTRY IN 70 YEARS                                           Advertising appears to be one of the active elements of Georgian reality,
                                                                                   which makes for the formation of stereotypes, norms and values in public.
                                 (Summery)
                                                                                   Advertising with its virtual mini-world (billboards, air-glass, light boxes,
Josef Lousy’s “ Romantically English woman” is the post modernist work of          promos) turned to be the characteristic feature of the time epoch. It influences
art in 70 years. the film is structurally difficult and reach in inter tactual     the formation of new expressive forms, visual structures.
space, associations, intimation, labyrinth est.                                    This study reviews the peculiarities and specifics of the advertising, its types
the main subject of the film is well treated romantically woman’s face in          (promos, trailers etc.) and forms of expression. At the same time, the study
European art. plot tells us about the writer Lui Filding’s history in process of   will focus on key tendencies existing in the Georgian broadcasting companies
creative work. the cue is the mark of time and underlines creation the famous      in general, as well as the influence of the western TV companies on Georgian
Hanry Filding’s creation in 18 century. it makes the contrast between past         television space.
and modernity. in the film the fantasy is replaced by the different reality, the
texts are mixed in one another they are reflected and make the ironical space.

338                                                                                                                                                           339
Manana Lekborashvili                                                                Diana Maglakelidze
Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian Ass. Professor                                   Art History. Ph.D. Film Historian Ass. Professor

   MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS AND STUDDING ACTIVENESS                                    IMAGE LIBERATION –NORTH-EUROPEAN MODERN CINEMA
                                                                                                      AVANT-GARDE 95
                                  (Summery)
                                                                                                                    (Summery)
Nowadays the term “representation” has been slowly establishing in Georgian
spoken language. Representation (reflecting from the beginning, representing        As a result of the development of digital technologies and democratization
again) means constructing different aspects of reality (people, objects,            process of cinematography caused by these technologies in the 90s of the
phenomenon, cultural identity and other abstract concepts) in any media, in         XX century in the North-European cinematography there was established a
fact creating new reality. This sort of representation may occur both in oral       new trend in cinema – Dogma 95.
language and written texts and in photography and cinematography.                   In March 1995 Danish film directors Lars Fon Trir, Tomas Winterberg, Soren
Reality is always represented-what we consider as “direct” feeling is always        Krag-Jakobsen and Cristian Levring at the conference dedicated to the 100-
“mediated” by perceptual codes. Representation is always connected with             th anniversary of cinematography in the cinema of Odeon in Paris solemnly
“reality construction”. Even most realistic text as it seems to us in most cases,   introduced their colleagues a manifest called Dogma 95, created by
primarily is performed as “constructed representations” then straight               themselves, which was declared by the authors as an action rescuing
“reflection”, record or copy of existing reality. Representations which become      cinematography.
familiar through constant re-use come to feel ‘natural’ and unmediated. A           A provocative manifest of film directors of Copenhagen was directed from
key in the study of representation concern is with the way in which                 the one hand against technical, digital sensations, cinema industry of
representations are made to seem ‘natural’.                                         Hollywood and from the other hand against the European author’s cinema,
Why are learning media representations so important? Media representations          as cinematography, demonstarating an individual taste.
form persons’ perceptions of vital occurrences-there views of gender, social        According to the authors’ formulation modern technological processes and
class, race, there beliefs... What is valuable in life and their ideas about its    the crisis of cinematography induced the necessity of creating a new avant-
different rules and different cultural models?                                      garde trend in cinema.
Studding media representations help the public to keep the critical position,       The authors of the manifest called themselves as members of the
recognize the ways by which media mediated the reality, determine the               cinematographic brotherhood but they were subjecting the process of creating
direction of world perception and their own identity.                               of a film to certain restrictions, which according to the manifest were called
                                                                                    restriction norms.
                                                                                    In 2005 the secretariat of Dogma 95, published a farewell manifest and
                                                                                    declared the trend certificate accessible to everybody. In the world modern
                                                                                    cinema there have been created thirty five official and even more unofficial
                                                                                    films by aesthetic norms established by the manifest.
                                                                                    The manifest Dogma 95 directed against the Danish cinematographers
                                                                                    Mainstream-Kino and European author’s cinematography represented an
                                                                                    attempt to withdraw cinema from illusions and despite its provocative and
                                                                                    slightly ironical character it had a serious effect on a visual and narrative
                                                                                    language of the contemporary cinematography. From this point of view it
                                                                                    should be discussed in the discourse of the neorealist of cinema trends
                                                                                    following the period of the Second World War, a new wave and Direct Cinema.

340                                                                                                                                                          341
Nino Mkheidze                                                                     Lela Ochiauri
Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian Ass. Professor                                 Doctor of Arts, Film Historian Full Professor

                   DESCRIPTION IF EXPLICATION                                           FROM SOCIALISTE REALISM TO POST-MODERNISM

                                 (Summery)                                                                         (Summery)

Description means picture in word, but explication means explain and analyze      Despite the fact that today every second word or term which we use (when
in detail. Modern Georgian film describes just for a long time, but               the conservation concerns modern art, will it be theater, literature or
unfortunately cann’t explains present process in modern society.                  cinematography) is post-modernism, its meaning is not fully recognized and
In 90th years of the last century a lot of Georgian leaves their country. Some    determined.
of them with free-will, some of them with compulsion become in emigration.        In a broad sense post-modernism is the general direction of development of
What did the characters of the Dito Tsintsadze “Unfortunately killer”, Levan      culture, one of its stages, which succeeds modernism and became its
Glonti’s “Onion’s tears”, Gela Babluani’s “13”, Davit Kandelaki’s “America
                                                                                  alternative. On the one hand it is high art, but on the other it is production
in a room” met there? Could this producers not only explain, but describe
                                                                                  which is understandable and acceptable for everyone, and which is determined
that what is this “dream-land” West.
                                                                                  for short-term, wide demand because it answers the habits and expectations.
                                                                                  Post-modernist art is the art which enables to overestimate values and creates
Eter Okudjava
Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian Full Professor                                 necessary conditions for this as much as it is already lies in the heart of
                                                                                  direction. It lies in its consciousness and in the system created by its own
   60TH YEARS – PERIOD OF CINEMATOGRAPHY RENOVATE                                 with sober and critical eye.
                                                                                  Stereotype, which is recognized as “Stamp”, “Cliché”, in the case of post-
                                 (Summery)                                        modernism acquires a new meaning, obligation and therefore term is used in
                                                                                  another sense. There are methods and models of creations of images and
In the 60th years, modern generations of the Georgian cinematographers have       icons formed and preserved for centures which even today do not lose their
been formed aesthetics view like that: refutation to image reality such as        value. Their significance may be determined on the basis of how deep it is
forgery. Image truth only and human reality face. Political “concession”,         deposited in the archaic depth of knowledge, how big is their expressing
such as in Georgian and all Soviet Union, as in European country have been        potential.
strengthen social and creative liberalization. Although, by 1970 year there       First signs of post-modernism were registered in the cinematography of sixties
were just finished every freedom “Exercises” – On basis of Warszawa treaty        once as tendency of returning to genres precisely its reproduction and
freedom behaved in the blind alley in the 1967 years and from this time           confusion began. Today the harmonious hybride which had no determined
known European producers were leaved in the emigration. Among them the            imige at this time became a norm. Probably post-modernism as no other
most part – in the U.S.A. In 50-60 th years everything American were              direction is in the close connection with general culturological reality and on
association at the freedom and at the democracy. Although, in parallels, the      the other hand with life reality. Citation and self-citation is a natural process
term “American Culture” evaluated different by World known cinema expert,         for artist. Very often many creators use their own systems of signs, methods
philosophers, cult urological. We look through consideration of the complete      of symbols, their combination and stereotypes.
against phases in works self American investigator.                               Since cinematograph is relatively new art it did not have such opportunity of
On the ford accent of reality culture to arrange like that, 70th years Georgian   accumulation of experience, stereotypes and information, as other branches
film continues to image truth on the screen by studies of similar genre and       of art. But as can be seen this time has come. Cinematograph already
form. In 60 years cinema process renovate in Georgian film, can consider          accumulates so much that allows itself to work by use of its own system,
rising by component part of the world civilize, which is the natural cycle part   stereotypes and signs, and by their interpretation.
of the universe mental renovate.

342                                                                                                                                                           343
Olgiko Zgenti                                                                      Teo Khatiashvili
Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian Ass. Professor                                  PhD Art History. Film Historian Ass. Professor

GEORGIAN LEADING FILM AND “FEXSIS” – PARALLELS AND                                            “INACCESSIBLE OBJECT OF THE WILL”
                  INTERSECTION                                                            LAKAN’S INTERPRETATION IN THE LUIS BUNUELI

                                 (Summery)                                                                           (Summery)

Kote Marjanishvili’s in creative role in Russia advance-guard especially           The unknowingly conception Lakan’s as like language structuralisms. Will,
eccentrics’ theatre and in process making “Fexsis”.                                that is designing by fantasia, but this one doesn’t image for us for the space
By Kote Marjanishvili produced play “In claws of life” in Moscow artistic          to carry out will, but, opposite field of frustration, simple, that (Fantasia) is
theatre, such as innovatory-experimental play and its influence genre of           images will.
eccentrically comedy in form. Georgian show – Berikaoba-keenoba (carnival)         At Bunuel semantics of eye or in chink constant shadow, as run over from
and tradition of national creative, such as advance-guard arts film eccentric      really in unreal. (In psychological reality) and in the fantasia space it is a
hard impulse. Influence of Marjanishvili, such as teacher and grand master         will’s forward condition.
on film creative of well-known producers Traubergi.                                “Dog from Andalusia”, “Golden age”, “Bourgeoisie honorable charm”, “Daily
Marjanishvi’s synthetic study theatre’s stylistic study line had continuing in     beauty”, “Will’s this dull object”... – dissatisfied erotic passion or utilitarian
20th year’s Georgian film comedies- synthetic of low genres: circus, music-        will.
hall, Shan tam, cheap literature, variety art, American films, operetta,
pantomime, “Low genres” mixed tandention in 20th year’s Georgian film.             Ketevan Janelidze
Prose of Grigol Robakidze in context of 20th years film advance-guard Mixeil       Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian. Assist. Professor
Chiaureli’s film “Saba” towards Russian “Fexsis” – study of artistic – stylistic
and relatively City culture-conflict of conformism and romantics.                                              ANIMATED FILMS

                                                                                                                     (Summery)

                                                                                   Children like to look cartoon films. It is an axiom. And each child has favorite
Ketevan Trapaidze
                                                                                   heroes. Cartoon films and films for teenagers play great importance for rising
Ph. D. Art History. Film Historian Ass. Professor
                                                                                   generation. This industry works owing to constant need of a society for a
                                                                                   reminder on moral criteria. Parents must not bye their children animated films
   ABROAD DIRECTED MOVIES OF GEORGIAN DITECTORS
                                                                                   based in aggression, lies and laziness. Watching films must not be only killing
                                                                                   the leisure time for children.
                                 (Summery)
                                                                                   Animated films contain important informative material from which the child
                                                                                   learns about laws of an external world. The bright substantial cartoon film
    It’s interesting how it is possible to consider a person’s independence in
                                                                                   which has caused positive emotional reaction of the child inevitably leaves
the modern Georgians mind and after in Art.
                                                                                   in its memory an example for imitation and develops inquisitiveness.
We want to analyze some artistic originalities of those directors who are          Therefore the animated films created with the moral of definite society, may
abroad: Dito Tsintsadze’s “Promise”, Aleko Tsabadze’s “Russian Triangle”,          turn out not quite suitable on informational view. No serious interrogation or
Gela Babluani’s “13”.                                                              social researches, concerning finding out the most popular hero, was held in
In this work we pointed on this interesting , psychological changes.               Georgia. By judging box-office income Georgian cartoons can’t compete
                                                                                   with foreign films, but it is temporary notion and does not depend on quality,
                                                                                   advertisement plays great importance.
344                                                                                                                                                             345
ART STUDIES                                                                         Nato Gengiuri,
                                                                                    Doctor of Study of Art, Full Professor
Irine Abesadze
Doctor of Study of Art, Full professor                                                                 SYMBOLISM OF ARCHITECTURE
                                                                                                             (Christian Georgia)

 THE PROSPECTS OF FOUNDING THE PHENOMENOLOGY AS                                                                       (Summery)
           NEW DIRECTION OF ART HISTORY
                                                                                    Each stage of the historical development of the society shows that symbolic
                                  (Summery)                                         thinking is an integral part of culture. It is also obvious though that the essence
                                                                                    of symbols is not worked out once and for all and each culture offers a new
The number of science directions was founded in the 20th century. The               system and features or alters of the old one.
technical revolution and brave experiments have opened the way to natural           A symbol acquires special peculiarities in the Christian period and takes shape
and humanitarian science directions.                                                as a single system which may be simultaneously characteristic of entire
The systemic methods of research have made it clear for humanitarians the           Christendom or in local cultures it may differently highlight key points. At a
importance of interdisciplinary and complex approaches. Nowadays semiotic           glance, in “functional” art such as architecture the mystical idea and allusions
and hermeneutic is more intensively used for methodological learning of art         to the implication are revealed to a lesser degree. However, this is so only at
directions. These interdisciplinary tools are the best ways of reading the coded    a glance, as Christian architecture and its separate elements are imbued with
ancient writings. But how can we deal with the text which isn’t older than          secret, sacral idea.
one century ant at the first sight it’s structure is too simple but learning this   The study of architecture by this method has been known in art criticism
text more fundamentally will show us the number of currently unknown things.        abroad for a long time. The explanation of the significance of separate parts
This kind is the history of Niko Phirosmani’s phenomenon research. From             of a church and its entire organization in Western Europe is attested in
1913 the huge scientific production of different degrees was maid by Georgian       historical sources too and this is essential in the symbolic explanation of
and foreigner researchers. This all helped the brand new art history direction      architecture.
The Phenomenology in coming into life.                                              It is interesting what Georgian material shows. It is evident on the example
The Phenomenology like Rustvelology needs special methodological                    of Mtskheta and Tbilisi that immediately after Christianity became firmly
approach for being protected from the influence of different legends that           established, even cities were interpreted symbolically. They were regarded
were widely invented by Georgian and foreigner people. Also during the              as symbolic images of the Holy Land.
century many interesting opinions were pronounced about the creation of             In the early Christian period architects indicated the symbolic meaning of
Phirosmanashvili and gathering all of them will make clear the unknown              various sections of the church by the peculiar use of artistic devices. E.g. the
biographical data of painter. Also high professional laboratory expertise will      vault, the altar, areas of doors and windows were built of a different material,
at last distinguish Phirosman’s true works from its clones. So according to         or were decorated by the reliefs and ornaments pointing to the inner meaning.
all above mentioned it’s necessary to hold the complex research.                    The architectural shape of the parts of the building proper sometimes
                                                                                    represents “associative symbols”. Thus, the earlier two-apse variant of
                                                                                    baptisteries (Bolnisi Sioni) is connected with the space of the ancient bath
                                                                                    and must be related to the associative image of spiritual bathing, a new birth
                                                                                    by means of baptism.
                                                                                    The domed church built at the site where the Lord’s Tunic was buried in the
                                                                                    Cathedral of Svetitskhoveli, which is a symbolic image of Christ’s Sepulchre,
                                                                                    has an implied meaning.

346                                                                                                                                                               347
Ketevan Kintsurashvili                                                           CULTURE
Doctor of Study of Art, Full Professor
                                                                                 Revaz Balanchivadze
                                                                                 The doctor of Philosophy, Full professor
        THE THEATRE OF GOGI ALEKSI-MESKHISHVILI
                                                                                     ANTHROPOLOGICAL PEDAGOGIC AS THE SCIENCE OF
                                (Summery)                                                           EDUCATION
As far as in the 1970ies, at an earlier stage of his artistic career it became                                     (Summery)
evident that Gogi Meskhishvili’s stenographical (stage and costume design)
and non-stenographical (paintings, collages, etc.) works supplemented and        The XX century is rich with the development of new scientific disciplines:
enriched one another by both artistic-technical means and substance. Already     Philosophical anthropology, Axiology, Cult urology, philosophy of education.
at that time a special phenomenon was generated – “Gogi Meskhishvili’s           Simultaneously, with this, new special disciplines are being formed. One of
theatre,” which is viewed by wide audience on stage, has viewers in exhibition   such disciplines is ‘Anthropological pedagogic. It is being, formed as a science
halls as well, but much more is kept and sometimes disappear like play (models   of education and gradually replaced traditional pedagogic, as the science
for instance) in his workshop. Since that time till present stenography, at      child rearing.
least externally occupying a leading place in Gogi Meskhishvili’s extremely      In order to show the advantages of Anthropological Pedagogic we have to
rich and extensive creative work, collages, paintings, sculptures and            oppose it to the traditional Pedagogic, the weak side of which was that it
installations form a single whole. Viewing them in unity enables us to trace     being an empirical science separated itself from philosophy. It started to
the way this or that motive, technical finding, subject or idea pass from one    take care about the rearing up and education of the real, empirical human
sphere to another, their interchange from one field to another and vice versa,   beings /namely, children/ without posing a question: what and who is the
the path how artistic image emerges and is transformed, - how the artist’s       creature about whose rearing up and education he thinks so much.
fantasy “works.”                                                                 The fact that the traditional pedagogic was developed in a science about
                                                                                 child rearing was a obvious mistake. If we cast the retrospective glance at the
                                                                                 history of science formation and development, we won’t be able to find even
                                                                                 a single case of studying a subject only partly and not in its full length. Imagine
                                                                                 F. E biology starting to explore life from the ameba and stop on a certain
                                                                                 layer. It means not to carry it to en end. When biology is a science about life,
                                                                                 then it studies it from the ameba to a man and the same is true with zoology
                                                                                 /it studies all animals/ and psychology/it studied all the psychic phenomena/
                                                                                 . From the pedagogic point of view to say: I am interested in a human being’s
                                                                                 childhood and not more, means, that a theoretical bases of pedagogic can
                                                                                 never stand any critics.
                                                                                  The term Anthropological Pedagogic is stress the fact, that the subject/object
                                                                                 being studied is a man.
                                                                                 The advantage of the new pedagogical discipline in comparison with the
                                                                                 traditional pedagogic will be the closest ties with philosophy, namely
                                                                                 philosophical anthropology and philosophy of education.



348                                                                                                                                                            349
Creation of philosophical anthropology made pedagogic to look through its            prose” written in a great deal with the mixture of author’s epatage and absence
notion apparatus and maintain into the first place a new understanding of a          of complexes.
human, wish was worked out in a Anthropological Pedagogic.                           It is due to this fact, namely that this time the comprehension of Georgian
  It’s not accidental, that this new pedagogic formed into pedagogic of              literature, i.e. new perception has been performed in this context because
education and not rearing. The thing is, that in the traditional pedagogic the       according to the classic epoch philosophers, Eros was personified with human
nation of rearing is narrowed and by it only knowledge is meant. But, the            aspiration for knowledge of good and divine beauty.
modern technical-revolution showed, that if a deep understanding does not            Therefore it is quite impossible to link the notion of eroticism only with the
follow knowledge, spiritually it could be turned into a dangerous force. The         name of Mikhail Javakhishvili. It is difficult to imagine his archetypes
spirituality, culture and deep understanding are united in the notion of             (sometimes in transformed and veiled form) not to be fixed in Georgian
education and that is why the main stress is put on education.                       literature.
Anthropological Pedagogic has to review the problem of a man maintaining
its place in the universe. Having recognized mind /Gaits/ a specific human
layer. Anthropological pedagogic has to review mind and its sphere /science,         Rusudan Mirtskulava
culture, arts, religion/ as a specific environment for a formation of a man.         The doctor of the psychology, professor
Relying on the philosophical anthropology, anthropological pedagogic has
to show that, the mind is that phenomenon, that will enable a man to come            ON PSYCHOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES OF TRANSFORMATION
out from the kingdom of duty and settle in the kingdom of freedom,                                  AND STAGE ACTING
consequently anthropological pedagogic has to create liberated creature out
of a man, but his freedom has to be full of responsibility in the face of society.                                    (Summery)
Anthropological Pedagogic has to help a human being realize the essence of
his life, his duty in this universe and his destination.                              The issue of transformation and stage acting gains a new importance in
Traditional Pedagogic never did it.                                                  contemporary art therapy dramatic methods and also in theories where an
                                                                                     individual is viewed as a collective of social and psychological roles (sub
Ketevan Elashvili                                                                    egos).
Ph.D of Philology. Ass. Professor.                                                   On basis of this attitude, transformation for an individual may be connected
                                                                                     with the change of psycho-social roles and mean transition from one system
   THE RANGE OF EROTICISM IN GEORGIAN LITERATURE                                     of sentiments or sets (from one role) to another system of sentiments or sets
                                                                                     (to another role).
                                  (Summery)                                          “Role program” present in the psyche does not only makes possible
                                                                                     transformation but makes it also necessary. Realization of psycho-social roles
For some reason the scope and range of Georgian literature, its philosophical        by an individual becomes a necessary condition for psychic balance and its
and esoteric layer or emotional and expressional nature seems to be “shaded”         normal functioning.
or, maybe intently tabooed only in one direction - it is the erotic aspect of a      The role system present in actor psychological structure may be viewed as a
word… Naturally, this situation causes a real puzzlement. It is extremely            basis for a stage role; psyche itself encompasses different sentiments,
interesting to establish what fact conditioned the origin of such “semantic          tendencies, attitudes and unity of features that becomes a psychological basis
vacuum” in Georgian thinking and how it is reflected in Georgian literature.         for transformation, for transition from one role to another.
We should take into account that “repressive background” existed in this
layer in Georgian literature for today often creates embarrassing and delicate
situation. These tendencies are traced in the so-called contemporary “erotic



350                                                                                                                                                            351
MEDIA STUDIES
George Chartolani
Art History Ph.D. Ass. Professor

      CULTURE IN TELEVISION INFORMATION PROGRAMS

                                 (Summery)

Mass media and news programs play enormous role in developing of modern
society. Except for social and political influence, in some countries, mass
media forms nations cultural potential and way of thinking. Mass information
systems are able to cover all fields of modern culture and not only make
propaganda for culture, art and science, but write a modern history of this
dimension, for they are able to create archives and keep unique performances
for future generations. As soon as television was created culture won its
rightful place on the scene. All forms of art was captured but eye of TV
camera. Art always had special place in the broadcasting net. There is no
modern television which is not using culture journalism. News of culture is
one of the constant part of news editions. This news are created by
correspondents, producers, editors, reporters and anchors specialised in
culture. In information services culture is obeying major rules of news making,
but there are some differences in way of presenting them.
Informational language is not exactly fitting culture and arts, so making
the program, one have to have in mind the individality of artist and specifics
of the art field that story have to present.
Ones creating cultural news for information, except for presenting the story
line, journalist should give the spectator wish to see this performance. Story
should present author of this art event, team that worked on it and people that
it was created for.
For cultural reporters the way of working is also different. To be able to
create this kind of reportage journalist should have total understanding of
difficult structure of this particular art form.
This space also requires particular skills for anchors leading cultural news.
On one side they have to for fill the form of news addition and at the same
time, according to the fact that they present cultural news, it is necessary to
create spatial individuality. Journalists presenting cultural news require
 double training - journalistic and cultural.
This demand is spatially important for TV journalists, which are creating
television programmes and shows in larger forms. In this cases not only
correspondents and anchors, but producers, editors and authors play important
role in creating quality production.
352

				
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